Newly diagnosed HIV infections: Review in UK and Ireland

Chelsea and Westminster Healthcare NHS Trust, London SW10 9NH.
BMJ (online) (Impact Factor: 17.45). 07/2005; 330(7503):1301-2. DOI: 10.1136/bmj.38398.590602.E0
Source: PubMed

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    • "The most frequent definition of late presentation for treatment is a CD4 cell count below 200 cells/mm3, although other thresholds have ranged from 50 to 350 cells/mm3[1,7-18]. This has sometimes been combined with whether an individual presented with an AIDS-defining diagnosis [19,20]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Initiating therapy with a low CD4 cell count is associated with a substantially greater risk of disease progression and death than earlier initiation. We examined factors associated with late presentation of HIV using the new European consensus definition (CD4 cell count <350 cells/mm3) and mortality. Patients newly diagnosed with HIV infection at a UK clinic were recruited from January 1996 to May 2010. Factors associated with late presentation were assessed using logistic regression. Factors associated with mortality rates were analysed using Poisson regression. Of the 1536 included in the analysis, 86% were male and 10% were aged 50 years and older. Half the cohort (49%) had a CD4 cell count below 350 cells/mm3 at presentation (“late presentation”). The frequency of late presentation was highest in those aged 50 years or older and remained unchanged over time (64.3% in 1996-1998 and 65.4% in 2008-2010). In contrast, among those aged less than 50 years, the proportion with late presentation decreased over time (57.1% in 1996-1998 and 38.5% in 2008-2010). Other factors associated with late presentation were African ethnicity and being a male heterosexual. The mortality rate was 15.47/1000 person-years (pyrs) (95%-CI: 13.00-18.41). When compared with younger adults, older individuals had a higher mortality, after adjusting for confounders (rate ratio (RR) = 2.87; 95%-CI: 1.88-4.40). Older adults were more likely to present late and had a higher mortality. Initiatives to expand HIV testing in clinical and community setting should not neglect individuals aged over 50.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2013 · BMC Public Health
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    • "Both have significant clinical consequences in terms of excess morbidity and mortality [5,6], increased healthcare costs [7,8], and ongoing HIV transmission [2,9]. Applying these definitions, 24–44% of patients in the developed world first present with advanced disease, and 52–59% of patients are diagnosed late [10,11]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background HIV positive patients are at risk of infectious and non-infectious complications that may necessitate intensive care unit (ICU) admission. While the characteristics of patients requiring ICU admission have been described previously, these studies did not include information on the denominator population from which these cases arose. Methods We conducted an observational cohort study of ICU admissions among 2751 HIV positive patients attending King’s College Hospital, South London, UK. Poisson regression models were used to identify factors associated with ICU admission. Results The overall incidence rate of ICU admission was 1.0 [95% CI 0.8, 1.2] per 100 person-years of follow up, and particularly high early (during the first 3 months) following HIV diagnosis (12.4 [8.7, 17.3] per 100 person-years compared to 0.37 [0.27, 0.50] per 100 person-years thereafter; incidence rate ratio 33.5 [23.4, 48.1], p < 0.001). In time-updated analyses, AIDS and current CD4 cell counts of less than 200 cells/mm3 were associated with an increased incidence of ICU admission while receipt of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) was associated with a reduced incidence of ICU admission. Late HIV diagnosis (initial CD4 cell count <350 or AIDS within 3 months of HIV diagnosis) applied to 81% of patients who were first diagnosed HIV positive during the study period and who required ICU admission. Late HIV diagnosis was significantly associated with ICU admission in the first 3 months following HIV diagnosis (adjusted incidence rate ratio 8.72, 95% CI 2.76, 27.5). Conclusions Late HIV diagnosis was a major risk factor for early ICU admission in our cohort. Earlier HIV diagnosis allowing cART initiation at CD4 cell counts of 350 cells/mm3 is likely to have a significant impact on the need for ICU care.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2013 · BMC Infectious Diseases
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    • "Risk factors for late diagnosis in Switzerland include older age, being married, having children, being heterosexual and, in women, not being pregnant [2]. Late diagnosis is associated with increased morbidity and mortality [3], [4] and increased healthcare costs [5], while HIV-infected individuals unaware of their status do not modify risk behaviour to avoid onward transmission [6]. "
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    ABSTRACT: To determine 1) HIV testing practices in a 1400-bed university hospital where local HIV prevalence is 0.4% and 2) the effect on testing practices of national HIV testing guidelines, revised in March 2010, recommending Physician-Initiated Counselling and Testing (PICT). Using 2 hospital databases, we determined the number of HIV tests performed by selected clinical services, and the number of patients tested as a percentage of the number seen per service ('testing rate'). To explore the effect of the revised national guidelines, we examined testing rates for two years pre- and two years post-PICT guideline publication. Combining the clinical services, 253,178 patients were seen and 9,183 tests were performed (of which 80 tested positive, 0.9%) in the four-year study period. The emergency department (ED) performed the second highest number of tests, but had the lowest testing rates (0.9-1.1%). Of inpatient services, neurology and psychiatry had higher testing rates than internal medicine (19.7% and 9.6% versus 8%, respectively). There was no significant increase in testing rates, either globally or in the majority of the clinical services examined, and no increase in new HIV diagnoses post-PICT recommendations. Using a simple two-database tool, we observe no global improvement in HIV testing rates in our hospital following new national guidelines but do identify services where testing practices merit improvement. This study may show the limit of PICT strategies based on physician risk assessment, compared to the opt-out approach.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2012 · PLoS ONE
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