Dietary antioxidants and exercise. J Sports Sci

Department of Exercise and Sport Sciences, Center for Exercise Science, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA.
Journal of Sports Sciences (Impact Factor: 2.25). 02/2004; 22(1):81-94. DOI: 10.1080/0264041031000140563
Source: PubMed


Muscular exercise promotes the production of radicals and other reactive oxygen species in the working muscle. Growing evidence indicates that reactive oxygen species are responsible for exercise-induced protein oxidation and contribute to muscle fatigue. To protect against exercise-induced oxidative injury, muscle cells contain complex endogenous cellular defence mechanisms (enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants) to eliminate reactive oxygen species. Furthermore, exogenous dietary antioxidants interact with endogenous antioxidants to form a cooperative network of cellular antioxidants. Knowledge that exercise-induced oxidant formation can contribute to muscle fatigue has resulted in numerous investigations examining the effects of antioxidant supplementation on human exercise performance. To date, there is limited evidence that dietary supplementation with antioxidants will improve human performance. Furthermore, it is currently unclear whether regular vigorous exercise increases the need for dietary intake of antioxidants. Clearly, additional research that analyses the antioxidant requirements of individual athletes is needed.

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    • "Indeed, some review papers have suggested supplement duration and overall concentration of administered antioxidants as leading factors explaining variability in the results of manipulative experiments testing the effects of antioxidant supplementation on exercise performance (e.g.Goldfarb, 1999;Powers et al., 2004). The present study is the first to investigate the effect of carotenoid supplementation at different life stages on exercise performance, and is the only study to administer antioxidant supplements for longer than 90 days (seeGoldfarb, 1999;Powers et al., 2004). Future studies quantifying the effects of long-term antioxidant supplementation across multiple life stages will be highly revealing. "
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    ABSTRACT: Nutritional conditions experienced by an individual are known to affect phenotype and performance. In particular, dietary carotenoids influence vertebrate immune function, vision and coloration and have recently been suggested to enhance exercise performance. Despite growing interest in investigating the effect of dietary carotenoids on exercise performance, studies to date have been limited to short-term supplementation during a single life stage. The present study elucidates, for the first time, the effect of long-term carotenoid supplementation during both developmental and adult life stages on the aquatic and terrestrial escape performance of adult southern corroboree frogs, Pseudophryne corroboree, testing the predictions of the ‘environmental matching’ and the ‘silver spoon’ hypotheses. Individuals (N = 24 per treatment) were exposed to one of four dietary treatments: (1) both developmental and adult life stages were fed a carotenoid-supplemented diet (C–C); (2) developmental life stage, but not adult life stage, was fed a carotenoid-supplemented diet (C–U); (3) adult life stage, but not developmental life stage, was fed a carotenoid-supplemented diet (U–C); (4) both developmental and adult life stages were fed an unsupplemented diet (U–U). There was no effect of dietary carotenoids on swimming speed, hopping speed or righting ability. However, our results do indicate an effect of carotenoid supplementation on both swimming distance and hopping distance. Frogs receiving a carotenoid-supplemented diet during both developmental and adult life stages consistently outperformed other dietary treatments in the distance travelled during aquatic and terrestrial escape trials. Our results do not show support for either the silver spoon or the environmental matching hypothesis, but indicate an overall benefit of exposure to a carotenoid-rich environment across both life stages.
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    • "The enhanced activity of antioxidant enzyme prolongs exercise performance and reduces physical fatigue [12]. Additional oral doses of antioxidants prevent or reduce oxidative stress, decrease muscle damage, and improve exercise performance [8] [13]. Searching natural antioxidants originated from plants against fatigue has been a hot topic. "
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    ABSTRACT: Cordyceps militaris has been used extensively as a crude drug and a folk tonic food in East Asia due to its various pharmacological activities. Our study aims to investigate the effect of Cordyceps militaris fruit body extract (CM) on antifatigue in mouse model. Two week CM administration significantly delayed fatigue phenomenon which is confirmed via rotating rod test, forced swimming test and forced running test. Compared to nontreated mouse, CM administration increased ATP levels and antioxidative enzymes activity and reduced the levels of lactic acid, lactic dehydrogenase, malondialdehyde, and reactive oxygen species. Further data suggests that CM-induced fatigue recovery is mainly through activating 5′-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and protein kinase B (AKT)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathways and regulating serum hormone level. Moreover, CM-enhanced the phosphorylation of AMPK contributes to its antioxidant effect. Our data provides experimental evidence in supporting clinical use of CM as an effective agent against fatigue.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
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    • "By the reasons discussed in previous sections, the use of antioxidants with the aim to attenuate exercise-induced oxidative stress and related consequences is one of the controversial topics regarding application of dietary antioxidants especially in supplement form. Although major investigations have indicated that antioxidants could attenuate biomarkers of exercise-induced oxidative stress and the use of antioxidant and vitamin supplement is a common phenomenon among athletes and physically active people, there are however some doubts in relation to the advantages and disadvantages of these [6] [30] ; some investigations have reported beneficial effects but some others have indicated adverse outcomes following vitamin and antioxidant supplementation in athletes [31] . In the following, more important antioxidants commonly used as supplement during exercise training and the outcomes of these are discussed. "
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    ABSTRACT: Overproduction of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species during physical exercise, exercise induced oxidative stress and antioxidant supplementation is interesting and controversial concepts that have been considered during the past decades. In this review, we aimed to summarize current evidence in relation to antioxidant supplementation outcomes during exercise and physical activity. For this aim, we obtained relevant articles through searches of the Medline and PubMed databases between 1980 to 2013. Although major studies have indicated that antioxidants could attenuate biomarkers of exercise-induced oxidative stress and the use of antioxidant supplement is a common phenomenon among athletes and physically active people, there are some doubts regarding the benefits of these. It seems that the best recommendations regarding antioxidants and exercise are having a balanced diet rich in natural antioxidants and phytochemicals. Regular consumption of various fresh fruits and vegetables, whole grains, legumes and beans, sprouts and seeds is an effective and safe way to meet all antioxidant requirements in physically active persons and athletes.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Asian Journal of Sports Medicine
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