Silent upper airway resistance syndrome - Prevalence in a mixed military population
Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine Service, Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington DC 20307, USA. <> Chest
(Impact Factor: 7.48).
06/2005; 127(5):1654-7. DOI: 10.1378/chest.127.5.1654
The upper airway resistance syndrome (UARS) is a recently described form of sleep-disordered breathing in which transient increases in upper airway resistance result in repetitive EEG arousals. UARS is not associated with apnea or diminished airflow, although snoring and excessive daytime somnolence (EDS) are common. This report describes a subset of patients with UARS diagnosed by polysomnography who do not manifest snoring, which we define as silent upper airway resistance syndrome (SUARS).
A retrospective review of all polysomnographies performed at our sleep disorders center during 2000.
Sleep disorders center of a large, academic, military hospital.
Our center serves military personnel, military retirees, and their dependent families.
Esophageal manometry during polysomnography was routinely performed on patients with hypersomnolence (Epworth sleepiness scale > 10) who demonstrated a total arousal index >or= 10/h and a respiratory disturbance index of < 5/h on prior polysomnography. UARS was definitely diagnosed in patients who demonstrated repetitive increased upper airway resistance (IUAR) associated with brief EEG arousals followed by normalization of esophageal pressure (Pes). IUAR was defined by a pattern of crescendo negative inspiratory Pes of <or= - 12 cm H(2)O.
During calendar year 2000, we performed 724 polysomnographies in 527 patients. Obstructive sleep apnea was diagnosed in 383 patients (72.6%), and 44 patients (8.4%) were found to have UARS. In four patients with UARS (0.8% of total and 9.1% of UARS), snoring was not reported by history or observed during polysomnography, and SUARS was ultimately diagnosed.
UARS may occur in the absence of clinically significant snoring and may be an occult cause of EDS. We report a prevalence of SUARS of 9% among UARS patients and nearly 1% of all patients studied for hypersomnolence by polysomnography.
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- "Sleep-onset insomnia is also frequently associated . While collapse of the pharyngeal airway during sleep occurs in all patients with UARS, not all patients with UARS snore audibly . Therefore, anyone with sleep-onset insomnia, restless sleep and daytime sleepiness/fatigue, symptoms that are common among depressed individuals, may have UARS. "
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To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a case of treatment-resistant depression in which the patient was evaluated for sleep disordered breathing as the cause and in which rapid palatal expansion to permanently treat the sleep disordered breathing produced a prolonged symptom-free period off medication.
An 18-year-old Caucasian man presented to our sleep disorders center with chronic severe depression that was no longer responsive to medication but that had recently responded to electroconvulsive therapy. Ancillary, persistent symptoms included mild insomnia, moderate to severe fatigue, mild sleepiness and severe anxiety treated with medication. Our patient had no history of snoring or witnessed apnea, but polysomnography was consistent with upper airway resistance syndrome. Although our patient did not have an orthodontic indication for rapid palatal expansion, rapid palatal expansion was performed as a treatment of his upper airway resistance syndrome. Following rapid palatal expansion, our patient experienced a marked improvement of his sleep quality, anxiety, fatigue and sleepiness. His improvement has been maintained off all psychotropic medication and his depression has remained in remission for approximately two years following his electroconvulsive therapy.
This case report introduces the possibility that unrecognized sleep disordered breathing may play a role in adolescent treatment-resistant depression. The symptoms of upper airway resistance syndrome are non-specific enough that every adolescent with depression, even those responding to medication, may have underlying sleep disordered breathing. In such patients, rapid palatal expansion, by widening the upper airway and improving airflow during sleep, may produce a prolonged improvement of symptoms and a tapering of medication. Psychiatrists treating adolescents may benefit from having another treatment option for treatment-resistant depression.
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- "The absence of decreased oxygen saturation and sometimes even the cornerstone symptom of snoring makes a diagnostic challenge and requires a high index of suspicion. It is estimated that 1% of all patients undergoing sleep studies for hypersomnolence suffer from silent UARS . The rigorous diagnostic criteria for the specific diagnosis of UARS require Apnea/Hypopnea Index<5, oxygen saturation >92%, and esophageal manometry to record negative intrathoracic pressures during respiratory related arousals and associated limitation of air flow . "
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ABSTRACT: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) syndrome is a common and often life-altering sleep-related breathing disorder. It not only adversely affects cardiovascular health, but the quality of life of these patients is also often significantly compromised. They experience excessive daytime sleepiness and poor cognitive, social and exercise performance. Furthermore, they often have marital problems with increased divorce rates, depression, and poor job performance.Our purpose in writing this review is to highlight the various neuropsychiatric domains that are affected in OSA patients and to emphasize that identifying and treating this condition can significantly improve the quality of life of these individuals. In recent years there has been ample evidence supporting the role of treatment for OSA to improve cardiovascular outcomes. We provide similar evidence supporting the treatment of OSA to improve health-related quality of life outcomes for these patients. Surgical, non-surgical and pharmacologic modalities are currently available as effective options for the treatment of OSA, with continuous positive airway pressure therapy appearing to be the most promising.
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