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    • "Nevertheless, some adverse events have also been reported, such as worsening of parkinsonism [5] and catatonia [4] by donepezil. Memantine is an uncompetitive antagonist at NMDA receptors that has proven beneficial in the treatment of moderate to severe AD but development of subtle psychotic symptoms has been reported [2]. It has also been tested in α-synucleinpathies: in Parkinson's disease it showed efficacy on motor symptoms as well as side effects such as psychomotor agitation, confusion and dizziness [6] [8]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Lewy body dementia (DLB) is common but frequently misdiagnosed as Alzheimer's disease plus delirium or parkinsonism. DRUGS USED IN THIS DISORDER CAN CAUSE EXACERBATIONS: neuroleptic medication is relatively contraindicated because some patients show severe neuroleptic sensitivity, antiparkinsonian medication has the potential to exacerbate psychotic symptoms, and even cholinesterase inhibitors, while relatively safe, have provoked adverse responses in some DLB patients. There are few data available about the use of memantine in DLB. A 74-year-old man was diagnosed with Alzheimer disease and parkinsonism. After memantine was started he developed severe fluctuations in awareness, visual hallucinations, agitation, and worsened parkinsonism. When he was evaluated thoroughly, the diagnosis was revised to Lewy body dementia, leading to changes in treatment that were associated with dramatic improvement in the patient's mental status. In our patient, motor and cognitive symptoms worsened with memantine treatment; these resolved after memantine was discontinued.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2006 · Journal of Alzheimer's disease: JAD
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    ABSTRACT: To report a case of catatonic schizophrenia treated with memantine that resulted in a rapid reduction of catatonic symptoms. A 68-year-old male with catatonic schizophrenia presented with bizarre and catatonic behavior manifested by mutism, waxy flexibility, immobility, staring, nonresponsiveness to verbal commands, grimacing, rigidity, and posturing. During the course of his hospitalization, he was treated with memantine up to 10 mg/day. The catatonia responded rapidly and significantly to memantine. Few treatment options are available for the management of catatonia. Lorazepam is generally the agent that has been used most often and has had varying degrees of success. Our report adds to a recently published case that also suggested that memantine might be useful for the management of catatonic behaviors in a patient with schizophrenia. While its mechanism of action is unknown, it has been thought that glutamate antagonists, such as memantine, may be beneficial in catatonic schizophrenia due to a glutamatergic dysfunction present in catatonic patients. It also has been hypothesized that there is a decrease in gamma-aminobutyric acid released to the supplementary motor areas, resulting in less glutamate inhibition. This results in a net effect of glutamatergic hyperfunction in the striatum, which may produce catatonia. Based on this hypothesis, memantine would be beneficial as an N-methyl-D-aspartic acid antagonist to decrease the amount of glutamate in the striatum and thereby relieve symptoms of catatonia. However, these potential benefits must be weighed against recently reported adverse reactions associated with memantine use, namely, psychosis and seizures. Memantine produced a rapid and significant reduction in catatonic symptoms in our patient with catatonic schizophrenia.
    Preview · Article · Mar 2006 · Annals of Pharmacotherapy
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    ABSTRACT: With the exception of dementia, the use of neuroprotective agents in psychiatric disorders is not yet well established. However, recent data from brain imaging studies and clinical trials support the view that neurodegenerative mechanisms may play a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and affective disorders. Further evidence for the use of neuroprotective agents can be drawn from the findings that second-generation antipsychotics, mood stabilizers and antidepressants have been shown to have neuroprotective effects in vitro and in vivo. Neuroprotective agents as add-on therapies (e.g., modafinil, erythropoietin, glycine, D-serine, memantine and celecoxib) are currently being evaluated in schizophrenia and related disorders. This paper reviews the current options for neuroprotective treatment approaches focusing on schizophrenia and affective disorders.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2006 · Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
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