Differences in regional brain atrophy in genetic forms of Alzheimer’s disease
Prince of Wales Medical Research Institute and the University of New South Wales, Barker Street, Randwick, Sydney, NSW 2031, Australia. Neurobiology of Aging
(Impact Factor: 5.01).
04/2006; 27(3):387-93. DOI: 10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2005.03.011
Multiple degenerative hallmarks characterize Alzheimer's disease: insoluble protein deposition, neuronal loss and cortical atrophy. Atrophy begins in the medial temporal lobe and becomes global by end stage. In a small proportion of cases, these tissue changes are caused by mutations in three known genes. These cases are affected earlier in life and have more abundant protein deposition, which may indicate greater tissue atrophy and degeneration. This issue remains unresolved. Grey matter atrophy in different cortical regions was determined in genetic cases of Alzheimer's disease (N = 13) and compared to sporadic cases (N = 13) and non-diseased controls (N = 23). Genetic mutations were found to influence the degree and regional pattern of atrophy. The majority of cases had greater medial temporal atrophy than sporadic disease, suggesting that abnormalities affecting Abeta metabolism selectively increase hippocampal degeneration. Cases with mutations in presenilin-1 demonstrated additional increased frontotemporal atrophy. This effect may be due to the influence of presenilin-1 on tau phosphorylation and metabolism. These differences may explain the earlier onset ages in these different forms of Alzheimer's disease.
Available from: Alessandro Padovani
- "Gray matter regional volume loss and decreases in magnetization transfer ratio have also been reported in mildly symptomatic carriers . Additionally, it has been well established that in early onset AD, hippocampus may be not always involved as in the typical form and that frontoparietal areas showed greater atrophy in monogenic forms compared with sporadic late onset cases [68, 70, 71]. APP mutations seem to be more associated with hippocampal atrophy, whereas PSEN1 mutation carriers had more general neocortical involvement and a prominent frontotemporal atrophy [68, 72]. "
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ABSTRACT: The discovery of monogenic forms of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) associated with mutations within PSEN1, PSEN2, and APP genes is giving a big contribution in the understanding of the underpinning mechanisms of this complex disorder. Compared with sporadic form, the phenotype associated with monogenic cases is somewhat broader including behavioural disturbances, epilepsy, myoclonus, and focal presentations. Structural and functional imaging show typical early changes also in presymptomatic monogenic carriers. Amyloid imaging and CSF tau/A β ratio may be useful in the differential diagnosis with other neurodegenerative dementias, especially, in early onset cases. However, to date any specific biomarkers of different monogenic cases have been identified. Thus, in clinical practice, the early identification is often difficult, but the copresence of different elements could help in recognition. This review will focus on the clinical and instrumental markers useful for the very early identification of AD monogenic cases, pivotal in the development, and evaluation of disease-modifying therapy.
Available from: Hongyun Li
- "Basic clinical and demographic data for the samples used in this study are provided in Table 1. The samples were stratified into four groups of disease severity using clinically and pathologically defined National Institute on Aging-Reagan criteria as described previously  . Thirty four samples were obtained in total including nine cases of normal control brain. "
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ABSTRACT: Previous studies indicate that apolipoprotein D (apoD) may have a lipid antioxidant function in the brain. We have shown that apoD can reduce free radical-generating lipid hydroperoxides to inert lipid hydroxides in a reaction that involves conversion of surface exposed apoD methione-93 (Met93) residue to Met93-sulfoxide (Met93-SO). One consequence of this reaction is the formation of a stable dimerized form of apoD. As cerebral lipid peroxidation is associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD), in the present study we aimed to assess the possible presence of apoD dimers in postmortem hippocampal and cerebellar tissues derived from a cohort of pathologically defined cases ranging from control to late stage AD. Both soluble and insoluble (requiring guanidine HCl extraction) fractions of tissue homogenates were analyzed for apoD and its dimerized form. We also assessed amyloid-β levels by ELISA and levels of lipid peroxidation by lipid conjugated diene and F2-isoprostane analysis. Our studies reveal a significant association between soluble apoD levels and AD Braak stage whereas apoD dimer formation appears to increase predominantly in the advanced stages of disease. The formation of apoD dimers is closely correlated to lipid conjugated diene levels and occurs in the hippocampus but not in the cerebellum. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that apoD acts as a lipid antioxidant in the brain.
Available from: Gerard R Ridgway
- "Likewise, the effectmaps are suggestive of more focal temporal lobe grey matter atrophy in the APP subjects then the PSEN1 patients. There is some support for this finding from postmortem studies which have shown greater grey matter loss in PSEN1 subjects compared with those with APP mutations . "
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ABSTRACT: Mutations in the presenilin1 (PSEN1) and amyloid beta (A4) precursor protein (APP) genes account for the majority of cases of autosomal dominantly inherited Alzheimer's disease (AD). We wished to assess and compare the patterns of cerebral loss produced by these two groups of mutations. Volumetric magnetic resonance imaging and neuropsychological assessments were performed in individuals with clinical AD carrying mutations in the APP (n = 10) and PSEN1 (n = 18) genes and in healthy controls (n = 18). Voxel-based morphometry (VBM), cortical thickness, and region of interest analyses were performed. Mini-Mental State Examination scores were similar in the two disease groups suggesting similar levels of disease severity. There was evidence that APP subjects have smaller hippocampal volume compared with PSEN1 subjects (p = 0.007), and weak evidence that they have larger whole-brain and grey matter volumes (both p = 0.07). Although there was no evidence of statistically significant differences between APP and PSEN1 in VBM or cortical thickness analyses, effect maps were suggestive of APP subjects having more medial temporal lobe atrophy and conversely PSEN1 subjects showing more neocortical loss. Neuropsychological data were consistent with these regional differences and suggested greater memory deficits in the APP patients and greater impairment in non-memory domains in the PSEN1 group, although these differences were not statistically significant. We conclude that the mechanisms by which APP and PSEN1 mutations cause neuronal loss may differ which furthers our understanding of the neuropathology underlying AD and may inform future therapeutic strategies and trial designs.
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