PU.1 protein expression has a positive linear association with protein expression of germinal centre B cell genes including BCL-6, CD10, CD20 and CD22: Identification of PU.1 putative binding sites in the BCL-6 promotor
Department of Pathology, The Norwegian Radium Hospital, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.The Journal of Pathology (Impact Factor: 7.43). 07/2005; 206(3):312-9. DOI: 10.1002/path.1777
The transcription factor PU.1 has been shown to be crucial for the early stages of B cell development but its function at later stages of B cell development is less well known. We observed previously that PU.1 is expressed uniformly throughout the mature pre-plasma cell B cell population, the only exception being a subpopulation of germinal centre (GC) cells which showed exceptionally high expression of PU.1. This suggested that PU.1 may also have a role in GC B cell biology. To test this hypothesis and to screen for possible genes regulated by PU.1, we first evaluated semi-quantitatively the possible co-expression of PU.1 with proteins known to be upregulated or downregulated during GC B cell development. Normal lymphoid tissues and 255 B cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas of putative GC B cell origin were evaluated. PU.1 expression was positively associated with CD10 (p < 0.0001), CD20 (p = 0.043), CD22 (p = 0.005), CD79a (p = 0.024) and Bcl-6 (p < 0.0001) and negatively associated with cytoplasmic immunoglobulin light-chain expression (p = 0.036) in diffuse large B cell lymphoma. Identical or nearly identical associations were found in follicular lymphoma. Since CD20 is known to be partly regulated by PU.1 and putative PU.1-binding sites have been described in the regulatory regions of the CD22, CD79a and CD10 genes, we looked for putative PU.1 binding sites in the BCL6 promotor. Four such putative PU.1 binding sites were identified. Further analysis by gel-shift electromobility essay showed that PU.1 protein binds to three of the four putative binding sites in the BCL6 promotor. PU.1 and Bcl-6 were also found to be upregulated in centroblasts in the normal GC, but jointly downregulated in a subpopulation of centrocytes. Our findings support the contention that PU.1 may also have an important role in GC B cell development.
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ABSTRACT: Transcription factors including PU.1, E2A and early B cell factor (EBF) are essential for the earliest stages of B lymphocyte development. Recent advances suggest that, although PU.1 initiates events leading to B lymphopoiesis, it might be dispensable at later stages of development. E2A proteins are also crucial for B cell lineage determination, as shown by the pluripotency of E2A-deficient progenitors. Both PU.1 and E2A are required for expression of EBF. EBF activates the early program of genes unique to B cells, including the lineage commitment factor Pax5. EBF also facilitates the function of Pax5 by mediating epigenetic changes necessary for the function of Pax5 at gene targets. Together, these proteins function in a hierarchy of factors that orchestrates B cell development.
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ABSTRACT: To assess the role of interferon regulatory factor (IRF) 8 in B-cell development and lymphomagenesis, we studied its expression in reactive lymphoid tissues, its relationship to other B-cell transcription factors, and its expression in a series of 232 B-cell tumors and 30 cell lines representing a variety of B-cell developmental stages. We found that although IRF8 was detectable in most reactive B-cells, its expression levels differed with developmental stage. Germinal center B cells contained the highest levels of IRF8, with lower levels seen in mantle and marginal zone B cells and none in plasma cells. IRF8 was coexpressed with PAX-5, Pu.1, and B-cell lymphoma (BCL)-6, and similar to BCL-6, was absent from the small population of IRF4-positive germinal center B cells thought to be committed to postgerminal center developmental programs. Similarly, IRF8 was most strongly expressed in lymphomas of germinal center origin with lower levels present in mantle cell lymphomas, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and marginal zone lymphomas, and no expression observed in plasmacytic/plasmablastic neoplasms. The reciprocal expression pattern with IRF4 in reactive tissues was generally maintained in lymphomas with some exceptions. These results suggest an important role for IRF8 during germinal center B-cell development and in related lymphomas, and provide a new diagnostic marker helpful in distinguishing B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma subtypes.
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