Article

Chemical characterization and antifungal activity of essential oil of capitula from wild India Tagetes patula L

University of Ferrara, Ferrare, Emilia-Romagna, Italy
Protoplasma (Impact Factor: 2.65). 05/2005; 225(1-2):57-65. DOI: 10.1007/s00709-005-0084-8
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

The essential oil extracted by steam distillation from the capitula of Indian Tagetes patula, Asteraceae, was evaluated for its antifungal properties and analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Thirty compounds were identified, representing 89.1% of the total detected. The main components were piperitone (24.74%), piperitenone (22.93%), terpinolene (7.8%), dihydro tagetone (4.91%), cis-tagetone (4.62%), limonene (4.52%), and allo-ocimene (3.66%). The oil exerted a good antifungal activity against two phytopathogenic fungi, Botrytis cinerea and Penicillium digitatum, providing complete growth inhibition at 10 microl/ml and 1.25 microl/ml, respectively. The contribution of the two main compounds, piperitone and piperitenone, to the antifungal efficacy was also evaluated and ultrastructural modifications in mycelia were observed via electron microscopy, evidencing large alterations in hyphal morphology and a multisite mechanism of action.

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    • "Up to the present day, these characteristics have not changed much except that more is now known about some of their mechanisms of action, particularly at the antimicrobial level. A survey of literature reveals that there are many essential oils which possess antifungal activity (Soliman and Badeaa 2002; Thoppil et al. 2003; Govinden-Soulange et al. 2004; Romagnoli et al. 2005; Pinto et al. 2006; Tabanca et al. 2007; Tullio et al. 2007; Dutta et al. 2007). They were reported to have antimicrobial activities such as antifungal (Soliman and Badeaa 2002), antibacterial (Dorman et al. 2000), insecticidal (Isman 2000) and nematicidal effects (Pandey et al. 2000). "

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    • "Hence, plasma membrane is the important target of EO. This study agrees earlier investigations of Romagnoli et al. (2005) who found antifungal mode of action of Tagetes patula EO on plasma membrane of Botrytis cinerea as observed through SEM and TEM studies. Tian et al. (2012) and Kedia et al. (2015) also found plasma membrane as the important antifungal target of Cinnamomum jensenianum and Trachyspermum ammi EOs, respectively, against A. flavus. "
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    ABSTRACT: The present study reports in vivo antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic efficacy of Mentha spicata essential oil (EO) against toxigenic Aspergillus flavus strain LHP(C)-D6 in chickpea food system up to 12 months of storage. In addition, the mode of antifungal action of EO was also determined to understand the mechanism of fungal growth inhibition. The in vivo study with different concentrations of M. spicata EO showed dose-dependent decrease in fungal colony count as well as aflatoxin B1 concentration. The EO caused >50 % protection in inoculated sets and >70 % protection in uninoculated sets of chickpea food system against A. flavus at 1.0 μL mL(-1) air concentration. However, at the same concentration, EO caused 100 % inhibition to aflatoxin B1 production in both sets when analyzed through high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The antifungal target of EO in fumigated cells of A. flavus was found to be the plasma membrane when analyzed through electron microscopic observations and ions leakage test. The EO fumigated chickpea seeds showed 100 % seed germination and seedling growth after 12 months of storage. Based on these observations, M. spicata EO can be recommended as plant-based preservative for safe protection of food commodities during storage conditions against fungal and most importantly mycotoxin contaminations.
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    • "The suppression of fungal growth after treatment with many essential oils is associated with the degeneration of fungal hyphae and alterations in the endomembrane system (Romagnoli et al. 2005; Soylu et al. 2006). TTO can induce membrane or ultrastructure damage that can be visualized by electron microscopy in both bacterial and fungal cells (Carson et al. 2002; Shao et al. 2013b). "
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    ABSTRACT: The essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) has been evaluated as a potential eco-friendly antifungal agent against Botrytis cinerea. In this study we investigated the antifungal activity and mode of action of tea tree oil (TTO) and its components against B. cinerea. Of the components we tested in contact phase, terpinen-4-ol had the highest antifungal activity, followed by TTO, α-terpineol, terpinolene, then 1,8-cineole. As one of characteristic components of TTO, terpinen-4-ol treatment led to pronounced alterations in mycelial morphology, cellular ultrastructure, membrane permeability under scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope and fluorescent microscope, and also reduced the ergosterol content of fungi. As another characteristic component, 1,8-cineole caused serious intracellular damage but only slightly affected B. cinerea otherwise. When terpinen-4-ol and 1,8-cineole were used together, the synergistic antifungal activity was significantly higher than either component by itself. The results of our study confirmed that terpinen-4-ol and 1,8-cineole act mainly on the cell membranes and organelles of B. cinerea, respectively, and when combined are similar to TTO in antifungal activity due to their differences. Understanding the mechanism of terpinen-4-ol and 1,8-cineole antifungal action to B. cinerea is helpful for investigation on their synergistic effect and explaining antifungal action modes of TTO. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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