Pool-Zobel BL. Inulin-type fructans and reduction in colon cancer risk: review of experimental and human data. Br J Nutr 93 (Suppl 1), S73-S90

Department of Nutritional Toxicology, Institute for Nutritional Sciences, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Germany.
British Journal Of Nutrition (Impact Factor: 3.45). 05/2005; 93 Suppl 1(S1):S73-90. DOI: 10.1079/BJN20041349
Source: PubMed


Inulin-type fructans (beta(2,1)fructans) extracted from chicory roots (Cichorium intybus) are prebiotic food ingredients, which in the gut lumen are fermented to lactic acid and SCFA. Research in experimental animal models revealed that inulin-type fructans have anticarcinogenic properties. A number of studies report the effects of inulin-type fructans on chemically induced pre-neoplastic lesions (ACF) or tumours in the colon of rats and mice. In twelve studies, there were twenty-nine individual treatment groups of which twenty-four measured aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and five measured tumours. There was a significant reduction of ACF in twenty-one of the twenty-four treatment groups and of tumour incidence in five of the five treatment groups. Higher beneficial effects were achieved by synbiotics (mixtures of probiotics and prebiotics), long-chain inulin-type fructans compared to short-chain derivatives, and feeding high-fat Western style diets. Inulin-type fructans reduced tumour incidence in APC(Min) mice in two of four studies and reduced growth and metastasising properties of implanted tumour cells in mice (four studies). The effects have been reported to be associated with gut flora-mediated fermentation and production of butyrate. In human cells, inulin-derived fermentation products inhibited cell growth, modulated differentiation and reduced metastasis activities. In conclusion, evidence has been accumulated that shows that inulin-type fructans and corresponding fermentation products reduced the risks for colon cancer. The involved mechanisms included the reduction of exposure to risk factors and suppression of tumour cell survival. Thus, this specific type of dietary fibre exerted both blocking agent and suppressing agent types of chemopreventive activities.

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    • "Moreover, they can be used as substitutes for sucrose because they have around 30–60% of the sweetness of sucrose and low caloric value (4.2–6.3 kJ/g) (Saad et al., 2013; Roberfroid et al., 1993). Other related health benefits are that they increase mineral absorption (Gudiel-Urbano and Gõ ni, 2002), colon cancer prevention (Pool-Zobel, 2005), reduction of the serum triacylglycerol and prevention of increases in the free cholesterol level (Delzenne et al., 2002). Because of these properties, industries became interested in the applications of FOS in functional foods and nutritional composites. "
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    ABSTRACT: Artichoke industrial wastes, which are about 70% of the total artichoke flower, contain prebiotic sugar, such as fructooligosaccharides. In this study, the effect of ultrasound by two different modes (direct and indirect sonication) to enhance the conventional extraction has been evaluated, in terms of yield of prebiotic sugar from artichoke industrial waste. The ultrasound with direct sonication showed to be more efficient to produce rich-prebiotic sugars extracts than conventional and indirect sonication processes. Therefore, variables such as extraction temperature (50–70 °C), time (5–120 min) and power (240–480 W) have been investigated for the ultrasound extraction with direct sonication, in order to improve the prebiotic sugars yield. The chosen extraction conditions were: 10 min, 60 °C and 360 W. Ultra performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (UPLC–MS) method was used to identify and quantify the sugar extracted. The artichoke waste extract is a potential source of prebiotic sugars, containing 1-kestose, nystose, fructofuranosylnystose and raffinose.
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    • "Recent high throughput approaches by UHPLC– MS and NMR spectroscopy, followed by principal component analysis, were recently used to characterize the artichoke metabolome of different cultivars (Farag et al. 2013; de Falco et al. 2015), being these rapid and efficient methodologies. The main biological activities attributed to the artichoke metabolites were hepatoprotection (Adzet et al. 1987), choleretic (Preziosi et al. 1959), lipid-lowering (Gebhardt 1998), and colon cancer protection (Pool-Zobel 2005). However, further studies are needed to fully clarify the biological activity of the artichoke metabolites and their mechanism of action. "
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    ABSTRACT: Artichoke, Cynara cardunculus, is a dietary and medicinal plant species with a long tradition of use dating back to the ancient Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans. It comprises the globe artichoke, C. cardunculus subsp. scolymus, the cultivated cardoon, C. cardunculus subsp. altilis, and the wild cardoon, C. cardunculus subsp. sylvestris. The edible part of the plant is limited to the fleshy leaves (bracts) and receptacle of a large immature inflorescence, named capitulum or head, that has been shown to be a rich source of bioactive compounds. On the other hand, leaves, external bracts and stems discarded by the artichoke processing industry corresponding to about 80–85 % of the total biomass of the plant, represent a suitable potential source of food additives and nutraceuticals. Nutritional and pharmacological properties of artichoke heads and leaves are attributed mainly to polyphenolic compounds and inulin present at high concentration. Other classes of chemical compounds, including flavonoids, anthocyanins, sesquiterpenes, and triterpenes have been also found in the plant at lower amounts. This review, after a general historical, phytogeographical, and ethnobotanical overview, summarizes the current knowledge on the phytochemistry and pharmacological properties of this plant, with special emphasis on the agronomical and nutritional importance of the plant and to the methods of analysis, including the recently developed metabolomic studies.
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    • "Amount of AYE administered was calculated in relation of its FOS content. All animals ingested daily 2.2 mL of AYE with 1% of FOS content (Pool-Zobel, 2005). Five animals of each group were sacrificed in a CO 2 chamber, 24 h after the first DMH administration (cell proliferation and apoptosis in the colonic crypt) and at the third, fifth and eighth months of the experimental period (ACF and tumor analysis) (Fig. 1). "
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    ABSTRACT: The modifying effects of aqueous yacon extract (AYE) and L. acidophilus CRL 1014 against colon carcinogenesis induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) in male Wistar rats were investigated. Animals were allocated into five groups: G1: untreated group; G2: DMH-treated group; G3: DMH + L. acidophilus- treated group; G4: DMH + AYE-treated group; G5: DMH + L. acidophilus and AYE-treated group. A significant reduction (p<0.05) in leukocyte DNA damage and in colonic cell proliferation were observed after the first DMH administration in G3 (probiotic), G4 (prebiotic) and G5 (synbiotic) groups. In this moment, a significant increase (p<0.05) in colonic apoptosis was also observed in G3 (probiotic) and G5 (synbiotic) groups. In special, at five months after DMH administrations, a significant reduction (p < 0.05) in ACF development was observed in G3 (probiotic), G4 (prebiotic) and G5 (synbiotic) groups. Incidence of colon tumors was lower at five months in G4 (prebiotic) and G5 (synbiotic) groups but not in eight months after DMH administrations. In conclusion, the findings suggest that the oral treatments have potential effects as a chemopreventive agent against colon carcinogenesis on early stage of tumor development.
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