Expression of Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator Receptor (uPAR) in Primary Central Nervous System Neoplasms
The cellular receptor for urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) is a member of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchored protein family. It is a specific cell surface receptor for its ligand, urokinase-type plasminogen activator, which catalyzes the formation of plasmin from plasminogen to generate the proteolytic cascade and leads to the breakdown of the extracellular matrix. uPAR has been shown to correlate with a propensity to tumor invasion and metastasis in several types of non-central nervous system tumors. In this study, the authors examined the immunohistochemical expression of uPAR in 65 primary brain tumors (5 pilocytic astrocytomas, 5 diffuse astrocytomas, 6 anaplastic astrocytomas, 8 glioblastomas, 5 oligodendrogliomas, 4 oligoastrocytomas, 6 anaplastic oligoastrocytomas, 4 gangliogliomas, 4 ependymomas, 5 medulloblastomas, 6 schwannomas, 5 meningiomas, 2 atypical meningiomas). The specimens were evaluated for intensity of immunostaining (0-3 scale), cellular localization of staining, and specific or unique patterns of staining. Some degree of uPAR expression was observed in all tumors. A significant positive correlation (P = 0.0006) between tumor grade and staining intensity was identified within the astrocytoma/glioblastoma subgroup, suggesting a possible correlation with anaplastic change and propensity to tumor invasion. Expression of uPAR in nonmalignant, noninvasive tumors such as schwannoma and meningioma suggests that uPAR may have other biologic functions in addition to promotion of tumor invasion.
Available from: Harvey W. Smith
- "The urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) is overexpressed in many human cancers, its expression often correlating with poor prognosis (Memarzadeh et al., 2002; Kaneko et al., 2003; El-Kott et al., 2004; Salajegheh et al., 2005; Meng et al., 2006; for review see Bene et al., 2004). It is expressed as a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored plasma membrane protein and in a soluble form that is secreted or shed from the cell surface (Pedersen et al., 1993; Pyke et al., 1993; Blasi and Carmeliet, 2002). "
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ABSTRACT: The urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) drives tumor cell membrane protrusion and motility through activation of Rac; however, the pathway leading from uPAR to Rac activation has not been described. In this study we identify DOCK180 as the guanine nucleotide exchange factor acting downstream of uPAR. We show that uPAR cooperates with integrin complexes containing beta(3) integrin to drive formation of the p130Cas-CrkII signaling complex and activation of Rac, resulting in a Rac-driven elongated-mesenchymal morphology, cell motility, and invasion. Our findings identify a signaling pathway underlying the morphological changes and increased cell motility associated with uPAR expression.
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ABSTRACT: Doublecortin (DCX) is required for neuroblastic migration during the development of the cerebral cortex. DCX is a microtubule-associated protein that plays a role in cellular motility. These facts led us to hypothesize that DCX is increased in invasive brain tumors. DCX expression was assessed in 69 paraffin-embedded brain tumors of neuroepithelial origin. In addition, mouse brain sections of the subventricular zone and dentate gyrus were used as positive controls for immunostaining, and specificity of antibody staining was demonstrated by peptide neutralization. DCX was highly expressed in both high-grade invasive tumors (glioblastoma, n=11; anaplastic astrocytoma/oligoastrocytoma, n=7; and medulloblastoma/PNET, n=6) and low-grade invasive tumors (oligodendroglioma, n=3; and astrocytoma/oligoastrocytoma, n=5). However, DCX was less intensely expressed in the circumscribed group of tumors (pilocytic astrocytoma, n=6; ependymoma/subependymoma, n=7; dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor, n=4; ganglioglioma, n=2; meningioma, n=9; and schwannoma, n=9). By the Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel statistical test, the circumscribed group was significantly different from both the high-grade invasive group (P<0.0001) and the low-grade invasive group (P<0.0001). We conclude that DCX is preferentially expressed in invasive brain tumors. In addition, DCX immunostaining was stronger at the margin of the tumor than at the center. For a subset of these tumors, we also detected DCX mRNA and protein by Northern and Western blotting. DCX mRNA and protein was detected in glioma cell lines by Northern blotting, immunofluorescence microscopy and Western blotting. Collectively, the immunohistochemistry, Western blots and Northern blots conclusively demonstrate expression of DCX by human brain tumors.
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ABSTRACT: Chronic inflammation of the intestinal wall is the common characteristic of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis; disorders, which in some cases can be difficult to distinguish. The inflammation also affects the local neuronal plexuses of the enteric nervous system. It is known that plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and urokinase receptor (uPAR) are upregulated in neurons after experimental peripheral nerve injury and have been linked to nerve regeneration.
The expression of PAI-1 and uPAR in neuronal cells in lesions of the gastrointestinal tract was analyzed by immunohistochemical techniques.
PAI-1 was found in a subset of neurons primarily located in the submucosal plexus of the small and large intestine in 24 of 28 cases (86%) with Crohn's disease, but in none of 17 cases with chronic ulcerative colitis and other severe inflammatory conditions in the intestinal wall. The PAI-1 was seen in the perikarya of the neurons and a few proximal axons, whereas nerves were negative. uPAR was seen in nerves in all types of lesion varying from 21% to 88% of the cases, most frequent in colon adenocarcinomas. No uPAR-positive nerves were detected in normal colon.
PAI-1-positive neurons in inflammatory bowel disease are linked to chronic inflammation in Crohn's disease, implying PAI-1 as a potential parameter for the differential diagnosis between Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. The findings also suggest that PAI-1 in neurons is related to pain and that both PAI-1 and uPAR are involved in neuronal repair in the inflamed tissue.
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