ArticleLiterature Review

Altruism, Happiness, and Health: It's Good to Be Good

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Abstract

Altruistic (other-regarding) emotions and behaviors are associated with greater well-being, health, and longevity. This article presents a summary and assessment of existing research data on altruism and its relation to mental and physical health. It suggests several complimentary interpretive frameworks, including evolutionary biology, physiological models, and positive psychology. Potential public health implications of this research are discussed, as well as directions for future studies. The article concludes, with some caveats, that a strong correlation exists between the well-being, happiness, health, and longevity of people who are emotionally and behaviorally compassionate, so long as they are not overwhelmed by helping tasks.

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... In addition, the physiological benefit model argues that altruistic emotions gain dominance over anxiety and fear and reduce stress against perceived dangers (Feng et al., 2020). According to the positive emotion model, positive emotions elicited by altruism (e.g., kindness, compassion and other emotions related to altruistic love (passion to help)) enhance health by displacing negative emotions (Post, 2005). ...
... Averting perceived threats, cross-cultural value transmission and reputation of the donor can motivate altruism. Post (2005) Journal ( In religious schools, students are more likely to behave as an altruist. There exists a relationship among altruistic behaviour and values and empathy. ...
... Mental health; well-being; longevity of people Dulin & Hill (2003); Post (2005) ...
Article
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There is a widespread perception in the public mind that people who practice in helping professions are selfless and altruistic. Why do these people pursue a helping profession, and why do civilian helpers provide help? Often the helper expects at least mental rewards and some kind of reciprocity for their help. Altruism has many perspectives; its scientific approaches can be found almost in every field. However, its role is emphasised in some disciplines such as social sciences. This paper highlights the social and economic view of altruism and seeks to assess the definition, dimensions, scales, measurement possibilities and background of altruism. It also aims to highlight hypotheses for further research. In this framework, the study presents a literature review and analyses the recent applied research related to altruism. It concludes that empathy is the basis of altruism. Altruistic behaviour may be facilitated by positive and negative personality and identity traits, personal engagement and other personal and external motivators. However, its future positive and negative effects can play a role in supportive behaviour.
... From a medical perspective, Post noted that although the primary purpose of public health is the mitigation of disease and dysfunction, the primary prevention stage usually involves efforts to improve human well-being through prosocial and altruistic behaviors. It is believed that altruism can provide happiness to individuals, including by inspiring positive emotions such as hope, happiness, and good feelings about themselves, which can replace harmful personal negative emotions and thus achieve the purpose of primary prevention [32]. From the perspective of neuroscience, Lozada, D'Adamo, and Fuentes found that when individuals help others, the areas of the brain that are activated are the same as those that are activated when individuals receive rewards or experience happiness; helping behavior and emotional bonds can produce certain related neuropeptides and hormones that reduce stress and anxiety [33]. ...
... Well-being, which is related to positive emotions, is reasonably expected to be negatively related to negative emotions such as depression. Therefore, altruistic behavior is not only expected to increase the individual's well-being but also to reduce negative emotions such as individual depression [15,31,32]. Depression and anxiety, although they often overlap clinically and exhibit comorbidity, are different [41,42]. ...
... As mentioned above, regarding the relationship between preventative health behaviors and well-being, behaviors intended to help others mitigate the epidemic may cause individuals to feel that they are better people and that they can bring beauty to the world [14], thereby reducing depression, negative self-perceptions and negative perceptions of life. This situation is also in line with the fact that altruistic behavior not only helps increase individual happiness but also reduces negative emotions such as depression in individuals [15,31,32]. ...
Article
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This study aims to explore the impact of gender and anxiety on various preventative health behaviors, and the relationships among these preventative health behaviors, individual well-being and depression, from the perspective of altruism. This study employed an online questionnaire survey, and 136 males and 204 females participated in the survey. The results of this study showed that females exhibited better preventative health behaviors than males, including hygiene habits, social distancing and behaviors intended to help others mitigate the epidemic. Anxiety regarding COVID-19 infection encouraged individuals to adopt hygienic habits and social distancing measures rather than to help others mitigate the epidemic. Hygiene habits improved the individual's psychological well-being. Helping others mitigate the epidemic improved the individual's psychological well-being and social well-being and contributed to reducing individual depression. However, the preventative health behavior involved in social distancing was not conducive to emotional well-being or social well-being. Affective elements are related to individual behaviors. Therefore, the use of prosocial, altruistic language may play an important role with respect to encouraging people to comply with preventative health behaviors in the context of COVID-19. In addition, it is worth noting that different preventative health behaviors may have different effects on people's mental health, especially when implementing social distancing-related epidemic mitigation behaviors. The question of how to prevent negative psychological effects in restricted actors must be answered, and the degree of life satisfaction experienced by those actors must also be taken into account.
... Altruism is known to have positive effects on mood, mental health, and well-being of the helper (Musick & Wilson, 2003;Post, 2005). Positive emotions model suggests that altruism enhances mental health by evoking positive emotions and displacing negative emotions (Post, 2005). ...
... Altruism is known to have positive effects on mood, mental health, and well-being of the helper (Musick & Wilson, 2003;Post, 2005). Positive emotions model suggests that altruism enhances mental health by evoking positive emotions and displacing negative emotions (Post, 2005). Additionally, a recent study carried out in the context of the COVID-19 crisis indicates that when altruistic individuals are unable to help due to objective circumstances, such as forced isolation, they can experience negative emotions and, consequently, worse mental health outcomes (Feng, Zong, Yang, Gu, Dong & Zhihong, 2020). ...
... Trait altruism was not associated with joviality related to the act of helping, but only to self-assurance, while dire, compliant, emotional and anonymous prosociality were related to both of these positive emotions related to the act of helping. It seems that those who tend to help anonymously, on demand, in emergent or emotional situations experience short-term benefits of these prosocial acts (Post, 2005) in both positive feelings and enhancement of self-image, which is in line with Social Exchange Theory (Thibaut & Kelley, 1959). Altruistic helping, however, implies a non-calculative readiness to help, which confirms the Altruism-Empathy Hypothesis (Batson et al., 2015). ...
Article
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COVID‐19 pandemic led to introduction of lockdown measures in many countries, while in Serbia the Government also introduced the curfew by which vulnerable groups of citizens were prohibited from leaving their homes at any time. In such a situation many citizens organized to voluntarily offer their help to those in isolation, which offered a unique opportunity to examine prosocial behavior in the natural setting of global crisis. This study examined the differences between non‐helpers and helpers, as well as groups of helpers who provided their help to close or unknown others, in personality (prosocial tendencies, selfishness and communal narcissism) and context‐related factors (situation specific empathy and fear) of prosocial behaviors. Additionally, the study also analyzed the helping‐related affect among helpers, depending on the recipient of help and personality characteristics. Results revealed that groups of helpers with different recipients of help (close persons, unknown persons or both) were not different among each other, but they were different from non‐helpers. Non‐helpers were more selfish and had self‐focused prosocial tendencies, and they showed less empathy towards people in isolation, compared to helper groups. However, the helping‐related affect depended on the recipient of help and helper's personality traits. This study confirmed some previous findings and offered novel insights into factors related to helping in crises.
... Many psychosocial studies have confirmed that religion works as a "meaning system" in believers' lives [58,59], that is, the important resource of sense-making that can shape individuals' beliefs and atti-tudes. Most religions preach specific value orientations, such as conformity, generosity, and benevolence [60,61]. Religious participation provides individuals with an interface to these values and beliefs. ...
... Most research results indicate that individuals with a religious affiliation are more willing to help strangers than those without a religious affiliation. Altruism also comes from an increased sense of benevolence and generosity in religious believers who frequently participate in religious activities that revolve around their religious beliefs [49,61]. The benevolence and generosity of religious individuals cultivate their authentic concerns for other people and influence their motivation to help others [74]. ...
Article
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Considerable research has shown that religion operates as a protective factor for one’s health. However, there is still a lack of understanding of the mechanisms by which religion is linked to individual health and wellbeing, especially in predominantly secular societies. This study tried to address this gap by developing a theoretical model to examine how religiosity is related to life satisfaction and health perception in a non-Western culture. Macau, a Portuguese colony until 1999, remains a diversified culture because of its intermixed historical background from the East and the West. Through structural equation modeling, the analysis of data collected from a representative sample of Macau residents, using a multistage stratified sampling procedure, indicated a positive link between religiosity and health. Moreover, altruism and prejudice mediated a portion of the relationship between religiosity and health. Additionally, our results demonstrated that Macau residents who were more religious had a higher level of altruism and a lower level of prejudice. The link between religion and prejudice in Macau differs from that of many other cultures, indicating that the effect of religion on prejudice varies by cultural context. In sum, our study showed that even in the shadow of glittering casinos, religion is positively related to health.
... Kebahagiaan tidak bergantung pada seberapa banyak peristiwa menyenangkan yang dialami, melainkan sejauh mana seseorang memiliki resiliensi, yakni kemampuan untuk bangkit dari peristiwa yang tidak menyenangkan sekalipun. Dalam beberapa penelitian, kebahagiaan berhubungan dengan sikap memberi dan menolong (Lu, 2001;Gimenez-Nadal & Molina, 2015;Post, 2005). ...
... Sedekah bukan dilihat dari harta yang dibarikan, tapi dari intensi psikologis yang terjadi. Memberi sebagai bentuk kepedulian orang lain adalah sesuatu yang berhubungan dengan kebahagiaan bahkan kesehatan (Post, 2005). Kebahagiaan dapat dicapai dengan merasa puas (contentment), bersyukur, memberi secara bijak (wisdom of giving), dan mengolah jiwa (self-cultivation) (Lu, 2001). ...
Article
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Fenomena ketidakbahagiaan pada mahasiswa, seperti stress akademik, depresi, dan kecemasan telah terjadi sehingga berakibat pada prestasi dan proses belajar. Salah satu variabel yang berhubungan dengan kebahagiaan adalah bersedekah. Penelitian ini merancang alat ukur sedekah dalam perspektif Islam dan melihat hubungannya dengan skala kebahagiaan. Penelitian ini menemukan adanya hubungan antara sedekah dan kebahagiaan (r= .330**). Dengan menggunakan Independet Sample T-Test, diketahui bahwa mahasiswa yang memiliki perilaku bersedekah yang tinggi menunjukkan kebahagiaan yang lebih besar dibandingkan dengan siswa yang memiliki perilaku bersedekah yang rendah (MD=-29.23*). Analisis multiple regression menemukan bahwa afeksi bersedekah menjadi prediktor yang lebih kuat (ß=0.266*) dibandingkan ikhlas bersedekah (0.230*). Keduanya memberikan sumbangan efektif kepada kebahagiaan sebesar 11,1%. Antar komponen-komponen sedekah dan kebahagiaan juga diuji dan menemukan beberapa hasil yang menarik. Penelitian ini telah membuka diskusi mengenai pengukuran sedekah dalam perspektif psikologi Islam.
... An important aspect of social interaction is generosity, or acts of kindness. There are many documented instances in which people display altruism for others without the expectation of being reciprocated or socially rewarded [4,53,73]. Researchers explain these behaviors with frameworks of evolutionary biology, physiological models, and positive psychology [53,65]. Witnessing or experiencing acts of kindness can also propel a person to be generous towards others (pay-itforward), a form of social contagion of behavior [32,34,41,54,73,82]. ...
... There are many documented instances in which people display altruism for others without the expectation of being reciprocated or socially rewarded [4,53,73]. Researchers explain these behaviors with frameworks of evolutionary biology, physiological models, and positive psychology [53,65]. Witnessing or experiencing acts of kindness can also propel a person to be generous towards others (pay-itforward), a form of social contagion of behavior [32,34,41,54,73,82]. ...
Preprint
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Understanding social interactions and generous behaviors have long been of considerable interest in the social science community. While the contagion of generosity is documented in the real world, less is known about such phenomenon in virtual worlds and whether it has an actionable impact on user behavior and retention. In this work, we analyze social dynamics in the virtual world of the popular massively multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG) Sky: Children of Light. We develop a framework to reveal the patterns of generosity in such social environments and provide empirical evidence of social contagion and contagious generosity. Players become more engaged in the game after playing with others and especially with friends. We also find that players who experience generosity first-hand or even observe other players conduct generous acts become more generous themselves in the future. Additionally, we show that both receiving and observing generosity lead to higher future engagement in the game. Since Sky resembles the real world from a social play aspect, the implications of our findings also go beyond this virtual world.
... 1. People will become more conscientious, responsible and willing to help because it's good to be good (Post, 2005;Aknin et al., 2012) which is closely related to the fact that a higher degree of social interaction between people leads to people feeling more desire and willingness to help others (Cialdini et al. 1997); 2. Faced with a crisis that has paralyzed the whole world, I have reconsidered my views on life because the difficulties we face in a pandemic result in the acceptance of the principle that life is a "gift" (Emmons and McCullough, 2003); 7 3. Egoists will have to recognize that there are other people who have their needs and rights because although people are sometimes unwilling to make sacrifices for others (Dana et al., 2007) still in this process including the economic aspect they should focus on the social economy of human solidarity (Rugina, 1984); 4. After this crisis, I feel stronger to fight for my dignity and 5. ...
Article
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The subject of research in this paper is the analysis of ethically relevant values and behavior in Serbia after the end of the state of emergency in March 2020, caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. The research is aimed at examining the attitudes of employees in Serbia to determine whether the attitudes of respondents can be grouped into three mutually independent ethical dimensions: a) attitude towards themselves and others, b) economy and existence and c) science and knowledge. We were also interested in whether these ethical values were perceived differently by male and female. These three elements were analyzed since Serbia is a country that has gone, and to some extent is still going, through socioeconomic changes, which are especially reflected in non-standard social circumstances, when ethical values, principles, and beliefs are expressed. In a sample of 640 respondents, surveyed via social networks, the results show that the pronounced correlation groups the attitudes of employees into three mutually independent ethical dimensions and that gender does not affect ethically relevant values and behaviors in the domain of the crisis caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. Сажетак Предмет истраживања у овом раду јесте анализа етички релевантних вредности и понашања у Србији након завршетка ванредног стања у месецу марту 2020, изазваног пандемијом COVID-19. Истраживање је усмерено на испитивање ставова запослених у Србији како би се утврдило да ли се ставови испитаника могу груписати у три међусобно независне етичке димензије: а) однос према себи и другима, б) економија и егзистенција анд в) наука и знањ. Исто тако, занимало нас је да ли су ове етичке вредности перципиране другачије од стране мушкараца и жена. Ова три елемента су анализирана из разлога што је Србија као земља прошла, и у одређеној мери још увијек пролази, кроз друштвено-економске промене, које се посебно огледају у нестандардним друштвеним околностима, када долазе до изражаја етичке вредности, принципи и уверења. На узорку од 640 испитаника, по основу истраживања спроведеног путем друштвених мрежа, резултати показују да изражена корелација групише ставове запослених у три међусобно независне етичке димензије, као и да пол не утиче на етички релевантне вредности и понашања у домену кризе изазване пандемијом COVID-19.
... II.1. « À Ton Tour » : Évaluation préliminaire Afin de prévenir d'emblée le sentiment d'impuissance qui pourrait survenir au moment de prendre la mesure des besoins du monde et des moyens d'y répondre (Post, 2005), Rochat et Masdonati (2019) préconisent de faire précéder la passation du jeu de cartes « À Ton Tour » par une évaluation des « forces de caractère » de la personne. Selon Linley (2008), une force constitue « une capacité préexistante pour une manière particulière de se comporter, de penser et de ressentir émotionnellement, qui est authentique et énergisante pour l'individu et qui facilite un fonctionnement, un développement et une performance optimum » (p. 9, trad. ...
... Gibbs and Miller (2014) reported that resilience loss in teachers may affect psychological well-being negatively. Seligman (2002) and Post (2005) reported that happy people are more giver for others. Similarly, Barker and Martin (2009) reported that high well-being in teachers contributes in creative teaching in the class and Noddings (2005) reported that it contributes in creation of a positive classroom climate. ...
... Those who have high EaB tend to strongly identify with all humanity and with their society; therefore, they appear to have a deep love for all humankind (Diessner et al., 2013(Diessner et al., , 2017. Since a large body of previous literature has consistently demonstrated that humanitarian emotions and behaviors correlate positively with well-being (e.g., Post, 2005), we expected that individuals who savor art more in their lives would experience a greater level of meaning in life and happiness. ...
Article
Previous research has indicated that engaging in art activities is beneficial to both psychological and physical well-being; however, few studies have examined the link between attitudes toward art and well-being. In the present study, we have termed a positive and appreciative attitude toward art as savoring art and have investigated the relationship between savoring art and individual well-being. Study 1 (N = 501) examined the associations between savoring art and psychological well-being (PWB) as well as subjective well-being (SWB), the two most widely used terms for meaningful and hedonic happiness, respectively. The results suggested that savoring art was linked to a greater level of both PWB and SWB. Furthermore, Study 2 (N = 144) demonstrated that savoring art correlated with reduced biological health risk, as measured by objective biomarkers for inflammation and hypertension. The results from the present study highlight the potential psychological and physical benefits of savoring art, regardless of individuals’ socioeconomic condition, level of openness to experience, or art engagement frequency. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)
... Altruistic behavior and emotions from helping others are known to be associated with greater well-being, health, and longevity. There is a strong correlation exists between the well-being, happiness, health, and longevity of people who are emotionally and behaviorally compassionate, so long as they are not overwhelmed by helping tasks [22]. Caring for others can be done in various ways, such as spending time at home thinking about family, friends, members of congregation, colleagues at work, or others who might be at risk for social isolation, or picking up food or medical supplies for neighbor in need at a grocery store or pharmacy and leaving the supplies in a safe place without physical contact [21]. ...
Conference Paper
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Covid-19 pandemic put millions people into difficulties due to the disease as well as the huge economic and social impacts. In times of this crises, people’s life is drastically changed and many turn to religion to cope with the situation and to navigate their life. Therefore, religion has considerable indirect contribution in protecting people’s health and well-being. This article aims to provide theoretical review on the role of religion in the context of Covid-19 pandemic. We found that religiosity and religious behavior tend to increase in this time of difficulty in individuals as well as community. They give people perspective to understand reality, strategy to cope with stress, and source of social support. From health perspective, positive religious coping stress is beneficial for emotion which later help individual to maintain immune system. Collaboration with religious community is important as well for the success of health policy.
... Comprehensive studies in medicine suggest that 'it's good to be good': altruistic and compassionate emotions and behaviors in people are strongly associated with mental well-being, health, and longevity (Post, 2005). On a psychological level, helping others and not expecting reciprocity cultivates a sense of belonging and can improve self-esteem. ...
Research
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In this extended referee report, I replicate one of the �findings of the paper National Happiness and Genetic Distance: A Cautious Explo- ration (2016) by Eugenio Proto and Andrew Oswald. I then extend the paper by doing two additional tests. I �first search for a link between the 'trust' gene polymorphism and mental well-being for 12 countries. I then explore the correlation between 'altruism', or 'generosity', gene variations and various measures of subjective well-being. I also devote one section to the discussion on the methodology of the original paper and my suggested extensions. I consider different pitfalls in genoeconomic research and their implications for policymaking.
... Hasil yang didapatkan dari kegiatan bakti sosial diatas adalah untuk membantu kesejahteraan, mempererat hubungan silaturahmi dengan masyarakat sekitar, menumbuhkan sikap peduli antar sesama, menumbuhkan kepekaan jiwa sosial dan memberikan kebahagiaan. Memberi sebagai bentuk kepedulian orang lain adalah sesuatu yang berhubungan dengan kebahagiaan bahkan kesehatan (Post, 2005). ...
Article
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The purpose of this study is to empower social service as a mental education for the care of the Indonesian people during the Covid-19 pandemic. With the existence of this research data it can be used as a community service program and also a benchmark for society, especially in Indonesia, the community can empower social service during the current Covid-19 Pandemic and also this outbreak provides lessons to all people, especially the Indonesian people to open a spirit of concern. in society in order to face this covid-19 pandemic. At this time social service is still very seriously implemented. Therefore, it can be seen that when this outbreak entered the country of Indonesia from 2020 until now, the implementation of social service is very rampant by the government, organizations, associations, and others. At the beginning of the Covid-19 pandemic, the religious organization of the Al-Ikhlas Deltasari Mosque helped people who are well off to practice some of their assets to local residents so that they do not become haram assets and can be useful for residents who are more in need. There are several dozens of basic food packages that have been collected and ready to be distributed to residents around the Al-Ikhlas Deltasari Indah Mosque. This activity is carried out regularly every week, especially on Friday. This social service is not only in the form of basic necessities but also in the form of packaged rice, money and so on. The results obtained from the above social service activities are to help welfare, strengthen relationship with the surrounding community, foster a caring attitude among others, foster social sensitivity and provide happiness which are very important to carry out charity and social service activities, especially for less fortunate citizens. It is hoped that other communities can be inspired and raise awareness by holding similar activities. The method used in this community service program is to distribute packaged rice.
... A second psychological protective factor is altruism, which refers to being compassionate and engaging in good deeds for others despite a lack of personal gain (Peterson & Seligman, 2004). Altruistic behaviors allow individuals to enhance their personal sense of meaning and have been tied across civilian and military populations to greater wellbeing, mental health, and longevity, as well as resilience (Isaacs et al., 2017;Post, 2005). Collectively, those who perceive themselves as able to cope in the aftermath of trauma and engage in help-giving may experience decreased suicidal ideation. ...
Article
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Veterans with combat exposure experience high rates of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and associated suicidal ideation. The current study examined whether social support (i.e., social connectedness and social engagement) and protective psychological factors (i.e., resilience and altruism) moderated the relation between PTSS and suicidal ideation severity in a sample of 149 U.S. military combat veterans who served in the Vietnam War or Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation New Dawn (OEF/OIF/OND). Consistent with expectations, initial PTSS were positively associated with concurrent and three-year follow-up severity of suicidal ideation. Moderation analyses revealed the relation between initial PTSS and concurrent suicidal ideation severity was no longer significant at above average levels of social connectedness, social engagement, and psychological resilience. Further, the relation between initial PTSS and suicidal ideation severity three years later continued to be buffered by above average levels of social engagement. Results suggest social connectedness, psychological resilience, and social engagement help moderate initial severe thoughts of suicide linked to PTSS, while social engagement might be the strongest protective factor against severe suicidal ideation over time. Empirically-supported prevention and treatment efforts enhancing social engagement may help promote resilience to severe PTSS-related suicidal ideation among veterans from Vietnam and OEF/OIF/OND combat eras.
... Another explanation for the negative relationship between SWB and CO 2 emissions is the mediating role of altruism. Altruism and happiness are strongly correlated (Post, 2005), so if lower levels of CO 2 emissions are due to selfless behaviors such as giving up a car or adopting more environmentally friendly behaviors, this could indirectly explain the negative relationship between SWB and CO 2 emissions. Indeed, previous studies have shown a positive correlation between LS and green lifestyles (e.g. ...
Article
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Individuals’ life satisfaction varies widely across countries. Differences in income explain a large part of this variation, but not all. The purpose of this study is to identify the country-level determinants, in addition to income, that best explain life satisfaction, with the objective of understanding how a country’s policies and developmental strategies may affect the well-being of its residents. To do so, we pool life satisfaction data and key economic, political, social, and environmental variables (including GDP per capita, unemployment rate, level of corruption, social capital, CO2 emissions and particulate matter (PM) concentrations) for a cross-section of countries to calculate the relative contribution of political, social, and environmental variables vis-à-vis economic factors to explain life satisfaction. Regression models indicate that religiosity, social capital, and pollution are among the strongest determinants of differences in life satisfaction. Employing a relative contribution analysis, we find that after individual characteristics, GDP is the most important predictor of life satisfaction, but that country fixed effects remain stubbornly important.
... As for altruism and its negative association with burnout, previous theories in psychology considered that altruistic behavior has dominance over negative emotions and anxiety. This will increase engagement in altruistic activities in challenging situations (58). ...
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Background Since the COVID-19 pandemic has harshly burdened the healthcare systems, health care workers (HCWs) are at high risk of infection and confronted several stressors leading them to experience burnout. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of burnout among Lebanese health HCWs and to identify its associated factors. Methods A cross-sectional online survey was conducted between the first of November and the end of December 2020 among Lebanese HCWs working in all active hospitals distributed across the country. Using a snowball sampling technique, data was collected using an Arabic, anonymous, self-reported questionnaire comprising three sections: socio-demographic characteristics, COVID-19 exposure variables, the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory (CBI), and the threat perception scale. CBI subscale cut-off score of 50 was used to assess the prevalence of burnout among HCWs. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the factors associated with the different aspects of burnout. Results Out of the 1751 respondents, personal burnout (PB) was detected in its moderate and high-level aspects among 86.3% of Lebanese HCWs. Work-related burnout (WB), and client-related burnout (CB) in their moderate and high levels hit 79.2% and 83.3% of HCWs respectively. HCWs who were females, married, physicians, those who have a poor health status, and those who had specific living conditions (dependent child, elderly at home, family member with comorbidities, and a low income) were more likely to exhibit a high level of PB compared to no/low burnout. Additionally, frontline HCWs, those infected or having a colleague infected by COVID-19, and those who had a high perception of COVID-19 threat were more prone to experience a high-level PB compared to no/low burnout as well. Working in a public hospital, extensive working hours, and insufficient sleeping hours were positively associated with high PB. However, older age and altruism were negatively associated with high PB compared to no/low PB. Similar factors were found either positively or negatively associated with a high level of WB excepting health status and living conditions factors (dependent child or family member). As for CB, older age of HCW (>30 years) and altruism were negatively associated with high CB compared to no/low burnout. However, working in the frontline, high threat perception, extensive working hours, insufficient sleeping hours, and low income were positively associated with high CB compared to no/low burnout. Conclusion The prevalence of burnout among Lebanese HCWs was high and alarming. Enacting and implementing preventive policies and effective interventions are highly required to cultivate wellness among HCWs.
... It is a kind of selfless help. It refers to an action carried for the other and the other's sake, rather than as a means to self-promotion or internal well-being (Post, 2005). The root of altruism lies in human nature itself. ...
Chapter
Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is an infectious disease brought about by a newfound coronavirus. A great many people who fall wiped out with COVID-19 will encounter gentle to direct indications and recover without exceptional treatment. As a procedure to contain possibly tainted individuals and keep the infection from spreading further, in numerous pieces of world, outskirts are shut, organizations, air terminals, lodgings are closed, schools and colleges. Whole world is being set under isolate for safety measures and individuals are in alarm as are the legislatures. The impact of COVID-19 is significantly affecting the innovation area, influencing crude materials supply, disturbing the gadgets esteem chain, and causing an inflationary hazard on items. All the more decidedly, the interruption has caused an increasing speed of remote working, and technology upgradation. Technology upgradation implies an expansion in the effectiveness of an item or procedure that outcomes in an expansion in yield, without an expansion in input. The improvement in the nature of technology that encourage effectiveness in execution. Most likely, the whole world is confronting heaps of difficulties and issues because of Corona infection malady yet yes it carries lots of opportunities to technology sector- enables economy to advance, increment in effectiveness requiring little to no effort, improves profitability, diminishes dullness, serves to helps the GDP of the Indian economy. This research paper additionally covers different variables that influences the technology upgradation-Wider acknowledgment of online services, A humongous prerequisite for internet providers for traditional businesses, Boosted availability among assorted sorts of enterprises. Keywords: Covid -19, technology upgradation, GDP
... Cuando un sujeto se siente agradecido por algo que ha hecho alguien por él (un acto prosocial), y atendiendo a la ley social de reciprocidad se sentirá con la necesidad de devolver ese acto. Post (2005) demuestra que el altruismo es un elemento "socio-protector" se trata de un elemento social que previene el deterioro de la salud física (aumentando la longevidad) y la salud mental (previniendo trastornos mentales como la ansiedad). ...
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Resumen: El objetivo principal del presente trabajo es determinar, mediante una revisión de la literatura, la forma de interactuar que se da entre la Empatía, la Conducta Prosocial y la Felicidad, siendo estas tres variables de gran relevancia dentro de la Psicología y fundamentales para el buen estado de la sociedad y las personas que la conforman. Los resultados obtenidos apuntan a que la relación entre la Empatía, la Conducta Prosocial y la Felicidad existe, siendo esta significativa, además de directa. En futuros estudios se investigará la posibilidad de que exista una relación bidireccional entre la Conducta Prosocial y la Felicidad, siendo la Empatía una variable mediadora en esta relación. Abstract: The main objective of this work is to determine, through a review of the literature, the way of interacting that occurs between Empathy, Prosocial Behavior and Happiness, being these three variables of great relevance within the Psychology and fundamental for the good state of society and the people that make it up. The results obtained suggest that the relationship between Empathy, Prosocial Conduct and Happiness exists, being this significant, as well as direct. Future studies will investigate the possibility of a bidirectional relationship between Prosocial Behavior and Happiness, with Empathy being a mediating variable in this relationship. Introducción Un diagnóstico de la actualidad muestra que nos encontramos en un contexto de cambio constante caracterizado por la presencia de la globalización, la inequidad, el individualismo, la competitividad, el interés por la innovación, la importancia de las relaciones de poder en las organizaciones y grupos, diferentes formas de mostrar las
... Sedekah bukan dilihat dari jumlah harta yang diberikan, tapi dari intensi psikologis yang terjadi. Memberi sebagai bentuk kepedulian terhadap orang lain adalah sesuatu yang berhubungan dengan kebahagiaan bahkan kesehatan (Post, 2005). Kebahagiaan dapat dicapai dengan merasa puas (contentment), bersyukur, memberi secara bijak (wisdom of giving) dan mengolah jiwa (self-cultivation) (Lu, 2001 Zuhdi. ...
... Almsgiving is another predictor of happiness when it is done in the context of religious practice [30]. Another characteristic strongly associated with helping is altruism [31], which has been shown to be associated with happiness, as well as with both psychological and physical health [32]. Several studies have found helping to be a predictor of happiness. ...
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In positive psychology, the study of happiness is more popular than that of serenity. Many studies have found connections between helping and happiness and between happiness and serenity. However, research that examines all three variables and how they relate in a model is limited. This study aims to develop models of helping, happiness, and serenity using students from Indonesia and China. A total of 103 Indonesian students and 104 Chinese students contributed to this research. The Helping Attitude Scale (HAS), Subjective Happiness Scale (SHS), Tatmainn al-Qulūb Scale (TQS), and Peace of Mind Scale (PoM) were used in this study. The results show that for Indonesian students, helping is a predictor of spiritual serenity but not of happiness. However, one aspect of helping, belief, can be a predictor of happiness. This model is confirmed using the CFI (0.97), GFI (0.97), and TLI (0.91) parameters. In contrast, for Chinese students, helping is a predictor of happiness but not of spiritual serenity. However, helping is a predictor of one component of spiritual serenity: confidence. This model is confirmed using the GFI (1) and AGFI (0.97) parameters.
... Helping Helping others, regardless of being in recovery in AA, is beneficial for physical and mental health. Helping gives people a sense of meaning, self-worth, and health enhancement; for example, when people help others, they appear to live longer and happier lives (Klein, 2017;Pagano et al., 2004Pagano et al., , 2011Post, 2005;Zemore et al., 2004). If helping others confers benefits over and above those that can be explained by sobriety alone or other relational factors, this is important for health promotion for individuals in recovery. ...
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Participation in Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) appears to have numerous benefits beyond sobriety. Previous research has highlighted the role of gratitude and helping others in the AA philosophy, as well as their importance in creating social ties. Helping others, social relationships, and gratitude may contribute not only to sobriety but also physical health and psychological well-being; however, little is known about the relationship between these variables and how they contribute to well-being for people in recovery. In this study, we examined how gratitude (state and trait level), social contact, and helping predicted self-rated physical health and psychological distress in adult AA members maintaining sobriety. Participants (N = 113) completed baseline measures (trait gratitude, physical health) as well as daily reports of their participation in AA, helping behaviors, social contact, and psychological distress for 7 days. Analyses revealed different predictors for physical health and psychological distress. The implications for theory and practice are discussed.
... Adaptive R/S also involves beliefs rooted in doctrine that may encourage engagement in healthy behaviors and refraining from unhealthy ones. For example, Muslims benefit from adhering to Islamic tenets like giving to the needy, being tolerant, and avoiding gossip (Koenig et al., 2019) altruistic behaviors well known to improve mental health (Post, 2005). Using substances (e.g., alcohol) is also forbidden in Islam, which contributes to improved physical health (Abu-Ras et a., 2010). ...
... Our experience with the tutoring program and its impact on tutors aligns with prior research showing that helping others reduces stress and enhances wellness and resiliency [8][9][10][11][12] . It also reinforces calls by national agencies like the National Institute of General Medical Sciences and Howard Hughes Medical Institute to engage PhD and undergraduate students, especially those from under-represented backgrounds, in community-based projects to enhance the retention of under-represented students in science, technology, engineering and mathematics 13 . ...
Article
Actively engaging students in community-based educational outreach activities improves their mental health and will hopefully promote their retention and success in graduate school and beyond.
... Characteristics that have been found in extant literature to contribute to flourishing include, among others, self-compassion (i.e., the tendancy to be kind and accepting toward oneself; Neff, 2003), satisfaction with life (i.e., the evaluation of one's life conditions as being satisfactory or unsatisfactory; Diener, 1984), and subjective happiness (i.e., an individual's global assessment of whether they are a generally happy or an unhappy person; Lyubomirsky et al., 2005). Positive psychological assets, such as these characteristics, have been found to be related to good current and future physical health (Post, 2005;Siahpush et al., 2008) and longevity (Danner et al., 2001;Koopmans et al., 2010), as well as increased intuition (Bolte et al., 2003), creativity (Isen et al., 1987), and the tendency to appraise potentially stressful situations as opportunities for growth (Folkman, 1997(Folkman, , 2008Folkman & Lazarus, 1985). ...
Article
Background North American Indigenous (NAI) adolescents experience disproportionate harm related to substance use compared to non-Indigenous adolescents. Strengths-based approaches to substance use prevention and treatment are consistent with Indigenous conceptualizations of health, which tend to be holistic and incorporate more spirituality and community than mainstream Western conceptualizations. Despite this, little is known about how positive psychological characteristics that might confer protection relate to substance use among NAI adolescents. Thus, the present study aims to examine the relations among life satisfaction, subjective happiness, self-compassion, and cigarette, marijuana, alcohol, and other drug use. Methods Participants were 106 reserve-dwelling First Nation adolescents located in Eastern Canada (Mage= 14.6 years, 50.0% female) who completed a paper-and-pencil survey regarding their substance use and psychological characteristics for a larger community-based participatory research project. ResultsGreater life satisfaction was significantly associated with decreased odds of lifetime (OR = 0.88, 95%CI [0.81, 0.96]) and current cigarette smoking (OR = 0.90, 95%CI [0.82, 0.99]). Greater subjective happiness was significantly associated with decreased odds of current marijuana use (OR = 0.83, 95%CI [0.71, 0.97]). Although significantly correlated with lower lifetime use of other drugs, self-compassion was not significantly associated with lifetime or current odds of substance use after controlling for age, gender, and other positive characteristics. DiscussionThis is one of the first studies to evaluate positive characteristics and substance use in NAI adolescents. Results point to positive characteristics that may be useful in substance use prevention and suggest the need for further research to further elucidate these associations.
... Also some strings in psychology link volunteering to increased level of happiness and health (Musick & Wilson, 2003). Studies found that older adults who volunteered expressed significantly higher levels of "life satisfaction and the will to live," while indicating 57 significantly lower levels of "depression, anxiety, and agitation" (Hunter, 1980: 205-213), "helping behavior" have positive effects on both mental and physical health (Post, 2005). ...
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Altruism as common sense is taken as a granted behavior, where a person acts costly behavior resulting benefit to others – regardless of self. Human altruism is also defined as an intentional and voluntary act performed to benefit another person as the primary motivation and either without a conscious expectation of reward (altruistic approach) or with the conscious or unconscious expectation of reward (pseudo-altruistic approach). Helping professionals are the people working in the field of social work, nursing and psychological services/psychosocial counseling service Mixed method was used to study the presence of real altruism among the helping professionals. 200 samples were taken 100 from general and 100 from helping professions from Kathmandu and Lalitpur of Nepal, through convenient and purposive sampling. SOLAT for brain dominance and Altruistic Personality Scale for Altruism level were used as measuring tools. Six sample from 2 each helping person were done semi-structure interview for qualitative information. Hemispheric dominance on the helping profession and general population show that general population has more right dominance than that of helping professional. Exploring the relationship between altruism and hemisphericity significant negative correlation was obtained between left hemisphere and altruism though no significant correlation with right hemisphere. The qualitative analysis gave an interpretation that altruism is not he pure tendency as defined as altruistic theories rather it’s a reciprocal behavior. Keywords: altruism, hemisphericity, helping profession, brain.
... Sedekah bukan dilihat dari jumlah harta yang diberikan, tapi dari intensi psikologis yang terjadi. Memberi sebagai bentuk kepedulian terhadap orang lain adalah sesuatu yang berhubungan dengan kebahagiaan bahkan kesehatan (Post, 2005). Kebahagiaan dapat dicapai dengan merasa puas (contentment), bersyukur, memberi secara bijak (wisdom of giving) dan mengolah jiwa (self-cultivation) (Lu, 2001 Zuhdi. ...
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Buku chapter ini merupakan edisi pertama hasil dari kumpulan pemikiran ekonom Fakultas Ekonomi dan Bisnis Islam (FEBI) – IAIN Lhokseumawe yang merupakan para akademisi. Kolaborasi ini diharapkan menjadi sebuah jalan dalam meningkatkan literasi ekonomi syariah di kalangan masyarakat Indonesia dan sebagai bentuk dukungan nyata sivitas akademika FEBI IAIN Lhokseumawe terhadap perkembangan ekonomi syariah di Tanah Air. Pemerintah sendiri saat ini tengah menggaungkan gerakan ekonomi syariah secara nasional dengan melakukan berbagai macam inovasi mulai dari launching brand ekonomi syariah, gerakan wakaf tunai secara nasional serta yang terbaru mergernya Bank BNI Syariah, BRI Syariah Tbk dan Bank Mandiri Syariah menjadi Bank Syariah Indonesia (BSI). Mengusung tema “Ramadhan di Era New Normal (Kumpulan Pemikiran Ekonom FEBI IAIN Lhokseumawe)” diharapkan nantinya buku ini membawa pengaruh positif bagi masyarakat agar lebih optimis melakukan muamalah di Ramadhan kali ini. Pandemi Covid-19 telah banyak membawa perubahan bagi berbagai aspek kehidupan masyarakat, terutama di bidang ekonomi. Untuk itu, diharapkan Ramadhan 1442 H ini menjadi momentum kebangkitan ekonomi masyarakat Indonesia.
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La sensible preocupación que ha tenido la humanidad entera luego de la pandemia de la Covid-19, ha alcanzado los aspectos más susceptibles de la convivencia de la sociedad. En este contexto, la Universidad Politécnica Salesiana, por iniciativa del Grupo de Investigación en Comunicación, Educación y Ambiente (GICEA), de la Carrera de Comunicación, se ha hecho eco de los diferentes aspectos que circundan lo que ha denominado “nueva normalidad”, abordando vivencias y referentes que tienen que ver con el acceso a la educación, la salud, al trabajo, etc. Sin embargo, los autores de esta publicación, Bienestar y buen vivir: un aporte para la felicidad del ser humano reúnen textos diversos con la intención de descubrir el bienestar en el servicio de los demás… o entender la felicidad como camino de decisión personal —íntima diría yo— y familiar, que sin duda trae grandes satisfacciones; sobre todo, cuando entregamos algo a los demás, especialmente si lo hacemos como una práctica desde el corazón. Además, esta publicación es una segunda parte del libro publicado por el mismo Grupo de Investigación en Comunicación, Educación y Ambiente (GICEA), de la Carrera de Comunicación, intitulado Pandemia desde la academia: experiencias transdisciplinarias de la universidad cuencana en tiempos de COVID-19, que salió a la luz en 2021, momento en que la pandemia arreciaba en contra de la humanidad.
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Amidst the catastrophe of COVID-19, segments of the population globally experienced changes in their perspectives on life and the desire to live a more fulfilling life. The study here examines this emergent trend with secondary data available as published survey reports and personal observations using the inductive-reflective method of understanding and theorizing. The findings support the identification of five facets of this new mindset, namely, rise in altruism, growing community-mindedness, increasing focus on health and financial security, searching for work-life balance, and increasing experiences with nature. To channel this emergent mindset, this study proposes five categories of urban innovations: (1) revival of neighborhoods; (2) expansion of parks and nature; (3) investment in urban transportation and greenspaces, (4) incentivizing entrepreneurs for ecology and local “maker economy,” and (5) staging community projects for collective good. The study describes the benefits of these innovations to general population and set an agenda for urban planners, city managers, and social agencies as citizens begin their ongoing COVID lives. The study closes by advancing ten research proposals for future social science contributions in innovation and knowledge
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Concept of "RESCUE PERSONALITY" in organizations
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Prosocial behaviours - actions that benefit others - are central to individual and societal well-being. Most prosocial acts are effortful. Yet, how the brain encodes effort costs when actions benefit others is unknown. Here, using a combination of multivariate representational similarity analysis and model-based univariate analysis during fMRI, we reveal how the costs of prosocial efforts are processed. Strikingly, we identified a unique neural signature of effort in the anterior cingulate gyrus for prosocial acts both when choosing to help others and when exerting force for their benefit. This pattern was absent for similar self-benefitting behaviour and correlated with individual levels of empathy. In contrast, the ventral tegmental area and the ventral insula signalled subjective value preferentially when choosing whether to exert effort to benefit oneself. These findings demonstrate partially distinct brain areas guide the evaluation and exertion of effort costs when acts are prosocial or self-benefitting.
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Population aging is a global phenomenon with substantial implications across society1,2. Prosocial behaviors—actions that benefit others—promote mental and physical health across the lifespan3,4 and can save lives during the COVID-19 pandemic. We examined whether age predicts prosociality in a preregistered global study (46,576 people aged 18–99 across 67 countries) using two acutely relevant measures: distancing during COVID-19 and willingness to donate to hypothetical charities. Age positively predicted prosociality on both measures, with increased distancing and donations among older adults. However, older adults were more in-group focused than younger adults in choosing who to help, making larger donations to national over international charities and reporting increased in-group preferences. In-group preferences helped explain greater national over international donations. Results were robust to several control analyses and internal replication. Our findings have vital implications for predicting the social and economic impacts of aging populations, increasing compliance with public health measures and encouraging charitable donations.
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Bu araştırmanın amacı üniversite öğrencilerinin psikolojik iyi oluşları ile ana babaya bağlanma ve duyarlı sevgi değişkenleri arasındaki ilişkileri incelemektir. Çalışmanın örneklemini İstanbul’da öğrenim gören toplam 324 üniversite öğrencisi (79’u erkek ve 245’i kadın) oluşturmaktadır. Verilerin analizinde Pearson Korelasyon Tekniği ve Hiyerarşik Regresyon Analizi teknikleri kullanılmıştır. Araştırmanın bulguları incelendiğinde üniversite öğrencilerinin psikolojik iyi oluşları ile anne babaya bağlanma ilgi-kontrol ve aşırı koruma puanları ve duyarlı sevgi değişken puanları arasında pozitif yönde anlamlı ilişkiler olduğu görülmüştür. Regresyon analizi bulgularına göre, öğrencilerin duyarlı sevgi ve ebeveyn ilgi-kontrol puanları psikolojik iyi oluşu yordarken ebeveyn aşırı koruma puanları anlamlı bir etkiye sahip değildir. Elde edilen bulgular mevcut araştırma sonuçlarına göre tartışılmış ve bazı öneriler getirilmiştir.
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Hostage and crisis negotiators are specialist police officers utilised internationally by police forces to resolve hostage and crisis incidents. Whilst the role has been heavily documented in some parts of the world (namely the United States of America), there is a lack of literature relating to the organisational and operational processes and procedures in place for police negotiators in the United Kingdom. Equally, there is limited research that has explored the experiences of negotiators who perform an essential function within a variety of life-or-death situations with a view to understanding how officers transition from trainee to qualified negotiators. This paper outlines the development of a grounded theoretical model that depicts the “hostage and crisis negotiator journey”, as represented by English negotiators. Interviews were conducted with 15 negotiators from nine police forces in England and a conceptual model was developed including five primary, 12 secondary, and 32 tertiary categories. The negotiator journey is chronologically recounted by means of the five main primary categories identified: 1) ‘Why? Reasons for entering (and remaining within) the negotiator world’; 2) ‘Who and how? The negotiator profile and selection’; 3) ‘Negotiator training’; 4) ‘Operational negotiator roles’; and 5) ‘Negotiator welfare and support’. This paper demonstrates one of the first attempts to empirically map the processes and procedures in place for negotiators in England and the findings are discussed in line with their potential implications for police policy and practice.
Purpose Drawing on self-determination theory and insights from the literature on service-dominant (S-D) logic and value co-creation, this paper aims to investigate the impacts of an S-D orientation on positive customer outcomes (i.e. customer participation behaviors, customer citizenship behaviors and quality of life) and the underlying mechanisms of these effects. Design/methodology/approach Custom travel service (CTS) was chosen as the research setting. In total, 303 valid questionnaires were gathered from tourists in China. The partial least squares structural equation modeling approach was used for model estimation. Findings Tourism firms’ S-D orientation positively influences customer participation behaviors via customer psychological need satisfaction (i.e. perceived autonomy, competence and relatedness), customer citizenship behaviors via perceived relatedness and customer quality of life via perceived autonomy and perceived competence. Research limitations/implications Although the impact of S-D orientation is studied in the CTS context, this study illustrates how firms embracing S-D logic can facilitate value co-creation and customer quality of life, presenting a more precise picture for academics and practitioners. Originality/value This paper is the first attempt to empirically examine the relationships among S-D orientation, customer value cocreation and quality of life. The relevance of customer psychological need satisfaction is acknowledged in this study.
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Ta’ awun behavior is very rarely being studied in business research especially when associated with employee performance. This study examines and analyzes the partial effect of: (1) ta’ awun behavior on employee performance, work stress, and work-life balance in Islamic perspective (WLBIP), (2) work stress and WLBIP on employee performance and (3) the mediating role of work stress and WLBIP in the relationship between ta’ awun behavior on employee performance. Data is collected through distributing questionnaires to employees of financial services companies in the Special Region of Yogyakarta with purposive manner. The statistical technique uses Partial Least Square. The results prove that ta’ awun behavior is partially able to make a positive contribution to the employees performance and WLBIP. Ta’ awun behavior also reduces work stress. Employee work stress reduces employee performance and WLBIP improves employee performance. Work stress is able to mediate ta’ awun behavior on employee performance, but WLBIP is not able to mediate it. This study implies that the research model can be applied to employees of business companies, which so far have focused on social and community institutions.
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Recently, career counselors were encouraged to help clients make career choices that are both environmentally and socially sustainable. However, to date, the career difficulties associated with such “green guidance” process have not been delineated. Based on career development obstacles identified in the scientific literature, this article proposes a non-exhaustive typology of issues specific to the consideration of ecological and human factors during career counseling. For each category of difficulty, examples are provided, and practical avenues are suggested. The contributions and limitations of this exercise are discussed, especially with regards to the clarification of the particular role of career counselors in promoting sustainability.
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The advancement of community engagement as an interrelated aspect of teaching and research compels social work education to consider how it may create opportunities to strengthen notions of social responsibility amongst its students. Volunteerism offers one promising pathway whereby students can appreciate societal problems and learn a diverse range of skills in community organizations or spaces that are relevant to the profession. This paper presents data from a qualitative inquiry with child and youth care students (N = 14), who spent time doing voluntary work in vulnerable communities, organizations and in vulnerable community areas, in South Africa. Semi structured in depth interviews and a reflective group discussion was used to understand the student volunteer experience more closely and the opportunities it brings to advance learning in a social work context. The study found through these objectives, enhanced opportunities for acquiring discipline specific knowledge and the acquisition of important values and principles to support their professional journey. Most importantly it exemplified the need for partnerships between disciplinary departments in universities and communities to be strengthened as part of social responsiveness.
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In this techniques paper we explain how using random acts of kindness can be built into consistent acts of kindness and empathy, helping clients build, hope, self‐regard as well as long‐term physical health.
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Background: Maternity care organisations have a responsibility to ensure the health and welfare of their staff. Rates of burnout are high in midwifery compared to other professionals. Therefore, exploring how it can be reduced is imperative. Aim: To explore with midwives the contributors to burnout and how best to reduce burnout in a maternity hospital in Ireland. Methods: A Participatory Action Research study involving Co-operative Inquiry meetings (n = 5) with practising midwives (n = 21) between October 2018 and March 2019, in a large, urban teaching maternity hospital in Ireland. The transcribed data were analysed using Thematic Network Analysis. Findings: Several recommendations were made for maternity organisations, to reduce or prevent burnout. These include improving workplace culture, increasing support and acknowledgement, offering time and space for debriefing and reflection and regular rotation of staff. Consistent staff shortages are, however, a barrier to adhering to these recommendations. Conclusion: This study is the first of its kind to offer an in-depth exploration with midwives into the main contributors of burnout and what can be done at an organisational level to reduce burnout among midwives. The findings of this study highlighted the importance of working relationships. Additionally, owing to the nature of midwifery practice, time and space need to be created for midwives to debrief and reflect. However, there is an urgent need for healthcare systems to combat staffing shortages in order for these strategies to be successful.
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Since the 1990s, research studies and theoretical work have made the case for altruistic and compassionate love as a psychosocial determinant of physical and mental health and well-being. Empirical findings and the deliberations of various conferences, working groups, and think-tank initiatives have laid the groundwork for a field that has been referred to as the epidemiology of love. This article provides a narrative history of this field, beginning with early work in psychology and in sociology. These precursors include decades of psychological studies of romantic, sexual, affectional, and interpersonal bonds, preceded by the work of sociologist Pitirim Sorokin in the 1950s detailing his taxonomy of the multiple aspects and dimensions of altruism and love. More recently, research at the intersection of altruism, love, spirituality, and human flourishing has emerged, including studies of physical and mental health. Currently, funded initiatives are developing applications of this research to global population health.
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La importancia de vivir las virtudes de bondad, solidaridad, amabilidad y familiaridad para crecer en valores que generan emociones de satisfacción y de encuentro fraterno con el otro, que conducen al buen vivir y la felicidad.
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The hypothesis of group selection fell victim to a seemingly devastating critique in 1960s evolutionary biology. In Unto Others (1998), we argue to the contrary, that group selection is a conceptually coherent and empirically well documented cause of evolution. We suggest, in addition, that it has been especially important in human evolution. In the second part of Unto Others, we consider the issue of psychological egoism and altruism - do human beings have ultimate motives concerning the well-being of others? We argue that previous psychological and philosophical work on this question has been inconclusive. We propose an evolutionary argument for the claim that human beings have altruistic ultimate motives.
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Emphasizes the subjective experience of the person attempting to express compassionate love through a discussion of empirical research. It is concluded that one goal of research on compassionate love is ultimately to give additional insight into how compassionate love might be fostered in individuals and societies. It is argued that in order to do this well, it is important to understand the key features of compassionate love, the substrate of conditions that influence the expression, and the motives that detract from the quality of loving compassion. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)(chapter)
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Older residents (N 5 1972) in California were investigated prospectively for association of volunteering service to others and all-cause mortality. Potential confounding factors were studied: demographics, health status, physical functioning, health habits, social support, religious involvement, and emotional states. Possible interaction effects of volunteering with religious involvement and social support were also explored. Results showed that 31 percent (n 5 630) of respondents volunteered, about half (n5289) for more than one organization. High volunteers ([.greaterequal]2 organizations) had 63 percent lower mortality than nonvolunteers (age and sex-adjusted) with relative hazard (RH) 5 0.37, confidence interval (CI) 5 0.24, 0.58. Multivariate adjustment moderately reduced difference to 44 percent (RH 5 0.56, CI 5 0.35, 0.89), mostly due to physical functioning, health habits, and social support. Unexpectedly, volunteering was slightly more protective for those with high religious involvement and perceived social support. After multivariate adjustment, any level of volunteering reduced mortality by 60 percent among weekly attenders at religious services (RH 5 0.40; CI 5 0.21,0.74). Lower mortality rates for community service volunteers were only partly explained by health habits, physical functioning, religious attendance, and social support.
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Many advances in medical technology have brought with them ethical dilemmas for which our society and philosophy provide no satisfactory answers. However, these dilemmas ought not to completely obscure the positive social impacts of technical advances. Since the development of safe blood transfusions, medical treatments have come into common use that require products only obtainable from human bodies. Writing about the donation of blood, Richard Titmuss and others have examined why people give this lifesaving gift to strangers and what are the circumstances contributing to or impeding such gift giving. Today, scholars are examining how the donation of human organs also may establish the Titmuss called 'the gift relationship' in contemporary society. However, no large-scale systematic research into the characteristics and motivations of families of organ donors has yet been done. This article begins to address these issues.
Article
Handwritten autobiographies from 180 Catholic nuns, composed when participants were a mean age of 22 years, were scored for emotional content and related to survival during ages 75 to 95. A strong inverse association was found between positive emotional content in these writings and risk of mortality in late life (p < .001). As the quartile ranking of positive emotion in early life increased, there was a stepwise decrease in risk of mortality resulting in a 2.5-fold difference between the lowest and highest quartiles. Positive emotional content in early-life autobiographies was strongly associated with longevity 6 decades later. Underlying mechanisms of balanced emotional states are discussed.
Chapter
This chapter examines some of the literature demonstrating an impact of affect on social behavior. It will consider the influence of affect on cognition in an attempt to further understand on the way cognitive processes may mediate the effect of feelings on social behavior. The chapter describes the recent works suggesting an influence of positive affect on flexibility in cognitive organization (that is, in the perceived relatedness of ideas) and the implications of this effect for social interaction. The goal of this research is to expand the understanding of social behavior and the factors, such as affect, that influence interaction among people. Another has been to extend the knowledge of affect, both as one of these determinants of social behavior and in its own right. And a third has been to increase the understanding of cognitive processes, especially as they play a role in social interaction. Most recently, cognitive and social psychologists have investigated ways in which affective factors may participate in cognitive processes (not just interrupt them) and have begun to include affect as a factor in more comprehensive models of cognition. The research described in the chapter has focused primarily on feelings rather than intense emotion, because feelings are probably the most frequent affective experiences. The chapter focuses primarily on positive affect.
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The major independent role played by anxiety and severe psychosocial problems (especially family ones) is demonstrated by this multivariate analysis of a five year prospective study of the development of new angina pectoris among almost 10,000 adult men (average annual incidence = ).
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Love is analyzed as an element of social action and therefore of social structure. Although the romantic complex is rare, a "love pattern" is found in a wide range of societies. Since love is potentially disruptive of lineages and class strata, it must be controlled. Since its meaning is different within different social structures, it is controlled by various measures. The five principal types of "love control" are described. Disruptions are more important to the upper social strata who possess the means for control. Therefore these strata achieve a higher degree of control over both the occurrence of love relationships and the influence of love upon action.
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A virtue is defined as any psychological process that enables a person to think and act so as to benefit both him- or herself and society. Character is a higher-order construct reflecting the possession of several of the component virtues. The process by which the topics of virtue and character fell out of favor in psychology is reviewed, with a call for a rebirth of interest in these concepts in the interface of clinical, counseling, social, and personality psychology.
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Existing research and writing on the topic of love is explored in order to encourage study of the epidemiology of love. Theoretical work in the psychology of love is reviewed, followed by a profile of measurement instruments developed to assess love. Next, existing empirical findings linking love-related constructs to health and healing are summarized. Finally, an outline is provided of pertinent questions in the epidemiology of love. The possibility is raised that love may not be just a host factor, similar to other psychosocial constructs, but also an agent of salutogenesis.
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Panel data from a sample of 313 women who were wives and mothers in 1956 and were interviewed both in 1956 and in 1986 are used to consider the pathways that lead to health and social integration. Possible relationships were explored between the number, duration, timing, and episodes of various nonfamily roles throughout adulthood and subsequent health and multiple-role occupancy. It was found that occupying multiple roles in 1956, participating in volunteer work on an intermittent basis, and belonging to a club or organization were positively related to various measures of health and that occupying multiple roles in 1956, as well as doing volunteer work, was positively related to occupying multiple roles in 1986.
Article
One-hundred and thirty-two college students were exposed in small groups to two films which contrasted in the extent to which they aroused either power or affiliation motivation. In previous studies high power motivation, if it is inhibited, has been associated with lower levels of salivary immunoglobulin A (S-Ig A), and high affiliation motivation, if it is not inhibited, is associated with higher concentrations of S-Ig A. The film which aroused power motivation more was not followed by a decrease in S-Ig A concentrations as predicted, but the film was followed by a significant reduction in S-Ig A concentrations for those individuals with the inhibited power motive syndrome at baseline as compared to individuals characterized by other motive syndromes. The film which aroused affiliation motivation more was followed by an increase in S-Ig A concentrations immediately afterwards, and this increase was sustained an hour later when subjects continued to dwell on the loving relationships that characterized the film. Subjects characterized by the relaxed affiliative syndrome at baseline showed greater gains in S-Ig A in response to the film which aroused affiliative concerns. Although higher S-Ig A levels at baseline are associated with reports of less severe illness in the past among males, neither males nor females who showed consistent gains in S-Ig A after the affiliative film reported less severe illness in the past.
Article
This exploratory within-subjects study compared the effects of elder retired volunteers giving massage to infants with receiving massage themselves. Three times a week for 3 weeks, 10 elder volunteers (8 females, mean age = 70 years) received Swedish massage sessions. For another 3 weeks, three times per week, the same elderly volunteers massaged infants at a nursery school. Receiving massage first versus giving massage first was counterbalanced across subjects. Immediately after the first- and last-day sessions of giving massages, the elder retired volunteers had less anxiety and depression and lower stress hormones (salivary cortisol) levels. Over the 3-week period, depression and catecholamines (norepinephrine and epinephrine) decreased and lifestyle and health improved. These effects were not as strong for the 3-week period when they received massage, possibly because the elder retired volunteers initially felt awkward about being massaged and because they derived more satisfaction massaging the infants.
Article
Ethological attachment theory is a landmark of 20th century social and behavioral sciences theory and research. This new paradigm for understanding primary relationships across the lifespan evolved from John Bowlby's critique of psychoanalytic drive theory and his own clinical observations, supplemented by his knowledge of fields as diverse as primate ethology, control systems theory, and cognitive psychology. By the time he had written the first volume of his classic Attachment and Loss trilogy, Mary D. Salter Ainsworth's naturalistic observations in Uganda and Baltimore, and her theoretical and descriptive insights about maternal care and the secure base phenomenon had become integral to attachment theory. Patterns of Attachment reports the methods and key results of Ainsworth's landmark Baltimore Longitudinal Study. Following upon her naturalistic home observations in Uganda, the Baltimore project yielded a wealth of enduring, benchmark results on the nature of the child's tie to its primary caregiver and the importance of early experience. It also addressed a wide range of conceptual and methodological issues common to many developmental and longitudinal projects, especially issues of age appropriate assessment, quantifying behavior, and comprehending individual differences. In addition, Ainsworth and her students broke new ground, clarifying and defining new concepts, demonstrating the value of the ethological methods and insights about behavior. Today, as we enter the fourth generation of attachment study, we have a rich and growing catalogue of behavioral and narrative approaches to measuring attachment from infancy to adulthood. Each of them has roots in the Strange Situation and the secure base concept presented in Patterns of Attachment. It inclusion in the Psychology Press Classic Editions series reflects Patterns of Attachment's continuing significance and insures its availability to new generations of students, researchers, and clinicians.
Article
The importance of participation in voluntary formal associations for enhancing health is supported by four kinds of evidence. (1) Seven prospective studies of social relations and mortality show the independent effect of formal social participation, net of informal ties. (2) Conceptual analysis demonstrates that voluntary formal associations constitute a separate class of social causation. (3) Our factor analysis of data from a sample of 629 nonmetropolitan elderly identified two types of formal social participation: 'instrumental,' as in associations that are community oriented, and 'expressive,' as in those that exist for the benefit of the members. (4) Regression analysis showed that the instrumental participation factor is linked, net of controls, to the perceived health of both men and women, whereas the expressive factor predicts for women only.
Article
ack in the 1930s some young Catholic nuns were asked to write short, personal essays about their lives. They described edifying events in their childhood, the schools they attended, their religious experiences and the in- fluences that led them to the convent. Although the essays may have been initially used to assess each nun's ca- reer path, the documents were eventu- ally archived and largely forgotten. More than 60 years later the nuns' writ- ings surfaced again when three psy- chologists at the University of Ken- tucky reviewed the essays as part of a larger study on aging and Alzheimer's disease. Deborah Danner, David Snow- don and Wallace Friesen read the nun's biographical sketches and scored them for positive emotional content, record- ing instances of happiness, interest, love and hope. What they found was remarkable: The nuns who expressed the most positive emotions lived up to 10 years longer than those who ex- pressed the fewest. This gain in life ex- pectancy is considerably larger than the gain achieved by those who quit smoking.
Article
Infant monkeys were reared with the aid of a laboratory constructed mother-substitute. "We produced a perfectly proportioned streamlined body stripped of unnecessary bulges and appendices. Redundancy in the surrogate mother's system was avoided by reducing the number of breasts from two to one and placing this unibreast in an upper-thoracic, sagittal position, thus maximizing the natural and known perceptual-motor capabilities of the infant operator. The surrogate was made from a block of wood, covered with sponge rubber, and sheathed in tan cotton terry cloth. A light bulb behind her radiated heat. The result was a mother, soft, warm, and tender, a mother with infinite patience, a mother available twenty-four hours a day, a mother that never scolded her infant and never struck or bit her baby in anger." The data obtained "make it obvious that contact comfort is a variable of overwhelming importance in the development of affectional responses, whereas lactation is a variable of negligible importance." It is suggested that the primary function of nursing "is that of insuring frequent and intimate body contact of infant with mother." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Loving is a fundamental aspect of being human. Freud himself argued that the inability to love leads to illness, and some empirical research appears to support his view. Yet our knowledge of the nature of love remains primitive, because until recently it was not considered scientifically respectable to investigate love phenomena. This study used confirmatory factor analytic methods to test the fit of various models to data provided by 499 subjects on the 1990 version of the Hendrick and Hendrick Love Attitudes Scale. The results suggest that counselors and researchers should not treat the love styles delineated by Lee as discrete or uncorrelated entities. The results also suggest that the traditional model regarding this measure, positing (a) six factors (b) that are uncorrelated, may not provide a very good fit to data from the Love Attitudes Scale.
Article
Longevity and health are determined by a diverse--and surprising--set of factors. Emotional Longevity explores them all, providing nothing less than a new definition of what it means to be healthy. Drawing on the findings of the most important scientific studies, leading behavioral scientist Dr. Norman Anderson, along with his coauthor and spouse, health journalist P. Elizabeth Anderson, identifies the combination of links between biology and social environment, beliefs, and emotions that influence our vulnerability to everything from the common cold to heart disease, high blood pressure, and the speed of recovery from illness. These include: your expectations about the future, how you explain events that happened in your past, your friendships and social ties, your education and income, traumatic experiences that you never disclosed to anyone, and your ability to find meaning following adversity. Through the stories of many prominent figures, including Maya Angelou, Reynolds Price, and Linda Ellerbee, the authors underscore the reality of these scientific findings, and Dr. Anderson's conclusions show us how to enhance the quality of our lives. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Previous work by the authors and colleagues (1984) extended J. A. Lee's (1973/1976) theory of 6 basic love styles: eros (passionate love); ludus (game-playing love); storge (friendship love); pragma (logical, "shopping list" love); mania (possessive, dependent love); and agape (all-giving, selfless love). In Study 1, 807 undergraduates completed a 42-item rating questionnaire, with 7 items measuring each of the love styles. Six love style scales emerged clearly from factor analysis. Internal reliability was shown for each scale, and the scales had low intercorrelations with each other. Significant relationships were found between love attitudes and several background variables, including gender, ethnicity, previous love experiences, current love status, and self-esteem. Study 2, with 567 Ss, replicated the factor structure, factor loadings, and reliability analyses of the 1st study. The significant relationships between love attitudes and gender, previous love experiences, current love status, and self-esteem were also consistent with the results of Study 1. (30 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Objectives. To assess health habits, and their relationship with psychological wellbeing, among Australian women; in particular to examine the relationship between health habits and the Women's Health Questionnaire (WHQ; Hunter, 1992). Design. A cross-sectional postal survey of women in three age groups was carried out. Methods. Questionnaire responses from a representative sample of 612 women from three age groups (18-23, 45-50 and 70-75) were analysed. Data included the WHQ, 12-item General Health Questionnaire, Medical Outcomes Study SF-12 and self-reports of smoking, height and weight, alcohol use and exercise status. Results. Young women had the highest rates of smoking and drinking and were most likely to be underweight, while middle-aged and older women were most likely to be overweight or obese. Psychological distress was highest in the youngest group; the middle-aged group were most likely to report vasomotor symptoms and difficulties with memory and concentration; and the older women difficulty in sleeping. Health habits were related to psychological well-being; smoking, unhealthy body weight and lack of exercise were most closely related to the depression subscale of the WHQ. Conclusions. Young adulthood appears the time of greatest distress for women. Distress, particularly depression, is associated with behaviours which predispose to later disease, suggesting that psychological interventions with young women may be particularly important for long-term physical health. The WHQ appears a useful measure of well-being and a good predictor of health-related behaviour across a range of ages.
Conference Paper
Video-based media spaces are designed to support casual interaction between intimate collaborators. Yet transmitting video is fraught with privacy concerns. Some researchers suggest that the video stream be filtered to mask out potentially sensitive ...
Article
The interpretation of religion in DSM-III-R contains considerable negative bias and contributes to unfair stereotypes of religious persons. Particularly new religious movements and religious conversion are unfairly interpreted under the DSM-III-R heading, 'Dissociative Disorder Not Otherwise Specified'. It is suggested that a more balanced and respectful interpretation of religion is needed in DSM-III-R, since psychiatry through its official nomenclature should not contribute to social intolerance of religious nonconformity.
Article
During 1975 twenty-six bereaved spouses took part in a detailed prospective investigation of the effects of severe stress on the immune system. T and B cell numbers and function, and hormone concentrations were studied approximately 2 weeks after bereavement and 6 weeks thereafter. The response to phytohaemagglutinin was significantly depressed in the bereaved group on the second occasion, as was the response to concanavalin A at 6 weeks. There was no difference in T and B cell numbers, protein concentrations, the presence of autoantibodies and delayed hypersensitivity, and in cortisol, prolactin, growth hormone, and thyroid hormone assays between the bereaved group and the controls. This is the first time severe psychological stress has been shown to produce a measurable abnormality in immune function which is not obviously caused by hormonal changes.
Article
The major independent role played by anxiety and severe psychosocial problems (especially family ones) is demonstrated by this multivariate analysis of a five year prospective study of the development of new angina pectoris among almost 10,000 adult men (average annual incidence = 5.7/1,000). The independent effect of these two variables is considerably augmented by the other significant risk factors of age, total serum cholesterol, systolic or diastolic blood pressure, certain electrocardiographic abnormalities and diabetes mellitus. The presence of all seven risk factors (at a high level) increases the probability of angina pectoris developing within five years to 289/1,000 from 14/1,000, when these factors are low or absent. The wife's love and support is an important balancing factor, which apparently reduces the risk of angina pectoris even in the presence of high risk factors. The implications of these findings to the pathophysiology and prevention of angina are stressed.
Article
This study prospectively evaluated psychosocial as well as biologic, behavioral, and demographic factors in the development of duodenal ulcer. Baseline data were collected in 1963 on 8,458 Israeli men over age 40 years who had no history of duodenal ulcer. The subjects were followed for 5 years, and 254 reported the development of radiographically proven duodenal ulcer. The average annual incidence was six per 1,000 subjects. Multivariable logistic regression analysis confirmed several previously reported risk factors: smoking (odds ratio (OR) = 1.64, 95% confidence interval (Cl) 1.25-2.16), greater age (60 years and over) (OR = 1.85, 95% Cl 1.25-2.74), lower salary (OR = 1.50, 95% Cl 1.14-1.96), and lower systolic blood pressure (less than 140 mmHg) (OR = 1.58, 95% Cl 1.16-2.15). In addition, logistic regression analysis revealed a significant association of duodenal ulcer incidence with preceding measures of family stress, emotional support, and coping style. These were: increased family problems (OR = 1.60, 95% Cl 1.19-2.16), low level of perceived love and support from subject's wife (OR = 2.06, 95% Cl 1.05-4.05), and restraining retaliation when hurt by coworkers (OR = 1.89, 95% Cl 1.19-3.00). This study confirms several previously reported risk factors and underlines the importance of stress, lack of social support, and coping style in the development of duodenal ulcer.
Article
While much research has focused on the impacts of negative psychological states, such as stress, on physical health, relatively little research has examined the effects of positive psychological states. We suggest this imbalance is attributable to inadequate theoretical and methodological development regarding the impacts of positive psychological states on health. This paper presents a framework by which positive psychological states may influence physical health. Following this, we review evidence pertaining to this framework. We conclude by discussing methodological issues associated with this relatively new area of inquiry.
Article
The prospective association of social relationships and activities reported during a round of interviews and medical examinations in 1967-1969 with mortality over the succeeding nine to 12 years was examined for a cohort of 2754 adult (aged 35-69 years as of 1967-1969) men and women in the Tecumseh Community Health Study. After adjustments for age and a variety of risk factors for mortality, men reporting a higher levels of social relationships and activities in 1967-1969 were significantly less likely to die during the follow-up period. Trends for women were similar, but generally nonsignificant once age and other risk factors were controlled. These results were invariant across age, occupational, and health status groups. No association was observed between mortality and satisfaction with social relationships or activities. How and why social relationships and activities predict mortality are discussed and identified as important foci for future research.
Article
Volunteer workers over age sixty-five were compared to retired elderly who did not engage in any type of work activity. Volunteers were found to have significantly higher degree of life satisfaction, stronger will to live, and fewer symptoms of depression, anxiety, and somatization. Since no differences were found on most demographic or background variables, participation in volunteer work appears to be the salient factor in explaining psychosocial differences between volunteers and non-volunteers.
Article
Rabbits on a 2 percent cholesterol diet were individually petted, held, talked to, and played with on a regular basis. Measurements of aortic affinity for a Sudan stain, serum cholesterol levels, heart rate, and blood pressure were made at the end of the experimental period. Compared to control groups, which were given the same diet and normal laboratory animal care, the experimental groups showed more than a 60 percent reduction in the percentage of aortic surface area exhibiting sudanophilic lesions, even though serum cholesterol levels, heart rate, and blood pressure were comparable.
Article
A conceptual framework that identifies psychological and behavioral features associated with antecedents, experiences, and consequences of volunteerism is presented, and an inventory that measures 5 specific motivations for AIDS volunteerism is developed and cross-validated. Then a field study of 116 AIDS volunteers is presented in which a helping disposition, volunteer motivations, and social support (as antecedents), and personal satisfaction and organizational integration (as experiences) are used to predict duration of service over 2 1/2 years. Structural equation analyses indicate that dispositional helping influences satisfaction and integration but not duration of service, whereas greater motivation and less social support predict longer active volunteer service. The model is generalized to the prediction of perceived attitude change. Implications for conceptualizations of motivation, theoretical issues in helping, and practical concerns of volunteer organizations are discussed.
Article
In the early 1950s, multiple-choice scores reflecting feelings of warmth and closeness with parents were obtained from a sample of healthy, undergraduate Harvard men who participated in the Harvard Mastery of Stress Study. Thirty-five years later, detailed medical and psychological histories and medical records were obtained. Ninety-one percent of participants who did not perceive themselves to have had a warm relationship with their mothers (assessed during college) had diagnosed diseases in midlife (including coronary artery disease, hypertension, duodenal ulcer, and alcoholism), as compared to 45% of participants who perceived themselves to have had a warm relationship with their mothers. A similar association between perceived warmth and closeness and future illness was obtained for fathers. Since parents are usually the most meaningful source of social support in early life, the perception of parental love and caring may have important effects on biological and psychological health and illness throughout life.
Article
This study examined how the perception of parental caring, obtained from undergraduates, relates to subsequent health over the ensuing 35 years. In the early 1950s, initial ratings of parental caring were obtained from a sample of healthy, Harvard undergraduate men who participated in the Harvard Mastery of Stress Study. In a 35 year prospective, follow-up investigation, detailed medical and psychological histories and medical records were obtained. Subjects identified in midlife as suffering from illnesses such as coronary artery disease, hypertension, duodenal ulcer, and alcoholism, gave their parents significantly lower ratings (p < .00003) on perceived parental caring items (loving, just, fair, hardworking, clever, strong) while in college. This effect was independent of subject's age, family history of illness, smoking behavior, the death and/or divorce of parents, and marital history of subjects. Furthermore, 87% of subjects who rated both their mothers and fathers low in parental caring had diagnosed diseases in midlife, whereas only 25% of subjects who rated both their mothers and fathers high in parental caring had diagnosed diseases in midlife. Since parents are usually the most meaningful source of social support for much of early life, the perception of parental caring, and parental loving itself, may have important regulatory and predictive effects on biological and psychological health and illness.
Article
Coronary artery disease continues to be the primary cause of mortality in the United States. Recent studies have significantly advanced the ability to improve outcomes in this disorder by demonstrating that intensive risk factor modification programs with diet, lipid-lowering drugs, exercise, and psychosocial interventions can reverse atherosclerosis and reduce events by 40% to 60%. Of all the interventional arms, psychosocial interventions have been the least studied despite research demonstrating that depression and social isolation are potent risk factors for events in patients with coronary artery disease. The few studies that have examined psychosocial interventions in patients with coronary artery disease have demonstrated a reduction in mortality and recurrent events, suggesting that this treatment strategy may be beneficial. Use of volunteer, patient-driven support groups may provide a cost-effective way to improve social support and enhance altruism in patients with coronary artery disease. Although the psychophysiology of altruism is not well defined, it is possible that altruistic activities might have positive health benefits in patients with coronary artery disease. Studies are needed to explore the roles of low-cost, patient-driven support programs in improving psychosocial functioning and outcomes in patients with coronary artery disease.