Helms MW, Packeisen J, August C, Schittek B, Boecker W, Brandt BH, Buerger HFirst evidence supporting a potential role for the BMP/SMAD pathway in the progression of oestrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. J Pathol 206: 366-376
Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, University of Münster, Münster, Germany. The Journal of Pathology
(Impact Factor: 7.43).
07/2005; 206(3):366-76. DOI: 10.1002/path.1785
Oestrogen receptor expression is generally a sign of better tumour differentiation and comparatively good clinical outcome in invasive breast cancer. However, oestrogen receptor-positive, poorly differentiated carcinomas with a poor clinical outcome exist. The underlying genetic mechanisms and the genes involved remain obscure, even though chromosome 7p gains seem to be associated with these uncommon tumours. In this study, we compared two subsets of oestrogen receptor-positive breast cancers, which differed in tumour grade, cytogenetic instability, and tumour proliferation, for their differential gene expression in order to identify proteins involved in the progression of oestrogen receptor-positive breast cancers. We were able to show by means of subtractive suppression hybridization, real-time reverse transcriptase PCR, and tissue microarray analysis that expression of the bone morphogenetic protein receptor IB (BMPR-IB) is a major hallmark of the progression and dedifferentiation of breast cancer. Strong expression of BMPR-IB was associated with high tumour grade, high tumour proliferation, cytogenetic instability, and a poor prognosis in oestrogen receptor-positive carcinomas. Western blot analysis revealed that downstream signalling of this receptor is mainly mediated via phosphorylation of SMAD 1 in oestrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. Even though BMPR-IB was expressed in oestrogen receptor-positive and -negative breast cancers, an impact on tumour grade, proliferation, and cytogenetic instability, as parameters of tumour progression, could only be demonstrated in oestrogen receptor-positive carcinomas. This pro-proliferative effect was complemented by significant anti-apoptotic activity, indicated by XIAP and IAP-2 expression in BMPR-IB-positive carcinomas. These results show that the BMP/SMAD pathway is activated in breast cancer and may contribute to breast cancer progression and dedifferentiation in oestrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. The definition of this pathway characterizes a new potential target in the molecular treatment of invasive breast cancer.
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Available from: Andrew B Nixon
- "In support of a tumor suppressor role, BMP7 has been shown to reduce both primary tumor growth and bone metastases in a mouse xenograft model of breast cancer  and the inhibition of BMP signaling through the expression of a dominant negative BMPR2 in a MMTV- Polyoma middle T mouse model of mammary cancer increased tumor cell proliferation, lung metastasis, angiogenesis, and induced an altered reactive tumor stroma . Conversely, in support of a tumor promoting role, primary human breast cancers, lymph node metastases, and bone metastases exhibit signs of elevated BMP signaling , high BMPR-IB expression in ER-positive human breast tumors correlates with decreased survival , treatment of human breast cancer cell lines with BMP promotes cell migration and invasion [6,9,11–14], BMP7 expression in cell lines and primary breast tumors has been associated with accelerated bone metastasis in vivo  , and expression of dominant negative BMPRIA in a murine breast cancer xenograft model prevents bone metastasis and invasion and enhances survival . The type III TGF-β receptor (TβRIII or betaglycan) binds to multiple BMP family members, including BMP2, 4, 7 and GDF-5, and functions as a BMP co-receptor, enhancing ligand binding to the BMP type I receptors, ALK3 and ALK6  . "
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ABSTRACT: Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are members of the TGF-β superfamily that are over-expressed in breast cancer, with context dependent effects on breast cancer pathogenesis. The type III TGF-β receptor (TβRIII) mediates BMP signaling. While TβRIII expression is lost during breast cancer progression, the role of TβRIII in regulating BMP signaling in normal mammary epithelium and breast cancer cells has not been examined. Restoring TβRIII expression in a 4T1 murine syngeneic model of breast cancer suppressed Smad1/5/8 phosphorylation and inhibited the expression of the BMP transcriptional targets, Id1 and Smad6, in vivo. Similarly, restoring TβRIII expression in human breast cancer cell lines or treatment with sTβRIII inhibited BMP-induced Smad1/5/8 phosphorylation and BMP-stimulated migration and invasion. In normal mammary epithelial cells, shRNA-mediated silencing of TβRIII, TβRIII over-expression, or treatment with sTβRIII inhibited BMP-mediated phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8 and BMP induced migration. Inhibition of TβRIII shedding through treatment with TAPI-2 or expression of a non-shedding TβRIII mutant rescued TβRIII mediated inhibition of BMP induced Smad1/5/8 phosphorylation and BMP induced migration and/or invasion in both in normal mammary epithelial cells and breast cancer cells. Conversely, expression of a TβRIII mutant, which exhibited increased shedding, significantly reduced BMP-mediated Smad1/5/8 phosphorylation, migration, and invasion. These data demonstrate that TβRIII regulates BMP-mediated signaling and biological effects, primarily through the ligand sequestration effects of sTβRIII in normal and cancerous mammary epithelial cells and suggest that the ratio of membrane bound versus sTβRIII plays an important role in mediating these effects.
Available from: James West
- "The common role for the BMP pathway in all of these seems to be an inappropriate response to damage to the respective organ. Many of these diseases show a marked gender imbalance in prevalence, and cross-talk between estrogen and BMP signaling has been noted in systems throughout the body [11-13]. "
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ABSTRACT: Studies in multiple organ systems have shown cross-talk between signaling through the bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 2 (BMPR2) and estrogen pathways. In humans, pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) has a female predominance, and is associated with decreased BMPR2 expression. The goal of this study was to determine if estrogens suppress BMPR2 expression.
A variety of techniques were utilized across several model platforms to evaluate the relationship between estrogens and BMPR2 gene expression. We used quantitative RT-PCR, gel mobility shift, and luciferase activity assays in human samples, live mice, and cell culture.
BMPR2 expression is reduced in lymphocytes from female patients compared with male patients, and in whole lungs from female mice compared with male mice. There is an evolutionarily conserved estrogen receptor binding site in the BMPR2 promoter, which binds estrogen receptor by gel-shift assay. Increased exogenous estrogen decreases BMPR2 expression in cell culture, particularly when induced to proliferate. Transfection of increasing quantities of estrogen receptor alpha correlates strongly with decreasing expression of BMPR2.
BMPR2 gene expression is reduced in females compared to males in live humans and in mice, likely through direct estrogen receptor alpha binding to the BMPR2 promoter. This reduced BMPR2 expression may contribute to the increased prevalence of PAH in females.
Available from: Holger Fröhlich
- "The decrease of the levels of BMP receptors (BMPR1a, BMPR2, ALK2, and ACTR2) implies the Hsp90 machinery in BMP signalling. The BMP pathway has been proposed to have a role in cancer progression similar to that of TGF-beta signalling [21,22]. "
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ABSTRACT: The heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is required for the stability of many signalling kinases. As a target for cancer therapy it allows the simultaneous inhibition of several signalling pathways. However, its inhibition in healthy cells could also lead to severe side effects. This is the first comprehensive analysis of the response to Hsp90 inhibition at the kinome level.
We quantitatively profiled the effects of Hsp90 inhibition by geldanamycin on the kinome of one primary (Hs68) and three tumour cell lines (SW480, U2OS, A549) by affinity proteomics based on immobilized broad spectrum kinase inhibitors ("kinobeads"). To identify affected pathways we used the KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) pathway classification. We combined Hsp90 and proteasome inhibition to identify Hsp90 substrates in Hs68 and SW480 cells. The mutational status of kinases from the used cell lines was determined using next-generation sequencing. A mutation of Hsp90 candidate client RIPK2 was mapped onto its structure.
We measured relative abundances of > 140 protein kinases from the four cell lines in response to geldanamycin treatment and identified many new potential Hsp90 substrates. These kinases represent diverse families and cellular functions, with a strong representation of pathways involved in tumour progression like the BMP, MAPK and TGF-beta signalling cascades. Co-treatment with the proteasome inhibitor MG132 enabled us to classify 64 kinases as true Hsp90 clients. Finally, mutations in 7 kinases correlate with an altered response to Hsp90 inhibition. Structural modelling of the candidate client RIPK2 suggests an impact of the mutation on a proposed Hsp90 binding domain.
We propose a high confidence list of Hsp90 kinase clients, which provides new opportunities for targeted and combinatorial cancer treatment and diagnostic applications.
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