Anesthetic and Cardiovascular Effects of Balanced Anesthesia Using Constant Rate Infusion of Midazolam-Ketamine-Medetomidine with Inhalation of Oxygen-Sevoflurane (MKM-OS Anesthesia) in Horses
The anesthetic sparring and cardiovascular effects produced by midazolam 0.8 mg/ml-ketamine 40 mg/ml-medetomidine 0.05 mg/ml (0.025 ml/kg/hr) drug infusion during sevoflurane in oxygen (MKM-OS) anesthesia was determined in healthy horses. The anesthetic sparring effects of MKM-OS were assessed in 6 healthy thoroughbred horses in which the right carotid artery was surgically relocated to a subcutaneous position. All horses were intubated and ventilated with oxygen using intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV). The end-tidal concentration of sevoflurane (ET(SEV)) required to maintain surgical anesthesia was approximately 1.7%. Heart rate and mean arterial blood pressure averaged 23-41 beats/min and 70-112 mmHg, respectively. All horses stood between 23-44 min after the cessation of all anesthetic drugs. The cardiovascular effects of MKM-OS anesthesia were evaluated in 5 healthy thoroughbred horses ventilated using IPPV. Anesthesia was maintained for 4 hr at an ET(SEV) of 1.7%. Each horse was studied during left lateral (LR) and dorsal recumbency (DR) with a minimum interval between evaluations of 1 month. Cardiac output and cardiac index were maintained between 70-80% of baseline values during LR and 65-70% of baseline values during DR. Stroke volume was maintained between 75-85% of baseline values during LR and 60-70% of baseline values during DR. Systemic vascular resistance was not different from baseline values regardless of position. MKM-OS anesthesia may be useful for prolonged equine surgery because of its minimal cardiovascular depression in both of lateral and dorsal recumbency.
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