Article

The control of hypertension by use of coconut water and mauby: Two tropical food drinks

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Abstract

In this study, the authors investigated the effect of regular consumption of two tropical food drinks, coconut (Cocos nucifera) water and mauby (Colubrina arborescens), on the control of hypertension. Twenty-eight hypertensive subjects were assigned to four equal groups and their systolic and diastolic blood pressures recorded for two weeks before and then for another two weeks while receiving one of four interventions. One group (the control) received bottled drinking water, the second group received coconut water, the third received mauby and the fourth group, a mixture of coconut water and mauby. Significant decreases in the mean systolic blood pressure were observed for 71%, 40% and 43% respectively of the groups receiving the coconut water, mauby and the mixture (p < or = 0.05). For these groups, the respective proportions showing significant decreases in the mean diastolic pressure were 29%, 40% and 57%. For the group receiving the mixture, the largest decreases in mean systolic and mean diastolic pressure were 24 mmHg and 15 mmHg respectively; these were approximately double the largest values seen with the single interventions.

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... The juice of coconuts is a popular drink in tropical countries [1], where it is usually sold commercially as fresh, canned or bottled [2] beverage. Some natives in Africa and South America allow coconut juice to ferment to coconut vinegar [6], which is a source of food [3]. Earlier studies have revealed the nutritional components of coconut juice [2,3]. ...
... Some of these components include water, sugars, dietary fibres, essential and nonessential amino acids, vitamins B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B9 and ascorbic acid [4], mineral calcium, iron, magnesium, manganese, potassium, zinc, sodium and selenium. In addition, recent studies listed some of the phytoconstituents of coconut juice, amongst which some agents that are believed to possess antioxidant [2], hypoglycaemic, immunostimulatory [1], hepatoprotective and anti-obesity [6] effects are included. Coconut juice has been reported to be of therapeutic importance in management of gastrointestinal [2], cardiovascular [3] and neuromuscular [4] disorders. ...
... The phytoconstituents screened for include; Alkaloids, Flavonoids, Phenols, Tannins, Saponins, Carbohydrates, Steroids, oils and Terpenes. Phytochemical screening was done using standard laboratory methods [6]. ...
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Article
This study evaluated the tendency for Cocos nucifera juice to be effective in management of hepatic and renal anomalies in a human design. 180 male subjects were used for this study. With treatment A as the control, Cocos nucifera juice was administered in 3 doses; B, C, D-50ml, 100ml and 150ml respectively. The experimental period lasted for 42 days. The biochemical assay protocols were aimed at investigating changes relating to hepatorenal function. Biomarkers assayed for include aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase and alkaline phosphatase for liver function biomarkers, creatinine, cystacin-3 and interleukin-18 for kidney function biomarkers. There was a dose dependent change in both liver and kidney function biomarkers. This study revealed an inverse relationship between Cocos nucifera juice ingestion and the serum level of these metabolic biomarkers. There was also a time dependent reduction as well as a progressive decrease in harmonic mean of the assayed biomarkers for all dose treatments. Cocos nucifera has the potential to be applied in the management of hepatic and renal dysfunction.
... 5 Coconut water may also offer protection against myocardial infarction. 5 As per the results of Alleyne T et al. (2005), regular consumption of either coconut water or mauby (a liquid extracted from the bark of the mauby tree, Colubrina arborescens), or particularly, a mixture of them, is effective in bringing about the control of hypertension. 6 It also has been reported that Tender Coconut Water (TCW) and mature coconut water can reduce the occurrence of lifestyle diseases by reducing the risk of heart disease and has significant hypocholesterolemic, antioxidant and antithrombotic effects. ...
... 5 As per the results of Alleyne T et al. (2005), regular consumption of either coconut water or mauby (a liquid extracted from the bark of the mauby tree, Colubrina arborescens), or particularly, a mixture of them, is effective in bringing about the control of hypertension. 6 It also has been reported that Tender Coconut Water (TCW) and mature coconut water can reduce the occurrence of lifestyle diseases by reducing the risk of heart disease and has significant hypocholesterolemic, antioxidant and antithrombotic effects. Other researchers also have documented that immature coconut inflorescence helps lower blood glucose in diabetic rats. ...
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Article
Short commentary on the occasion of World Coconut Day, celebrated on 2nd September every year
... Signi cant decreases were observed in the mean systolic blood pressure for the groups receiving coconut water (71%), mauby (40%), and the mixture (43%). Signi cant decreases in the mean diastolic blood pressure were observed for the groups receiving coconut water (29%), mauby (40%), and the mixture (57%) (Alleyne et al., 2005). ...
... Coconut water has been shown to decrease mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure in humans (see Clinical ef cacy studies above) (Alleyne et al., 2005). Alcohol extracts of the brown shell of Cocos nucifera lowered blood pressure in rats with hypertension (Bankar et al., 2011). ...
Chapter
Common names in Jamaica: Coconut , dreadnut
... Mauby bark (Colubrina arborescens) ( Figure 1) which belongs to the Rhamnaceae family (i.e. Buckthorn) is indigenous to the tropical regions of Central America and Florida (Johnston, 1971) where it is widely consumed as a beverage believed to possess medicinal properties (Alleyne, Roache, Thomas, & Shirley, 2005). Previous research (Alleyne et al., 2005;Smith, 2012) suggests that Mauby bark extracts may reduce the prevalence of hypertension and diabetes. ...
... Buckthorn) is indigenous to the tropical regions of Central America and Florida (Johnston, 1971) where it is widely consumed as a beverage believed to possess medicinal properties (Alleyne, Roache, Thomas, & Shirley, 2005). Previous research (Alleyne et al., 2005;Smith, 2012) suggests that Mauby bark extracts may reduce the prevalence of hypertension and diabetes. Additionally, Mauby bark extracts have been used through ethnomedicinal practices to alleviate inflammation due to rheumatism and possesses diuretic properties (World Agroforestry Centre [WAC], 2017). ...
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Article
Mauby bark (Colubrina arborescens) is commonly used to make a beverage,“Mauby”, in the Caribbean and is believed to possess antiglycemic, antilipidemic, and anticarcinogenic properties. However, limited studies have been conducted to substantiate the compounds present that may confer these benefits. Therefore, the objectives of this research were to quantify the total polyphenolic content and evaluate the antioxidant capacity of Mauby bark extracts brewed in water at 30, 45, and 60 minutes. In the extracts, the Total Flavonoid Content (TFC) ranged from 1.93 - 3.17 mg CE/mL and the Total Phenolic Content (TPC) ranged from 2.10 mg ± 0.11 GAE/mL (45 minutes) - 2.36 mg ± 0.067 GAE/mL (30 minutes). Moreover, their antioxidant activity was assessed using the 2,2 Diphenyl 1-Picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) assays. The DPPH scavenging activity observed from Mauby extracts ranged from 75% ± 4.02 (30 minutes) to 83% ± 0.66 (60 minutes) and the FRAP values ranged from 6.29± 0.84 (30 minutes) to 6.90 ± 1.54 mM FeSO4 equivalents/ 0.2 mL Mauby extract (45 minutes). Although, polyphenolic content at 30 minutes was greater than 60 minutes of brewing for TFC (p < 0.001) and TPC (p = 0.002), the scavenging activity was greater at 60 minutes than 30 minutes (p = 0.014) while antioxidant power was not affected by brewing time (p = 0.736). In summary, brewing the bark at 60 minutes was observed to provide the highest antioxidant activity.
... Evidence for an antihypertensive activity from C. nucifera came from the relaxation of isolated rat aortic rings by an ethanolic extract of C. nucifera endocarp and the reduced blood pressure in salt-induced hypertensive rats treated with this preparation [96]; the decreased blood pressure in a rat model of insulin resistance and acquired systolic hypertension following administration of tender coconut water [97]; and the decrease in heart rate of hypertensive Wistar rats which were given coconut water [98]. Notably, in a small clinical study, coconut water given for 2 weeks reportedly lowered the blood pressure in 71% of hypertensive individuals [99], while the fresh vascular sap from the immature, unopened inflorescence given once per day for 5 consecutive weeks led to a decrease in blood pressure as well as a reduction in total serum cholesterol in women with stage one hypertension [100]. ...
... The antihypertensive effects have been attributed to vasodilation following the direct activation of the nitric oxide/guanylate cyclase pathway as well as stimulation of muscarinic receptors and/or the cyclooxygenase pathway which would be caused by phenolic compounds and flavonoids [96]; inhibition of lipid peroxidation, upregulation of antioxidant status, and improved insulin sensitivity [97]; a decreased cardiac beating frequency [98]; and/or a (potassium-sparing) diuretic activity [99]. ...
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Chapter
Hypertension is the most important modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular, cerebrovas-cular, and renal diseases which are together among the most frequent causes of morbidity and mortality in the world. Despite the availability of a wide range of effective medicines, many individuals suffering from hypertension use plant-derived preparations for treating their disease. The choice for these alternatives is often associated with the closer relationship of such approaches to specific social, cultural, and religious perceptions about health and disease. However, in most cases, the scientific evidence for clinical efficacy of such medications is scant. The Republic of Suriname is a middle-income country in South America with a relatively high prevalence of hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases. This country harbors descendants of all continents, all of whom have preserved their cultural customs including their ethnopharmacological traditions. As a result, many Surinamese are inclined to treat their diseases including hypertension as they have done for centuries, that is, with plant-based preparations. This chapter has compiled the plants used for treating hypertension in Suriname; extensively evaluates 15 commonly used plants for potential efficacy on the basis of available phytochemical, mechanistic, pre-clinical, and clinical literature data; and closes with conclusions about their potential usefulness against the disease.
... 11 From a total of 58 persons who were provided written informed consent to participate in the study, 31 of subjects completed the study. The intervention in this study was similar to prior study 12 giving tender coconut water 300 ml twice daily for two weeks, but the result in this study was not significant decreasing BP. The difference is likely due to blood pressure condition (hypertension), potassium contents of coconut water, and effect of antihypertensive drug consumpted ...
... Previous studies showed that the significant decreased systolic and diastolic BP with potassium intake or supplement happened in hypertensive subjects. [12][13][14][15] There were supported too by meta-analysis study that hypertensive and older subjects (> 45 years) have a greater response to potassium. 16 In this study, althought not significant different, by comparing the change of systolic and diastolic BP in both groups, table 2 showed that TCW had tendency to decrease systolic BP with mean decrease significantly (p=0.031). ...
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Conference Paper
Most populations around the world consume less than the recommended intake of potassium. Unfavourably high sodium intakes remain prevalent around the world. Many foods are relatively rich sources of sodium and poor of potassium. High sodium and low potassium together had a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of hypertension.Young coconut water (CW) is known as healthy food. This study aimed to analyse and understand sodium and potassium content of young CW, and investigate the potency of CW as healthy food especially for reducing blood pressure (BP). Sodium and potassium content in Green and hybrid variety of TCW with the age 6-8 month were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. A parallel randomized clinical trial was applied to investigate the effect of young CW on BP in prehypertension female. The treatment group received young CW and the control group received water, each 300 ml twice daily for 14 consecutive days. The potassium content of CW was much higher than its sodium content. Hybrid variety was choosen to investigate the effect of young CW on BP. There were decreased BP in both groups, which were greater in the T group, but not statistically significant different. However, young CW has tendency to decrease systolic BP (p=0.031). Young coconut water is a healthy food high in potassium and low in sodium, and young CW can be choosen as alternative food to prevent hypertension.
... Other ingredients are usually included in recipes, with spices such as aniseed being very common. Mauby used to be a fermented beverage made in small batches, but it is now mostly a commercial non-fermented soft drink [67]. ...
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Since molecular biology and advanced genetic techniques have become important tools in a variety of fields of interest, including taxonomy, identification, classification, possible production of substances and proteins, applications in pharmacology, medicine, and the food industry, there has been significant progress in studying the yeast genome and its potential applications. Because of this potential, as well as their manageability, safety, ease of cultivation, and reproduction, yeasts are now being extensively researched in order to evaluate a growing number of natural and sustainable applications to provide many benefits to humans. This review will describe what yeasts are, how they are classified, and attempt to provide a rapid overview of the many current and future applications of yeasts. The review will then discuss how yeasts—including those molecularly modified—are used to produce biofuels, proteins such as insulin, vaccines, probiotics, beverage preparations, and food additives and how yeasts could be used in environmental bioremediation and biocontrol for plant infections. This review does not delve into the issues raised during studies and research, but rather presents the positive outcomes that have enabled several industrial, clinical, and agricultural applications in the past and future, including the most recent on cow-free milk.
... Hypertensive individuals were given tender coconut water, which is high in the electrolyte, for 3 months. Following 60 and 90 days, the systolic and diastolic pressure dropped significantly [37] . The vasopressor effect of ethanolic extract C. nucifera endocarp [CNE] was evaluated in a DOCA (deoxycorticosterone acetate) salt-induced paradigm on isolated aortic rings in rats. ...
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Article
Cocos nucifera (L.), (C. nucifera) Arecaceae, also called the coconut tree, is probably the widely most extensively dispersed fruit plant and supplies all the necessities of life. It is an important economic plant that feeds a million people. All the parts of coconut plant are extensively used for religious practices, culinary purposes, for making household equipment’s and is also used as traditional medicine. The goal of the review is to provide an insight into its phytochemical profile and its therapeutic potential in metabolic diseases. The plant as a whole possess plethora of uses such as, neuroprotective activity, antidiabetic activity, anticancer activity, antihypertensive and lipid lowering activity. Various study reports its safety in preclinical and clinical setup.
... Coconut water, unlike carbohydrate-electrolyte beverages and plain water, is often easier to consume in large amounts. A mixture of coconut water and Mauby bark syrup from Trinidad and Tobago that has been shown to reduce hypertension in humans 25 . It also has an impact on blood pressure issues. ...
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Article
Coconut water and coconut are two natural thirst-quenching foods that are commonly available in most countries. Both the water and the meat of the tender coconut stimulate the body by releasing nutrients. In recent years, researchers have been interested in the health and medicinal benefits of tender coconut products. Sugars, proteins, free amino acids, vitamins, minerals, and growth promoting factors are among the biologically essential elements contained in it. Since, current research on coconut water is mainly focused on its properties, uses, and nutritional benefits, this review will concentrate on the human health aspect. It describes original properties and applications, which vary from the most simple to the most complex. It also describes its biochemical structure, which is affected by the stage of maturity and hence the variety. The purpose of this review was to learn about the most widely recorded components of coconut water, as well as other research towards their impact on animals and human body. Coconut water contains bunch of nutrition such as vitamins, minerals, amino acids, and phyto-hormones. The recent discovery of coconut water on the medicinal properties shows its real potential for improving human health. The possible anti-cancer properties of particular cytokinin could open up new and exciting avenues for finding cures for various cancers. It's a gift from nature to provide the best remedy for thirst and better health. Because of the antioxidant and anti-cancer properties of different ingredients, it is a more sensible option for removing the poisoning effect of other food that is a part of modern life. Understanding the functions and properties of the individual components of coconut water requires further study, but it will enable us to properly exploit this wonderful and multipurpose liquid with unique biological properties.
... Another study has investigated the positive effect of regular consumption of two tropical food drinks, coconut (C. Nucifera) water and mauby (Colubrina arborescens), on the control of hypertension (Alleyne et al., 2005). The combined products were found to be almost twice as effective as the products in isolation. ...
Article
Dementia is a general term for loss of memory, language, problem-solving, and other thinking abilities that are severe enough to interfere with daily life. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia. Risk factors as age, genetics, environment, lifestyle, and metabolic disease. The etiology of AD remains not fully explained, but both genetic and environmental risk factors have been proposed to be involved. Microscopically, intraneuronal neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) and extracellular senile plaques characterize the AD. The amyloid cascade hypothesis (ACH) suggests that the imbalance between the Amyloid-β generation and its clearance causes dysfunction and consequently cell death. Coconut oil may represent a cheap and natural treatment for AD. This is because coconut oil contains medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs), which are digested to ketones in the liver that are linked to mitochondrial function enhancement and oxidation-reduction. Recent studies have investigated the possibility of using trans-zeatin and phytoestrogen and other sex hormones like substances present in coconut water and a young coconut juice (YCJ) in reducing the chance of AD. Coconut is known as a 'functional food' that is extremely nutritious. Virgin coconut oil (VCO) differs from ordinary coconut oil as the former contains a lot more biologically active components. Phenolic compounds and hormones contained in coconut can help prevent amyloid b peptide aggregation, potentially inhibiting a key step in the pathogenesis of AD. Coconut can be useful in the treatment of obesity, dyslipidemia, elevated low-density lipoproteins, insulin resistance, and hypertension-these are the risk factors for chronic venous disease and type II diabetes, as well as for AD.
... There are several reports which affirm that coconut water mimics intracellular fluid as its sodium and potassium levels are similar to that of the blood plasma. [11,12] TCW consumption reduces hypertension as well as high blood pressure [13] and protects against myocardial infarction. [14] The presence of organic compounds in TCW helps to promote growth, cures malnourishment, and makes it an excellent isotonic solution for all ages. ...
Article
Tender coconut water is sweet and clear water obtained from the immature green coconut. It is transparent and sterile liquid inside the nut, which, once opened, starts deteriorating due to enzymatic reactions and microbial contamination. Several processing techniques were attempted to preserve the coconut water; however, maintenance of fresh like quality remains a challenge. Thermal processing alters its organoleptic and nutritional properties and therefore, several nonthermal techniques like pulsed electric field, high-pressure processing, ultra-violet treatment, pulsed light, dense pressure carbon dioxide, irradiation, etc., have been investigated. This review summarizes nonthermal techniques currently available to preserve the tender coconut water quality and extend its shelf life.
... Calcium and Vitamin C are also hypotensive. L-Arginine, a physiological substrate for the production of endothelium derived relaxing factor, nitric oxide (NO), which plays an important role in the regulation of vascular tone and homeostasis which is impaired in hypertension [30]. ...
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Article
Background: Hypertension has become a common sickness in Nigeria especially among population above 50 years of age. It constitutes a major riskfactor for several cardiovascular diseases suchas atherosclerosis, heart failure, renal insufficiency, coronary artery disease and stroke. Aim: This study was aimed at evaluating the antihypertensive potential of coconut water in Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Thirty Wistar rats were divided into three groups of ten each. Rats in groups 1 and 2 received aspecial prepared egg feed diet (24 egg yolkmixed with 1 kg of normal rat diet) while those in group 3 received normal feed diet and they served as the control group. Animals in group 2 were administered 3 mL/100 g bodyweight of undiluted coconut water simultaneously Original Research Article Airaodion et al.; AJRCD, 1(1): 1-8, 2019; Article no.AJRCD.55142 2 with the feeding. The animals were fed orally for 21 consecutive days and had access to drinking water ad libitum. Blood pressure of each of these groups was determined at day 0, 7, 14 and 21 respectively using standard methods. Results: A significant increase was observed in the blood pressure of animals fed with egg formulated diet without coconut water treatment when compared with those fed with egg formulated diet and treated with coconut water and control group respectively at P<0.05. However, this effect was not significant when animals fed with egg formulated diet and treated with coconut water were compared with those in the control group. Conclusion: The nonsignificant difference observed in the blood pressure of animals fed with egg yolk formulated-diet and treated simultaneously with coconut water when compared with those in the control group showed that coconut water possesses antihypertensive potential.
... Calcium and Vitamin C are also hypotensive. L-Arginine, a physiological substrate for the production of endothelium derived relaxing factor, nitric oxide (NO), which plays an important role in the regulation of vascular tone and homeostasis which is impaired in hypertension [30]. ...
... While the bene its of the fruit lesh themselves have not been widely studied as medicinal or cosmetic ingredients. The content of the main bigger components in the fruit lesh is hypothesized to produce pharmacological activity as a medicinal and cosmetic ingredient anti-oxidants, anti-osteoporosis, antidiabetic, antineoplastic, bactericidal, antihelminthic, antimalarial, leishmanicidal, antifungal, and antiviral activities (Ajeet et al., 2017;Lima et al., 2015;Alleyne et al., 2005). To be able to provide great bene its in developing its potential as a medicinal and cosmetic ingredient, Kopyor coconut extract needs to be extracted with the proper method, which needs to be identi ied and characterized by all the main components contained. ...
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Article
Cocos nucifera L. or Kopyor coconut is the natural material plant that has nutrients content, including carbohydrates, proteins, fats and fatty acids. The potential of Kopyor coconut is mainly produced from water and soft flesh or meat. Some benefits of the meat have not been widely studied as an active drug agent. This study was aimed to identify and characterize kopyor meat extract and to test activity as an antibacterial agent. The maceration method was used to extract kopyor meat. The optimized extraction resulted in a yield of 23% efficiency. Kopyor meat extract was identified in terms of loss on drying, total ash, acid-insoluble ash, extract content and saponification value. Evaluation of the antibacterial activity of both dried meat kopyor and extract were conducted. The standardized extract had a loss on drying of 35%, total ash of 8.95%, acid-insoluble ash of 31%, and extract content soluble in water and ethanol of 56.9% and 0.6% respectively. The saponification value showed a value of 56. It was shown that both powder and Cocos nucifera extract had as same high activity as an antibacterial agent against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus epidermidis therefore this recommended for further formulation and evaluation as drug and cosmetic.
... Moreover, coconut water has numerous medicinal properties, such as detoxification, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, rejuvenation, digestion, and diuretic properties. Coconut water also has a therapeutic effect on gastric dysfunction, dysentery and child malnutrition and offers some control over hypertension, kidney stones, and urethral stones [4][5][6]. Moreover, coconut water affords protection against the induction of myocardial infarctions [7]. ...
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Article
Tender coconut water tastes sweet and is enjoyed by consumers, but its commercial development is restricted by an extremely short shelf life, which cannot be explained by existing research. UPLC-MS/MS-based metabolomics methods were used to identify and statistically analyze metabolites in coconut water under refrigerated storage. A multivariate statistical analysis method was used to analyze the UPLC-MS/MS datasets from 35 tender coconut water samples stored for 0–6 weeks. In addition, we identified other differentially expressed metabolites by selecting p-values and fold changes. Hierarchical cluster analysis and association analysis were performed with the differentially expressed metabolites. Metabolic pathways were analyzed using the KEGG database and the MetPA module of MetaboAnalyst. A total of 72 differentially expressed metabolites were identified in all groups. The OPLS-DA score chart showed that all samples were well grouped. Thirty-one metabolic pathways were enriched in the week 0–1 samples. The results showed that after a tender coconut is peeled, the maximum storage time at 4 °C is 1 week. Analysis of metabolic pathways related to coconut water storage using the KEGG and MetPA databases revealed that amino acid metabolism is one of the main causes of coconut water quality deterioration.
... C. nucifera is a well-known plant, and its parts (including the milk and oil) are used both as a food, as well as in herbal medicines [38]. Earlier studies have reported the antipyretic, wound healing activity, and anti-hypertensive effects of other parts of C. nucifera [39,40]. The presence of phenolic compounds such as sterols and terpenoids contributes to the antioxidant properties of the tomentum [41]. ...
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Article
Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate the antibacterial, antioxidant, and in vitro wound healing property of Cocos nucifera tomentum. Methods: Ethanolic and methanolic extracts of C. nucifera tomentum were prepared using the Soxhlet extraction method and aqueous extract was prepared by the shaker flask method. These extracts were investigated for the phytochemical profile by gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-Q-ToF MS), for antibacterial activity by microdilution method, for the antioxidant property by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay, and for in vitro wound healing activity on cell lines. Results: The preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, and various bioactive components. GC-MS and LC-Q-ToF MS analysis of extracts revealed the presence of bioactive compounds known to have wound healing properties as well as antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. The methanolic extract had better antibacterial activity against Proteus vulgaris and Escherichia coli, and better antioxidant and wound healing activity, when compared to the ethanolic and aqueous extracts. Conclusion: The present study suggests that C. nucifera tomentum might be a potential therapeutic source for topical antibacterial and wound healing applications.
... Secara teoritis, patogenesis hipertensi primer adalah akibat dari terlalu aktif sistem saraf simpatik, terlalu aktif sistem reninangiotensin-aldosteron, retensi air dan garam oleh ginjal, dan inhibisi transport natrium-kalium melewati pembuluh darah [3]. Hasil penelitian pada pengendalian hipertensi dengan menggunakan air kelapa menunjukkan adanya penurunan yang signifikan pada tekanan darah sistolik dan diastolik [6]. Hasil penelitian lain menunjukkan bahwa air kelapa tender dapat mencegah dan mengembalikan tekanan darah tinggi yang disebabkan oleh diet kaya fruktosa yang kemungkinan berpengaruh pada hipolipidemiknya [1]. ...
... The research involved participation of 28 individuals who are tested for 14 days without treatment, followed by another 14 days with treatment. The study showed remarkable finding as the group who drank coconut water showed a decrease in both systolic and diastolic pressure (Alleyne et al., 2005). ...
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Article
Coconut water (Cocos nucifera L.) is regarded as the most valuable refreshing beverages that is excellent for electrolytes replenishment and is packed with variety of health benefits. Coconut fruit has high nutritional, therapeutic and commercial value and is recently being worked as a process of hydrating the cells. The high medium of potassium ion is studied as a possible mechanism to stop the enzyme Na / K-ATPase in the membrane of HbS, thus enabling potassium ion as an important higher ions moving out of the cell and sodium, water and chloride coming in to account for the water intake or sickling reversal process. Coconut water activate a resistance to osmotic pressure on the red cell membrane, thus decreasing the level of destruction of the cells. Cells with rise in red cell polymerization concentration are popular features of sickle cell disease and this is as a result of lack of the electrolytes-potassium, sodium and chloride from the red cell. The polymerization is as an outcome of dehydration, pressure and low oxygen tension which causes a shift in the balance of potassium, sodium, chloride and water and this leads to polymerization of the haemoglobin causing the crises of the sickle cell disease. The antisickling effectiveness of coconut (Cocos nucifera) water in sickle cell anaemia is reviewed to ascertain the ability of the minerals present in coconut water to stop sickle cell haemoglobin polymerization mechanism. Also reviewed are the minerals such as magnesium, zinc, arginine, potassium, chloride, iron and the antioxidant vitamins which are found to be potent inhibitors of sickle cell haemoglobin polymerization.
... The tender coconut water or green coconut water is sterile and is used as an oral rehydration medium for children suffering from gastroenteritis (Saat et al., 2002). Further yender coconut water has some cardioprotective effects (Anurag and Rajamohan, 2003) and hypotensive properties (Alleyne et al., 2005). In addition, it contains approximately 64 k Cal of energy and rich in amino acids such as glutamic acid, aspartic acid, arginine and alanine.Further, it contains high amounts of electrolytes that needs for the fluid balance. ...
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Article
Tender coconut is commercially underutilized tree nut for beverage production. This research was conducted to find out the best formulation for preparation of RTS tender coconut beverage and to evaluate its composition and the shelf life.Differentformulations of beverage were prepared using varying proportion of7-month maturity coconut kernel and coconut water with pectin and sugar as main ingredients. Best kernel: water ratio and sugar level were selected by using sensory evaluation. Suitable pectin level was selected by visual observation of the sediment height. Microbial stability of the product was evaluated for a range of selected pasteurization temperatures and time. Best formula for the tender coconut RTS beverage was 1:7 kernels to coconut water, 10% total soluble solids and 0.3% pectin and the best selected processing conditions were 13000rpm for 2 minutes homogenization pressure and pasteurization for 5minutes at 100oC temperature. Proximate analysis and sensory evaluation were carried out for the selection of best treatment that was identified by above preliminary trials. Sensory evaluation for the final product was conducted using 50 untrained panelistswith 7-point hedonic scale. Result was analyzed according to Freidman test at 95% significant level. In proximate analysis of the final product, total solid, protein, fat, sugar, crude fiber and total ash contents were found to be 10.35%,0.3%, 0.45%,8.67%, 0.31% and0.49% respectively. Moreover, results show that the beverage contains 364.52 mg K+ , 28.31 mg Na+ , 23.49 mg Mg2+ and 44.21 mg Ca2+ per 100 mL. In accordance with the shelf life studies, it was found that the formulated product can be kept for minimum of 8 weeks and it was sterile throughout the storage period. Results revealed that an organolepticallyaccepted tender coconut based RTS beverage with its kernel can be formulated.
... Reports have also shown it to be a valuable substitute for oral rehydration and intravenous hydration of patients especially in remote places where they are not readily available (10). It may also offer protection against myocardial infarction and control of hypertension (11,12). It's effectiveness in the treatment of urinary tract infections, mineral poisonings, kidney and urethral stones have been stated (13). ...
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Article
Introduction: The World Health Organization has predicted that the death caused by cancer may rise to a high rate of about 11.5 million in the year 2030. Cocos nucifera juice (Coconut water) is a known refreshing and nutritious beverage which is widely consumed traditionally for its nutritious and medicinal properties. Though assumptions traditionally suggest that it may also have an anticancer property, it is important to scientifically evaluate this property. The aim of this study is to ascertain if C. nucifera juice has an antproliferative effect. Methods: The study was carried-out on rapid proliferating seeds (Sorghum bicolor) and the mean radicle lengths (mm) was taken after 48 and 72 hours. Results: The control group had an unrestricted progressive proliferation throughout the study. Methotrexate elicited significant (P < 0.001) antiproliferative effect, with percentage inhibition of 73.9 and 87.6% after 48 and 72 hours. C. nucifera juice 20% v/v concentration gave significant (P < 0.01) inhibitory effect of 49.9% after 72 hours. C. nucifera juice 40% v/v gave a significant (P < 0.01) effect of 46% and a more significant (P < 0.001) effect of 49.7% after 48 and 72 hours. C. nucifera juice 60% v/v had high significant (P < 0.001) activity after 48 and 72 hours, giving inhibitory effect of 55.3% and 80%, respectively. C. nucifera juice and methotrexate combination had a good synergic effect, eliciting significant (P < 0.001) inhibitory effect of 73.4% and 80% after 48 and 72 hours, respectively. Conclusion: The experimental results have unveiled that C. nucifera juice has a potential for eliciting antiproliferative effect.
... Coconut water and watermelon had been reported to lower BP but to the best of the authors' knowledge, there has been no report on how durian affects BP and heart rate (HR). [12,13] This study was designed to investigate the effect of durian consumption on BP and HR of healthy individuals. ...
Article
Durian or scientifically known as Durio zibethinus is one of the most well-known seasonal fruits in the Southeast Asia region. However, its safe consumption in individuals with hypertension is still controversial. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of durian on blood pressure of spontaneously hypertensive rat model. Four groups of rats (n=5) were fed with either a low dose durian (26 g/kg), a high dose durian (52 g/kg), sugar solution (8 mL/kg) which has similar sugar composition in the durian as placebo control, and distilled water as vehicle control (8 mL/kg) for 14 days. The durian doses for rats were obtained by converting from human doses. Baseline reading of blood pressure and heart rate were recorded before the first oral administration of durian. The blood pressure and heart rate were also measured 1 h after the durian oral administration on day 1, 3, 7 and 14 of the experiment. In conclusion, durian fruit possessed an acute effect on the blood pressure of hypertensive rats but heart rate was unaffected. High dose administration of durian led to significant elevation of blood pressure after 1 h of consumption. Meanwhile, low dose of durian (26 g/kg) caused an insignificant reduction in systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Tolerance to the durian fruit was observed after three to seven days of the oral administration and low dose consumption of durian fruit was safe in the hypertensive rat. © 2018 Penerbit Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. All rights reserved.
... Tender coconut water has been shown to exhibit hepatoprotective, antioxidant and dyslipidemic actions 8 . It is also revealed to have anti-inflammatory 9 , cardiopotective 10 , antihypertensive 11 and renal protective activity 12 . ...
... Among plants, the extract of Aloe vera and Euphorbia tirucalli latex were objects of study in peritoneal lavage in an experimental model 18,19 . However, no studies were found with the fruit water of Cocus nucifera L., although its medicinal properties have already been evaluated 9,11,12,20 . Unlike the other studied solutions, coconut water has easy preparation and low production costs. ...
Article
Purpose: This study aims to analyze the effects of peritoneal lavage with coconut water on the peritoneal reaction in abdominal sepsis model in rats. Methods: We used 12 male Wistar rats weighing between 310±15 g. The animals were randomly distributed into 2 groups, with 6 animals each. Abdominal sepsis was induced by cecum ligation and puncture (CLP) in both groups. Group 1 was subjected to peritoneal lavage three times with 5 ml of saline each time; Group 2 submitted to peritoneal lavage with 5ml of coconut water also three times. Peritoneal lavage occurred 24 hours after CLP. Twenty four hours after, liquid from peritoneal cavity was harvested for counting of bacterial colony forming units (CFU/mL) of both groups. Euthanasia was done with overdose of anesthesia. For histopathological analysis, fragments of the peritoneum were removed, and a score was applied to the degree of inflammation. RESULTS: Group 2 had a lower histopathological score (p<0.005) and the fluid obtained in the first peritoneal lavage showed a lower amount of CFU compared to group 1 (p <0.005). CONCLUSION: The peritoneal lavage with coconut water positively influenced the inflammatory response in fragments of the peritoneum and the amount of CFU of bacteria in the peritoneal fluid in an experimental model.
... It is also believed that coconut water could be used as an important alternative for oral rehydration and even so for intravenous hydration of patients in remote regions (Cambell-Falck et al., 2000). Regular consumption of either coconut water is effective in bringing about the control of hypertension (Alleyne et al., 2005). People suffering from stomach pain and vomiting get relief by drinking coconut water (Hegde, 2011). ...
... According to the United States Department of Agriculture, coconut water contains protein, sugar, lipid, vitamin B, and minerals (Ca 2+ , Fe, Mg, P, K + , Na+, and Zn) while coconut milk consists of protein, fat, carbohydrate and vitamins such as B1, B2 B3 and C with Ca, Fe and P. There are ample evidences in literature about the antihypertensive (Alleyne et al., 2005;Evans and Halliwell, 2001), antioxidative (Bankar et al., 2011;Nevin and Rajamohan, 2005), antimicrobial (Loki and Rajamohan, 2003;Oyi et al., 2010;Enig, 1999), immunomodulatory (Fife, 2000;Vigila and Baskaran, 2008), cardioprotective (Nevin and Rajamohan, 2007), and antiinflammatory effects among others, of the duo of coconut water and milk including the oil derived from it. Since the reported medicinal benefits of coconut water and milk in literature have been implicated in the mechanisms leading to the restitution of compromised gastric mucosa integrity following injuries (DebMandal and Mandal, 2011), this study investigated the effect of coconut water and milk in two experimental gastric ulcers. ...
Article
In this biphasic study, 45 male wistar rats were divided into 9 groups. In Phase 1, Group 1 was treated with normal saline and served as the overall control, group 2 was treated with 95% Ethanol and represents the ulcer control, groups 3 and 4 received coconut water (Cw; 4 ml/100 g BWt) and milk (Cm; 4 ml/100 g BWt) for 4weeks while group 5 received Omeprazole (Omep; 20 mg/kg BWt) during terminal week. 95% Ethanol-induced ulceration followed the treatments in all except group 1. In the second phase, Group 1 was the overall control, group 2 served as ulcer control by receiving acetic acid only, group 3 received, coconut milk, and group 4 received omep. Cm and omep were administered post-ulcer induction for 3 and 6 days twice daily. Blood collection after 1hour was through cardiac puncture for haemocytometry, and gastric tissues harvested for histopathological investigations. Results showed significantly reduced ulcer score and gastric lesion index in Omep, Cw and Cm groups compared to ulcer control. WBC, neutrophil, lymphocyte counts in Omep, Cw and Cm groups were significantly reduced compared to ulcer and overall control groups. C-reactive protein was significantly reduced in Cm compared to control. Neutrophil Infiltration score reduced while mucus cell density increased significantly in Omep; Cm compared to control. EGFR and CD 31 assessment revealed significantly higher expressions in coconut-milk group compared to the ulcer control. We conclude that the protective effects of coconut (water and milk) is expressed by inflammation suppression, upregulation of mucus cell population and catalyses mucosa homeostasis via angiogenesis and mucosal cell proliferation following mucosa. erosion.
... Penelitian pre dan post intervensi pemberian air kelapa muda, baik tersendiri maupun kombinasi dengan maubi (minuman khas Karibia dari ekstrak kulit kayu pohon genus Colubrina) sebanyak 300 mL dua kali per hari selama 2 minggu pada 28 subjek hipertensi, hasilnya menunjukkan penurunan bermakna TDS dan TDD. 13 Makalah ini membahas pengaruh pemberian air kelapa muda (yang merupakan sumber kalium) terhadap tekanan darah pada keadaan hipertensi. ...
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PENDAHULUAN Penyakit kardiovaskuler (PKV) merupakan penyebab kematian utama di hampir seluruh negara di dunia. 1 Hipertensi merupakan faktor risiko utama PKV, yang ditandai dengan tekanan darah sistolik (TDS) ≥140 mmHg dan atau diastolik (TDD) ≥90 mmHg atau mendapat obat antihipertensi. 2 Sekitar 26% penduduk usia dewasa di dunia pada tahun 2000 mengidap hipertensi, dan diperkirakan mencapai 60% pada tahun 2025. 1 Di Indonesia, riset kesehatan dasar (Riskesdas) 2007 memperlihatkan prevalensi hipertensi nasional sekitar 31,7% dari total penduduk dewasa. 3 Faktor risiko terjadinya hipertensi terdiri dari faktor yang tidak dapat dimodifi kasi, seperti usia dan genetik, dan faktor yang dapat dimodifi kasi. Salah satu faktor yang dapat dimodifi kasi adalah rendahnya asupan kalium, yang salah satu penyebabnya adalah rendahnya asupan sayur dan buah yang umumnya tinggi kalium .4,5 Data Survei Sosial Ekonomi Nasional (Susenas) 2004 menunjukkan sekitar 60-70% masyarakat Indonesia kurang mengonsumsi sayur dan buah sesuai anjuran 4-5 porsi per hari dan rata-rata hanya mengonsumsi 1 porsi per hari. 6 Konsumsi bahan makanan dengan kan-dungan kalium tinggi dan natrium rendah ABSTRAK Hipertensi merupakan faktor risiko utama penyakit kardiovaskuler (PKV), yang merupakan penyebab utama kematian di seluruh dunia. Sekitar 26% penduduk usia dewasa di dunia pada tahun 2000 mengidap hipertensi, diperkirakan mencapai 60% pada tahun 2025. Salah satu faktor risiko hipertensi adalah rendahnya asupan kalium. Konsumsi bahan makanan dengan kandungan kalium tinggi dan natrium rendah penting untuk mempertahankan tekanan darah dalam batas normal. Mekanisme kerja kalium dalam menurunkan tekanan darah diperkirakan terjadi melalui natriuresis, penurunan aktivitas renin angiotensin aldosteron (RAA) dan peningkatan neuronal Na pump yang mengakibatkan aktivitas saraf simpatis menurun. Air kelapa muda merupakan minuman khas daerah tropis yang tinggi kalium. Beberapa penelitian pada hewan coba memperlihatkan hasil konsisten, yaitu air kelapa muda terbukti dapat menurunkan tekanan darah, namun penelitian khususnya pada manusia masih sangat terbatas. Diperlukan penelitian lebih lanjut untuk membuktikan pengaruh air kelapa muda terhadap tekanan darah pada manusia. Kata kunci: hipertensi, tekanan darah, kalium, air kelapa muda ABSTRACT Hypertension is the major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, which is responsible for most deaths worldwide. It aff ects approximately 26% of the adult population worldwide in 2000, and is predicted to increase by 60% by 2025. One of the risk factors of hypertension is low potassium intake. Consumption of foods with a high potassium content and low sodium are important to maintain blood pressure within normal limits. Young coconut water is a typical tropical drinks high in potassium. Mechanism of action of potassium in lowering blood pressure are natriuresis, decreasing activity of the renin angiotensin aldosterone (RAA) and increasing neuronal Na pump resulting in decreased sympathetic nerve activity. Several studies in animal trial have been showed consistent results, coconut water is proven to lower blood pressure, but research in humans is still very limited. Further research is needed to prove the eff ect of young coconut water on blood pressure in humans. Farapti, Savitri Sayogo. Young Coconut Water – its eff ect on blood pressure.
... It is considered as one of the world's most frequently used natural product (Johnkennedy et al. 2014;Satheesh and Prasad 2013). Increasing scientific evidence supports its role in medicinal and health fields (Johnkennedy et al. 2014;Satheesh and Prasad 2013;Prades et al. 2012;Alleyne et al. 2005). Coconut water, in its natural form is a refreshing and nutritious beverage and is a part of daily intake of people at large (Alfred 2013;Vigliar et al. 2006;Adams and Bratt 1992). ...
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In the current era, plants are frequently tested for its antidepressant potential. Therefore young coconut water, a commonly used plant based beverage, was selected to explore its antidepressant potential. Rodents were selected for this study and forced swim test was conducted to explore antidepressant activity. Analysis of brain biogenic amines using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrochemical detection and potentiation of noradrenaline toxicity model were also incorporated in this study to demonstrate probable antidepressant mechanism of action. Coconut water was administered orally at the dose of 4 ml/100 g. Young coconut water showed highly significant increase in struggling time (p < 0.001) in forced swim test. This suggests antidepressant effect of young coconut water. In noradrenaline toxicity model, it was observed that young coconut water is not a good adrenergic component as its lethality percentage in this test was observed 0 % unlike imipramine which showed lethality of 100 %. High performance liquid chromatography-electrochemical detection of rodent’s brain revealed decline in 5-hydroxytryptamine, noradrenaline and dopamine, with concomitant decline in metabolites 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, homovanillic acid and increase in 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid/5-hydroxytryptamine ratio. Findings from the exploration of monoamines suggest antidepressant effect of young coconut water via homeostasis of monoamines synthesis.
... Cardioprotective effect of tender coconut water in experimental myocardial infarction reported that Coconut water may offer protection against myocardial infarction. Interestingly, a study done by Alleyne et al (2005) has shown that regular consumption of either coconut water or mauby (a liquid extracted from the bark of the mauby tree, Colubrina arborescens), or particularly, a mixture of them, is effective in bringing about the control of hypertension. It is thought that coconut water could be used as important option for oral rehydration and even so for intravenous hydration of patients in remote region due to its electrolyte content (Pumer et al. 2001). ...
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To determine the ameliorative effect of coconut water on haematobiochemical changes due to lead poisoning in wistar albino rats for six weeks, sixty rats were assigned to four groups. 0.10g/l of lead and 75ml coconut (cocus nucifera l.) water were given orally for six weeks. The mean values of red blood cells, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, red blood cell distribution width and platelets (8.10±0.63(×106μl), 52.7±0.87(μm3), 17.9±0.56(pg), 34.73±0.65(g/dl), 17.90±0.67(%) and 670.00±42.22(×103μl) respectively) reduced in lead treated rats when compared with control mean values (8.41 ± 0.90(×106μl), 56.60 ± 1.55(μm3), 19.33 ± 0.82(pg), 34.93 ± 0.90(g/dl), 18.27 ± 0.73(%) and 818.33± 123.68(×103μl) respectively ) and these values increased in75ml coconut water only group and the group of 0.10g/l lead + 75ml coconut water except mean corpuscular haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, and red blood cell distribution width of the 75ml coconut water only. The mean values of white blood cells, lymphocytes, total cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol/high density lipoproteincholesterol and total cholesterol/high density lipoprotein-cholesterol increased (12.23±0.57(×103μl), 79.83±3.87(%), 64.66±6.01(mg/dl), 89.00±7.94(mg/dl), 22.67±6.93(mg/dl), 21.00±4.58(mg/dl), 1.29±0.62 and 3.36±0.83 respectively ) in the lead group when compared with mean values of control group (5.83±0.74(×103μl), 69.07±10.57(%), 54.00±4.04(mg/dl), 97.33±11.34(mg/dl), 20.00±3.06(mg/dl), 17.00±6.51(mg/dl), 0.97±0.41 and 2.87±0.55 respectively) but the mean values decreased when compared with the mean values of group of 75ml coconut water only and group of 0.10g/l lead + 75ml coconut water, except the mean values of high density lipoprotein-cholesterol. These results indicate that coconut water could ameliorate effects of lead toxicity © JASEM
... It was observed that coconut water had improved and controlled hypertension due to decreases in mean systolic and mean diastolic pressure were 24 and 15 mmHg, respectively (Alleyne et al., 2005). Further, the water seemed to be a good source of dietary minerals, with potassium as the predominant one (Santoso et al., 1996). ...
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There is a high incidence of gastro-intestinal and viral diseases after natural disasters, particularly in rural areas in third world countries. Oral rehydration salts (ORS) are used, but there is need for a better tasting substitute which has improved quality, accessibility and storage. Fresh coconut is the preferred choice, but is limited by availability, and rapid nutritional deterioration. Reconstituted powdered products have not retained the natural flavor. The production of a freeze dried ORS was developed using fresh coconut water at different maturity stages. The assessment was done in its pure form and enhanced with natural fruit flavors (mango and passion fruit). Coconut water were frozen (-30°C/ 48 h) and vacuum freeze dried (VFD) to produce rehydrated crystals. This was analyzed for its analyte contents, glucose and Brix. The atomic absorption spectrophotometer was used for the mineral analysis. The results indicated that the analytes balance increased with maturity of the coconut fruits, with no differences between the fruit juices. In some mixtures, the electrolyte content was higher in the fruit juices than the coconut water. The study showed improved quality and acceptability through its taste enhancement and extended shelf-life compared to similar ORS. Key words: Analyte electrolyte, freeze-dry, oral re-hydration, flavored coconut water.
... These results suggest that coconut water if taken on a regular basis, exert haemodynamic properties. It appears, however, that this drink exert a greater effect on the systolic than on the diastolic blood pressure 20 . A number of other interesting observations that are possibly linked emerged from this study. ...
Article
Resumo This paper is a review about therapeutic use of coconut water. We began with its chemical composition, pointing that it is reach in antioxidants, potassium, calcium, carbohydrates, and poor in sodium. The antioxidant activity from coconut water is of interest as a potential natural food antioxidant additive, a nutraceutical. When coconut water is used in hypertensive people, this brought about a large decrease in blood pressure, including increased frequency in urination suggest a possible diuretic action. Additionally, in all cases of persons consuming coconut water on a regular basis an increase in the plasma level of potassium is observed. This would be a contributing factor in the decreases in blood pressure, suggesting a potassium sparing natriuretic. Some time trial tests as the measure of exercise performance have determined the efficacy of coconut water and other beverages on enhancing hydration and performance following dehydrating exercise. In conclusion, coconut water can be used in cases of hypertension, rehydration in sports, together with early refeeding, as a home glucose electrolyte oral rehydration solution in the early stages of mild diarrhoeal disease, despite not having a balanced electrolyte composition. However, it should not be used in patients with severe diarrhoea, or in patients who are severely dehydrated and/or in whom renal function is impaired. Further studies should be conducted to better understand the effects of coconut water as a therapeutic agent.
... In the tropics it is not only regarded as a refreshing beverage but also a health tonic. Coconut water is an important liquid that satisfies thirst and as well invigorates the body and brings about a sense of well being and renewed health [3]. Research has shown that coconut water contains a variety of nutrients like minerals, vitamins, antioxidants, amino acids, enzymes and growth factors. ...
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Background: Cardiomyopathy is a chronic disorder affecting the muscle of the heart. It may result in to heart failure. Aim: To investigate the effects of coconut water on antioxidant and cardiac markers on doxorubicin induced cardiomyopathy in wistar rats. Material and Methods: 21 wistar rats were divided into 3 groups of 7 rats per group. Group I served as Control while Group II and Group III were administered 2.5mg/Kg doxorubicin. Group III in addition was administered with 3ml of coconut water for 28 days. Results: The results obtained showed that the level of Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH), Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST) and Alanine Aminotransferase were significantly increased in Group II when compared with the Control Group (P<0.05). On the other hand, the level of antioxidant vitamins C and E were significantly decreased in Group II when compared with the Control Group. However, on the treatment with coconut water, the cardiac enzymes were decreased while antioxidant vitamins improved. Conclusion:This could probably imply that coconut water possess beneficial antioxidant and cardioprotective potentials.
... Coconut water and watermelon had been reported to lower BP but to the best of the authors' knowledge, there has been no report on how durian affects BP and heart rate (HR). [12,13] This study was designed to investigate the effect of durian consumption on BP and HR of healthy individuals. ...
Article
The effect of durian on cardiovascular health remains controversial. This study investigated the correlation between durian intake and the elevation of blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) in healthy males. Subjects consumed either placebo, 250 g or 500 g durian flesh. BP and HR were measured at various intervals up to 24 hours. Both systolic and diastolic BP remained normal for groups given durian. However, a significant increase in HR was observed in the group given 500 g of durian at 0.5-2 hours. Modest amount of durian intake did not affect BP and HR in healthy individuals.
... A study, investigated the positive effect of regular consumption of two tropical food drinks, coconut (Cocos nucifera) water and mauby (Colubrina arborescens), on the control of hypertension. Coconut water itself was shown to reduce the blood pressure but is more effective as a combination (123) . ...
... Another study has investigated the positive effect of regular consumption of two tropical food drinks, coconut (C. nucifera) water and mauby (Colubrina arborescens), on the control of hypertension (169) . The combined products were found to be almost twice as effective as the products in isolation. ...
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Coconut, Cocos nucifera L., is a tree that is cultivated to provide a large number of products, although it is mainly grown for its nutritional and medicinal values. Coconut oil, derived from the coconut fruit, has been recognised historically as containing high levels of saturated fat; however, closer scrutiny suggests that coconut should be regarded more favourably. Unlike most other dietary fats that are high in long-chain fatty acids, coconut oil comprises medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA). MCFA are unique in that they are easily absorbed and metabolised by the liver, and can be converted to ketones. Ketone bodies are an important alternative energy source in the brain, and may be beneficial to people developing or already with memory impairment, as in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Coconut is classified as a highly nutritious ‘functional food’. It is rich in dietary fibre, vitamins and minerals; however, notably, evidence is mounting to support the concept that coconut may be beneficial in the treatment of obesity, dyslipidaemia, elevated LDL, insulin resistance and hypertension – these are the risk factors for CVD and type 2 diabetes, and also for AD. In addition, phenolic compounds and hormones (cytokinins) found in coconut may assist in preventing the aggregation of amyloid-β peptide, potentially inhibiting a key step in the pathogenesis of AD. The purpose of the present review was to explore the literature related to coconut, outlining the known mechanistic physiology, and to discuss the potential role of coconut supplementation as a therapeutic option in the prevention and management of AD.
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Coconut water is a powerhouse of nutrition and its wide application is greatly due to its unique chemical composition providing phytohormones, enzymes, antioxidant compounds, vitamins, minerals, phenolic compounds etc., which are closely associated with its biological activities and pharmacological effects. Coconut water offers numerous medicinal properties. It has anti-microbial, anti-bacterial anti-inflammatory, anti-hypertensive, rejuvenation, hepatoprotective, hypolipidemic and diuretic properties. Coconut water has therapeutic effect on gastric dysfunction, dysentery and child malnutrition and provides control over hypertension. Results of many medical researches indicate that coconut water can aid in exercise performance, reduce swelling, dissolve kidney stones and improve kidney function, improve digestion, relieve constipation, reduce risk of heart disease, lower high blood pressure, and improve cholesterol levels. Consumption of tender coconut water reduces the risk of heart disease, helps to prevent AD pathologies, and prevent osteoporosis in experimental animals. The unique nutritional profile of coconut water also gives it the power to balance body chemistry, fight cancer etc. This chapter elaborates the health benefits of both tender and mature coconut water and their role in reducing the occurrence of life style diseases and providing a healthy life.
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Pendahuluan: Kampung BATARA (Baca Taman Rimba) terletak di tepi hutan berada di Lingkungan Papring. Kampung ini berjarak sekitar 15 kilometer dari pusat kota Banyuwangi, dan berada di ketinggian 1000 meter dari permukaan laut. Lokasi dan infrastruktur yang masih kurang memadai ini akan bedampak pada segi pendidikan maupun layanan kesehatan karena jauhnya fasilitas kesehatan sehingga memungkinkan akan berakibat fatal jika terjadi kompilkasi hipertensi seperti strok atau penyakit lainya jika tidak tertangani dengan segera. Tujuan: Melatih kemandirian masyarakat terhadap masalah kesehatan, dengan adanya Pendidikan Kesehatan tentang deteksi dini Hipertensi dan penanganan dengan air kelapa serta cara melaksanakan pengukuran tekanan darah untuk mencegah penyakit jantung, ginjal, otak serta lainnya. Metode: Pelaksanaan pengabdian ini meliputi 3 tahapan, tahap pertama; sosialisasi kegiatan yang akan dilakukan, identifikasi kebutuhan, identifikasi potensi dan kelemahan yang ada serta membuat pengorganisasian kegiatan, tahap kedua; tahap pelaksanaan kegiatan dalam rangka meningkatkan kompetensi dengan cara peer group dan komprehensif, sedangkan tahap ketiga, monitoring dan evaluasi dalam rangka mencapai keberhasilan kegiatan. Hasil: Hasil Kegiatan Pengabdian Masyarakat ini warga mengetahui tentang penyakit Hipertensi mulai dari faktor penyab maupun faktor pendukung terjadinya penyakit Hipertensi, selain itu Warga mampu menyebutkan pencegahan yang harus dilakukan serta komplikasi yang ditimbulkan dan penanganan dini dengan menggunakan air kelapa. Peningkatan skill/praktik dalam melakukan pengukuran tekanan darah juga dilaksanakan dengan lancar dalam membekali warga BATARA mengontrol tekanan darahnya. Kesimpulan Warga kampung BATARA mampu mencegah penyakit Hipertensi dengan air kelapa serta mampun melaksanakan pengukuran tekanan darah secara mandiri dalam rangka mencegah Hipertensi dan komplikasinya.
Chapter
The coconut palm (Cocos nucifera L.) finds extensive usage in a nation’s economy by providing a wide spectrum of edible products like kernel, water, oil, milk, sap sugar, etc., therefore being recognized as “tree of life”. The coconut and its derived products contain significant amounts of biologically active constituents like antioxidant vitamins, phenolic compounds, and amino acids which contribute to its antioxidant properties. The coconut products exhibit plenty of biological effects following the mechanism of (i) transcription factor and gene expression activation, (ii) free radical scavenging, (iii) metal sequestration, and (iv) regulating the enzymatic activity and signal transduction, thus promoting health. The present chapter provides insight into various aspects of coconut palm covering history of origin, current coconut production scenario, botany, and different edible parts of coconut. This chapter presents the antioxidant properties of coconut products using a comprehensive approach for the first time underlining their mechanism of carrying biological effects. The health benefits of coconut products will also be highlighted in this chapter by with scientific evidence provided with the studies supported through the systematic scientific approaches.
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The corrosion inhibitive effect of coconut water as an eco-friendly inhibitor for the corrosion control of mild steel in 0.5 Molar solution of H2SO4 acid have been investigated using the weight loss method which is considered more informative than other laboratory techniques. The studies were carried out using 30-110ml of the coconut water. The test coupons were totally immersed in the corroding medium containing various concentration of the inhibitor at the time intervals of 24-192 hours. The results obtained showed that the concentration of the inhibitor in the corrodent impacted differently on the test coupons. The corrosion rate was found to decrease while the inhibitor efficiency increases as the inhibitor concentration was increased. The plateau of maximum inhibition efficiency of 89.07% and 81.57% was obtained at the concentration of 90ml and 110ml for 24hours and 48hours immersion time respectively. The study showed that coconut water possesses inhibiting properties for reducing the corrosion of mild steel in the acidic medium.
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Coconut is a traditional resource with many uses. It is experiencing a revival in interest due to the health benefits from numerous consumable products that can be derived from it. Processing of the fruit provides coconut milk, which is a basic ingredient for many traditional diets worldwide. Coconut milk is also a nutritious lactose-free substitute for cow milk. Further processing of the milk produces coconut flour and virgin coconut oil (VCO). Coconut flour is a gluten-free cooking and baking ingredient, while VCO is a nutritional and energy-rich supplement with medicinal properties. The fruit also yields coconut water, which provides a nutritious and refreshing drink with therapeutic applications. The coconut water can also be converted into nata de coco and coconut vinegar through fermentation. Nata de coco is not only a popular dessert but has also been developed for various biomaterial applications. Furthermore, coconut elite varieties, such as Makapuno and Aromatics, have been gaining popularity. Makapuno nuts are filled with galactomannan that has also been developed as a natural biocompatible material. Recently, coconut sugar extracted from the inflorescence sap has been gaining popularity due to its high nutritional value and low Glycemic Index. Biotechnology can be used to further enhance the utilization of each of these valuable products as food, nutraceutical, and novel materials. The coconut is truly a bountiful resource with numerous existing and potential applications.
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Coconut water (CW) is a living syncytial tissue, a liquid endosperm that contains many bioactive substances. The acknowledgement of the structural and functional complexity of CW is the first step to understand the mechanisms for its protective action on the cardiovas-cular, hepatic, renal, endocrine, and other systems. CW and coconut oil have been reported to help the fight against Alzheimer's disease and AIDS. Research carried out by other scientists have shown that CW reduces the levels of lipids in blood plasma lipids. Finally, one of the authors of this review (JOBP) demonstrated the capacity of CW for the expression of recombinant genes, which shows the potential of CW in biotechnology of expensive pharmaceuticals (e.g., interferon). The evidence, therefore, justifies the use of the CW Paradigm for Public Health and Education. The CW Paradigm also offers a unique opportunity to implement educational and research programs with relatively low investment and, therefore, it is useful to institutions in Developing Countries. RESUMEN El agua de coco (AC) es un tejido sincicial vivo, un endosperma líquido que contiene muchas substancias bioactivas. El reconocimiento de la complejidad es-tructural y funcional del AC es el primer paso para entender los mecanismos para su acción protectora sobre los sistemas cardiovascular, hepático, renal, en-docrino, etc. Existen reportes de que el AC y el aceite de coco ayu-dan en la lucha contra la enfermedad de Alzheimer y el SIDA. Investigaciones llevadas a cabo por otros cientí-ficos han demostrado que el AC reduce los niveles de lípidos en el plasma sanguíneo. Finalmente, uno de los autores de este artículo (JOBP) demostró la capacidad del AC para expresar genes recombinantes, lo cual demuestra el potencial del AC en la biotecnología de fármacos caros (interferón). La evidencia, por tanto, justifica el uso del paradigma del AC para salud y educación públicas. Este paradigma también ofrece una oportunidad única para implemen-tar programas educacionales y de investigaciones con baja inversión y, por tanto, es útil para instituciones de Países en Desarrollo.
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In the current work we evaluated the effect of atmospheric cold plasma (ACP) generated in air and M65 (65% O2, 30% CO2, 5%N2) as working gases for inactivation of Escherichia coli and Listeria monocyotogenes in tender coconut water. A 5 log10 reduction in the population of both microbes was achieved in tender coconut water with addition of 400 ppm citric acid and plasma treatment with M65 gas for 120 s at 90 kV, followed by a 24 h post-treatment storage under refrigerated conditions. Optical emission spectroscopy was utilized in identifying reactive gas species of nitrogen and oxygen which were accounted for cellular leakage and morphological changes in microbes on plasma treatment. The plasma treatments on tender coconut water caused a lowering of pH and small changes in Hunter color parameters (a* and b*), while total soluble solids and total titratable acidity did not change significantly. Accelerated shelf-life studies (ASLS) carried out at 10 °C, 20 °C and 30 °C compared three batches: Batch 1(tender coconut water), Batch 2 (Tender coconut water + citric acid + ascorbic acid) and Batch 3 (Tender coconut water + citric acid + Plasma treatment with M65 + ascorbic acid). ASLS revealed that the rate constants for parameters namely percent transmission, ascorbic acid content, total titratable acidity and total color change decreased in the order Batch 1 > Batch 2 > Batch 3. Estimation of rate constants following Arrhenius model for Batch 3 at 5 °C was comparable to experimental results. A shelf-life of 48 days was predicted for Batch 3 at 5 °C considering 75% ascorbic acid content degradation. Thus, ACP was concluded to be a novel technology for tender coconut water processing.
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Coconut provides a wide spectrum of human consumable products such as oil, kernel, tender nut water, toddy, neera, coconut sugar, immature inflorescence and haustorium. Despite enormous beneficial utilities of coconut oil, many believe that it increases blood cholesterol level, thus promoting the risk of cardiac diseases. There are enough research results to indicate the health benefits of coconut oil because of its unique fatty acid composition. Wet processing of fresh coconut kernel yields virgin coconut oil (VCO) which is very nutritious and has important health-promoting properties. Coconut oil has antibacterial, anti-protozoan and antiviral properties because of the medium chain fatty acid (lauric acid) it contains. Apart from coconut oil, coconut kernel contains many beneficial factors. Coconut kernel protein possesses cardioprotective and antidiabetic properties. Dietary fibre isolated from coconut kernel has significant hypocholesterolemic effect, and its hemicellulose component is responsible for the cholesterol-lowering action. Research indicates that tender coconut water (TCW) and mature coconut water can reduce the occurrence of lifestyle diseases. TCW consumption reduces the risk of heart disease and has significant hypocholesterolemic, antioxidant and antithrombotic effects. Furthermore, hypoglycaemic effect of mature coconut water has been reported in diabetic rats. Neera tapped from coconut inflorescence enhances digestion and has a low glycaemic index. Studies indicate that immature coconut inflorescence can lower blood glucose in diabetic rats. Coconut haustorium possessing significant cardioprotective and antioxidant properties is underscored. This chapter draws attention on the health benefits of coconut products evidenced through systematic scientific approach.
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Plant-based antihypertensive preparations are abundantly used in traditional medicinal practices in many parts of the world including the Republic of Suriname (South America). In some cases, their apparent blood pressurelowering activity may be related to inhibition of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). In this literature review, 12 plants that are commonly used in Suriname for treating hypertension have been compiled and assessed for an involvement of ACE inhibition in this condition. The 12 most commonly used ‘antihypertensive’ plants with ACEinhibitory properties are Ruellia tuberosa, Mangifera indica, Apium graveolens, Cocos nucifera, Cucumis sativus, Momordica charantia, Punica granatum, Hibiscus sabdariffa, Musa x paradisiaca, Averrhoa bilimbi, Phyllanthus amarus, and Piper betle. All of them inhibited ACE activity in vitro, 3 (M. charantia, P. granatum, and P. betle) inhibited ACE activity in laboratory animals as well, and 2 (P. granatum and M. paradisiaca) were also active against ACE in human subjects. Indications about the identity of the pharmacologically active ingredient(s) were available for R. tuberosa, M. indica, A. graveolens, M. charantia, H. sabdariffa, and P. amarus. In most cases, the active ingredient(s) were associated with phenolic compounds. The results from this study support the involvement of ACE inhibition in the blood pressure-lowering activity of traditionally used Surinamese medicinal plants but also indicate that the scientific evidence for this contention is limited. Further pharmacological studies on these aspects as well as the pharmacologically active constituents of the plants are warranted, since they may help identify novel plant-based ACE inhibitors
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Background: The incident of prehypertension in Indonesia has started since young adulthood. One of the risk factors of prehypertension is low potassium intake. Dietary intakes of high potassium will decrease blood pressure (BP). Tender coconut water (TCW) is a typical drink high in potassium. This study aimed to investigate the effect of TCW on BP in female teachers and employees prehypertension.
Article
We describe a 70-year-old Haitian man who had been taking warfarin for 5 years for atrial fibrillation and pulmonary hypertension. This patient had his international normalized ratio (INR) checked in the pharmacist-run anticoagulation clinic and was followed monthly. Prior to the interaction, his INR was therapeutic for 5 months while taking warfarin 10.5 mg/d. The patient presented with an INR > 8.0. Patient held 4 days of warfarin and restarted on warfarin 8.5 mg/d. Two weeks later, his INR was 2.5. After continuing dose, patient presented 2 weeks later and INR was 4.8. Upon further questioning, the patient stated he recently began ingesting mauby. Mauby is a bitter dark liquid extracted from the bark of the mauby tree that is commonly used in the Caribbean population as a folk remedy with many health benefits. This case report illustrates that mauby may have a probable drug–herb interaction (Naranjo Algorithm Score of 6) when given with warfarin. There is a lack of published literature and unclear information on the Internet describing the interaction of mauby and warfarin. Health professionals should be cautious regarding interactions between warfarin and mauby until the interaction is fully elucidated.
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Vinegar fermentation was essentially a two‐step process comprising the anaerobic conversion of sugars to ethanol (C2H5OH) and the aerobic oxidation of ethanol to acetic acid (CH3CO2H). It was to be found that vinegar could be successfully produced from the juice extracted from banana peel and coconut water using yeast and Acetobacter. Banana peel and coconut water was a suitable raw material for ethanol production by fermentation and for vinegar production by this ethanol. The present study indicates that a relatively good yield of ethanol and acetic acid can be obtained after optimization of conditions for fermentation. For Banana peel Alcohol, the highest alcohol level was 7.77% at 10% sugar level, 8% yeast cell concentration for 48 hrs. at 28ºC. For Banana peel Vinegar, the maximum acidity was obtained 4.67 % at 7.77% of alcohol level, 15% of A. aceti cell concentration for 12 week at 37 ºC.For coconut water, the highest alcohol level was 5.60% at 12%sugar level, 10%yeast cell concentration for 48hrs.at 28ºC.For coconut water vinegar, the maximum acidity was obtained 6.00% at 5.60% of alcohol level,15%of A.aceticell concentration for 12 week at 37ºC.chemical analysis pH,titrable acidity,protein,ash,phosphorus,mallic acid(2.50,0.28,19.63,2.53)for coconut water vinegar and for banana peel vinegar(2.98.0.093,9.75,0.60) respectively on the basis of overall sensory attributes, colour of sample 100:15% has better appearance as compare to 100:10% and 100:5%. Flavor, Aroma, Taste, After Taste and Overall Acceptability of sample 100:15% has got higher score than sample 100:5% and 100:10% because of dark yellow color of coconut water vinegar and brown colour of banana peel vinegar. After chemical analysis it was found that sample 100:15% had high percentage of protein and other nutrients it was concluded that banana peel and coconut water alcohol with 5%,10%,15% A.Aceti inoculates were used for the production of vinegar without adversely affecting quality attributes.
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Calappa nucifera (L.) Kuntze, Cocos indica Royle, Cocos nana Griff., Cocos nucifera var. synphyllica Becc., Palma cocos Mill. nom. illeg.
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The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of coconut water (Cocos nucifera L) and an isotonic drink on the changes of heart rate frequency in the rats induced hypertension. Wistar male rats were divided into five groups: a negative group, a mineral-watered group, a coconut-watered group, a group with isotonic drink, and a group with medicine. The rats were induced hypertension by administering NaCl solution high concentration for 14 days, and then they were treated with the test materials given to each group for another 14 days without stopping the induction. Their heart rate was measured using a tail cuff before the induction (d0), at the beginning of the treatment (d14), and at the end of the treatment (d28). When being induced hypertension, higher heart rate frequency was significantly showed by the groups with coconut water and isotonic drink (p<0.05) compared with the control group. When the rats of coconut water group were treated with coconut water, their heart rate became significantly lower (p<0.05) compared to the control groups. When the rats of isotonic drink group were treated with isotonic drink, their heart rate was lower, although not significant, than the control groups. The results showed that coconut water (C. nucifera L) lowered the heart rate frequency better than the isotonic drink.
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The link between excessive consumption of dietary saturated fats and coronary heart disease (CHD) is now well established. Because of its high content of saturated fatty acids, the consumption of foods containing coconut oil may therefore be a risk factor for CHD. While the fatty acid composition of coconut oil is well established, relatively little is known about the other constituents of coconut: the milk, water, cream and meat fractions. In this study, we show that while the water fraction is low in lipid content, the milk contains about 24% of the fat content of oil and the cream and meat fractions about 34%. The other coconut constituents contain significant amounts of medium-chain triglycerides that are formed from fatty acids of chain length 8:0 to 14:0. It is these fatty acids, primarily 14:0, that are thought to be atherogenic. On the other hand, medium-chain triglycerides may be advantageous under some circumstances in that they are absorbed intact and do not undergo degradation and re-esterification processes. As a result, medium-chain triglycerides provide a ready source of energy and may be useful in baby foods or in diet therapy. Nevertheless, the possible negative effects of the saturated fatty acids and the absence of the essential fatty acid linolenic acid from all coconut constituents suggest that the coconut milk, oil and cream should not be used on a regular basis in adults.
Article
This study has shown that hypertension induced in rats by a diet rich in saturated fat (16% coconut oil, 4% palmitic acid by weight) is reversed by the addition of the essential fatty acid, dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (DHLA), at 5.0% but not at 0.5% of dietary energy. This potent effect of DHLA has been attributed to modulation of prostaglandin biosynthesis.
Article
There is now increasing evidence that significant advances have been made in herbal medicine during the past 20-25 years since the official policy of China was established that encouraged a blend of Western and Chinese traditional medicine. Scientific studies in China and the United States, as well as other countries, are directed at collecting and cataloguing a great variety of the herbs listed in the folk pharmacopias. 1 of the most significant single agents identified recently is isodamine, an alkaloid isolated from the solancea plant. Its formula, pharmacological action, and clinical effects are very similar to those of atropine. On the basis of experimental and clinical studies, Chinese scientists report that anisodamine is a better spasmolytic agent than atropine by virtue of its milder activity on the salivary glands, the pupils, and the central nervous system. Several herbal drugs have recently been developed and subjected to successful clinical trials. These drugs tend to be combinations of herbs. The Chinese have made progress recently in the treatment of burns with herbal medicine. 1 of the reasons given for past failures of Western investigators to identify the medicinal properties of Chinese medications is that the research usually began with the isolation of individual chemical compounds. New studies in the U.S. are focusing on single ingredients, entire herbal concoctions, and the use of herbal medicines in conjunction with Western drug products. Virtually every city in the U.S. with a sizable Chinese ethnic community has 1 or more herbal "pharmacies."
Article
Average systolic blood pressure levels from epidemiological studies conducted on black populations in sub-Sahara Africa were pooled and compared with pooled systolic blood pressure levels from black populations in the northern portion of the Western hemisphere (the West Indies and the United States). Studies published in English that listed systolic blood pressure means and standard deviations and sample sizes in 40-49-year-old men and women were included. Overall, systolic blood pressure levels were higher (p less than 0.05) in blacks from the northern Western hemisphere than in blacks from sub-Sahara Africa for both men (12 mm Hg higher) and women (13 mm Hg higher). The analysis was also conducted on regions within sub-Sahara Africa and in rural and urban subgroups. Systolic blood pressure was lower (p less than 0.05) in East Africa than in the other three regions within Africa for both sexes. Overall, urban blacks within Africa had higher systolic blood pressures (p less than 0.05) than rural blacks for both sexes. In the northern Western hemisphere, rural blacks had higher systolic blood pressures (p less than 0.05) than urban blacks for both sexes. Studies should be designed with standardized methods to unravel these intraracial differences in blood pressure levels.
Article
Blood pressures have been measured, and sociological, anthropometric, medical, and biochemical examinations have been made in an isolated group of !Kung bushmen in northern Botswana.Blood pressures were taken in 152 bushmen of both sexes, aged 15 to 83 years, who were examined in family groups. Systolic and diastolic pressures declined with increasing age in the men. The women showed a small rise of systolic pressure after the menopause but their diastolic pressure decreased slightly with age. The mean blood pressure ( pulse pressure) for men and women combined thus remained the same throughout life.Other communities whose blood pressures do not increase with age are reviewed. Of the possible explanations in the bushmen, a low salt intake and a lack of obesity appeared to be important, with relative freedom from mental stress an additional imponderable factor.
Article
A case of coronary heart disease in China was confirmed by the necropsy of a female body unearthed from the tomb at Changsha. It proved that such a case existed about 2,100 years ago. Research in reducing the frequency of myocardial infarction by traditional medicinal plants showed the effect of several herbs. The traditional aromatic and warm herbal medicines may have the possibility of relieving coronary arterial spasm. The clinical and experimental observations proved that the Huoxue-huayu plants' action against blood platelet aggregation and against attack was effective.
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This review summarizes the historical development and recent resurgence of interest in dietary potassium as a factor in hypertension. Some epidemiologic evidence has suggested that potassium intake by humans may be inversely related to the level of arterial blood pressure. Other studies have suggested that a marked reduction in the Na+/K+ ratio of the human diet reduces the blood pressure of normotensives. Further, the administration of high potassium diets has resulted in a lowering of blood pressure in some animal models of hypertension. Several possible mechanisms for this putative antihypertensive effect are evident. Some observations suggest that potassium could act as a diuretic agent and thereby reduce extracellular fluid volume, which in turn could result in decreased blood pressure. An alternative mechanism of action is that potassium may alter the activity of the renin-angiotensin system and reduce angiotensin influences on vascular, adrenal, or renal receptors. Other evidence supports the possibility that potassium modifies central or the peripheral neural mechanisms that regulate blood pressure. In addition, high potassium diets could reduce blood pressure by relaxing vascular smooth muscle and reducing peripheral vascular resistance directly. Although diets high in potassium content do appear to modify arterial blood pressure under some circumstances, particularly in salt-dependent hypertension, a high potassium intake has not always attenuated blood pressure in all models examined. Further, evaluation of these data do not allow definite conclusions regarding a common mechanism through which potassium exerts these effects.
Article
Previous studies have shown that a combination of avoidance conditioning schedules and increased intake of salt and water results in progressive hypertension in dogs within 14 days. The present experiments investigated the effects of increasing potassium intake upon blood pressure and heart rate of dogs made hypertensive by avoidance conditioning and salt-water loading. Two daily 30-minute sessions of free-operant avoidance conditioning were presented for 36 days during which isotonic saline was continuously infused into the arterial circulation (1.2 liters/day; 185 mEq Na+). Daily mean levels of systolic (22 +/- 5 mm Hg) and diastolic (12 +/- 4 mm Hg) pressure increased progressively in each dog during Days 1-14. Infusion of potassium chloride (100 mEq/day) from Days 15-28 resulted in progressive decreases in daily mean levels of systolic (-11 +/- 2 mm Hg) and diastolic (-8 +/- 1 mm Hg) pressure in each dog over this period. From Day 29-36, systolic (8 +/- 1 mm Hg) and diastolic (5 +/- 1 mm Hg) pressure increased. Normotensive dogs not on the avoidance schedule showed no change in arterial pressure in response to 14 days of potassium chloride infusion. These experiments show that the level of potassium, as well as sodium, intake significantly determines blood pressure levels in this form of experimental hypertension.
Article
Twelve methanolic plant extracts from botanical species used in traditional medicine in Morelos, México to cure infectious diseases have been subjected to a screening study to detect potential antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans. The antimicrobial activity of the products was evaluated using colonies growing in solid medium, establishing the minimal concentration required to inhibit their in vitro growth (MIC). The results showed that extracts from Eucalyptus globolus Labill, Punica granatum L., Artemisia mexicana Wild., and Bocconia arborea Watt. possess strong in vitro antimicrobial activity against the tested microorganisms.
Article
Saturated fat intake appears to be a risk factor of insulin resistance which is important in the pathogenesis of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. This study aims to demonstrate whether saturated fat intake may be a risk factor of hypertension. Cross-sectional survey in six randomly selected streets in Trivandrum city in south India was conducted to study 1497 randomly selected subjects (737 males and 760 females) of 25-64 years of age. The prevalence of hypertension by Joint National Committee V criteria (> 140/90 were 34.6% (n = 255) in males and 30.7% (n = 234) in females. The consumption of food groups showed that they were within desirable limits. However, the intake of fruit, vegetable, legume and coconuts was lower and saturated fat intake higher (> 10% kcal/day), although total fat intake was within desirable limits. Total and saturated fat intake, and the consumption of coconut oil and butter, flesh foods, milk and yogurt as well as sugar and jaggery were significantly associated with hypertension. Total visible fat (> 20 g/day) intake was positively associated whereas fruit, vegetable, legume and coconut intake (< 400 g/day) was inversely associated with hypertension. Salt intake (> 8 g/day), smoking and illiteracy were not associated with hypertension. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that saturated fat intake, age and body mass index were independently and strongly associated with hypertension whereas fruits, vegetable, legume and coconuts, coconut oil and butter and alcohol (males) intakes were weakly associated with hypertension. The odds ratio indicate higher risk of hypertension due to higher intake of saturated fat in both sexes (mean: odds ratio, 1.07, 95% confidence interval 1.05-1.09; women, 1.08, 1.06-1.12, P < 0.01). Significant determinants of hypertension were higher saturated fat, particularly coconut oil, and lower fruit, vegetable, legume and coconuts, particularly legumes and coconuts in the diet, apart from conventional risk factors.
Article
To determine how frequently herbal remedies are employed as alternative therapies in rheumatic diseases, and the historical justification for their use. We conducted a survey in 250 outpatients in the rheumatology clinic of a teaching hospital in México. We registered general demographic information and the previous use of herbal remedies for rheumatic conditions, how effective they were, and the presence of adverse effects during their use. We identified the herbs employed, and cross-checked them with medical texts from the 16th through the 18th centuries on the use of herbal remedies. Of 250 surveyed patients, 126 (51%) had used herbal remedies for their rheumatic conditions. 63% of all users reported them to be effective for the purpose they had been prescribed. 12% reported adverse effects, none of them life-threatening. Being a user had no relation with the patients' formal education. Three patients did not answer the survey. We were able to identify 67 plants. One third of these are either prescribed for rheumatic conditions in the consulted bibliography, or else were used for the same purpose by ancient Mexican cultures. Herbal remedies are frequently used for rheumatic conditions. Some of them have an historical antecedent for their use in rheumatic conditions. They deserve a cautious evaluation as adjunctive therapies in rheumatic diseases.
History of Indian alchemy can be traced to pre-Vedic period. The archaeological excavations at Mohenjodaro and Harappa in the Indus valley have brought to light that, the people in ancient India were possessing chemical knowledge as early as in the pre-historic period. In Vedic period single herbs were prescribed. Minerals and animal substances were also prescribed but no compound preparations were in use. Alchemy in India, was started for the preparation of an elixir of life for imparting immortality and later for the transmutation process for converting base metals into gold. Indian alchemy derived its colour and flavour to a large extent from the Tantric cult. Then, during the iatro-chemical period all the previous accumulated alchemical ideas were put into something more practical and tangible. a number of preparations of mercury and other metals were evolved as helpful accessories in medicine. Here a bried history of this Indian alchemy is presented which will give an idea about the development of chemical knowledge in India in its multiple aspects.
Article
Ethanolic and aqueous (cold and hot) extracts of Landolphia owerrience root parts (whole-root, root-bark and root-wood) were tested for activity against ten bacterial strains using agar-well diffusion and macro-broth dilution methods, respectively. The ethanolic extracts of the whole-root and root-wood were active against 100 and 80% of the test organisms, respectively. Ethanolic and aqueous extracts of the root-bark were moderately active while the aqueous (cold and hot) extracts of the root-wood exhibited little or no activity. Out of the nine extracts prepared, 66.7% were active against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 12600, 55.6% variously against each of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 10145 and local clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi, 44.4% against Proteus sp., 33.3% against Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6051 and 22.2% against E. coli ATCC 11775. The agar-well-determined MIC values for the ethanolic whole-root extract (0.78-50 mg/ml) were higher (indicating lower activity) than the corresponding macro-broth-determined values (0.39-50 mg/ml) probably because of slow diffusion rates of the active constituents of the extract in agar. On the other hand, the differences could be due to the effects of DMSO used to dissolve the ethanolic extracts in the agar-well diffusion tests. Similar discrepancies in the MIC values detectable with the two test methods were apparent in the root-wood extract and the control drug, Gentamycin, except that in the latter the agar-well-determined MIC values (0.125-8.0 microg/ml) were lower than the macro-broth-determined values (0.125-64 microg/ml). The strong activity of the ethanolic extracts against known etiologic agents of diseases traditionally treated with L. owerrience root of similar preparations provides scientific justification for the use of the herb in ethnomedical practice in Nigeria.