Article

Lymph Node Occupancy Is Required for the Peripheral Development of Alloantigen-Specific Foxp3+ Regulatory T Cells

Department of Gene and Cell Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029, USA.
The Journal of Immunology (Impact Factor: 4.92). 07/2005; 174(11):6993-7005. DOI: 10.4049/jimmunol.174.11.6993
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

We previously demonstrated that L-selectin (CD62L)-dependent T cell homing to lymph nodes (LN) is required for tolerance induction to alloantigen. To explore the mechanisms of this observation, we analyzed the development and distribution of regulatory T cells (Treg), which play an important protective role against allograft rejection in transplantation tolerance. Alloantigen-specific tolerance was induced using either anti-CD2 plus anti-CD3 mAbs, or anti-CD40L mAbs plus donor-specific transfusion, in fully mismatched (BALB/c donor, C57BL/6 recipient) vascularized cardiac allografts. An expansion of CD4(+)CD25(+)CD62L(high) T cells was observed specifically within the LN of tolerant animals, but not in other anatomic sites or under nontolerizing conditions. These cells exhibited a substantial up-regulation of Foxp3 expression as measured by real-time PCR and by fluorescent immunohistochemistry, and possessed alloantigen-specific suppressor activity. Neither LN nor other lymphoid cells expressed the regulatory phenotype if recipients were treated with anti-CD62L mAbs, which both prevented LN homing and caused early allograft rejection. However, administration of FTY720, a sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor modulator that induces CD62L-independent T cell accumulation in the LNs, restored CD4(+)CD25(+) Treg in the LNs along with graft survival. These data suggest that alloantigen-specific Foxp3(+)CD4(+)CD25(+) Treg develop and are required within the LNs during tolerization, and provide compelling evidence that distinct lymphoid compartments play critical roles in transplantation tolerance.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Sergio Lira, Aug 13, 2014
  • Source
    • "of the injected cells. In the transplant setting, Treg lymph node homing and their ability to traffic to the graft are both required for their protection against graft rejection[26]. In this regard, it was shown that culture of Tregs in the presence of rapamycin maintained their expression of the lymphoid homing receptor, CD62L (S1: 68.1% ± 3.00 vs. Final harvest: 72.0% ± 3.51; P = 0.412), which was not preserved when cells were cultured in the absence of rapamycin; P < 0.0001 (Figure 3H). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Strategies to prevent organ transplant rejection whilst minimizing long-term immunosuppression are currently under intense investigation with regulatory T cells (Tregs) nearing clinical application. The clinical trial, ThRIL, recently commenced at King's College London, proposes to use Treg cell therapy to induce tolerance in liver transplant recipients, the success of which has the potential to revolutionize the management of these patients and enable a future of drug-free transplants. This is the first report of the manufacture of clinical grade Tregs from prospective liver transplant recipients via a CliniMACS-based GMP isolation technique and expanded using anti-CD3/CD28 beads, IL-2 and rapamycin. We report the enrichment of a pure, stable population of Tregs (>95% CD4+CD25+FOXP3+), reaching adequate numbers for their clinical application. Our protocol proved successful in, influencing the expansion of superior functional Tregs, as compared to freshly isolated cells, whilst also preventing their conversion to Th17 cells under pro-inflammatory conditions. We conclude with the manufacture of the final Treg product in the clinical research facility (CRF), a prerequisite for the clinical application of these cells. The data presented in this manuscript together with the much-anticipated clinical results from ThRIL, will undoubtedly inform the improved management of the liver transplant recipient.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Oncotarget
  • Source
    • "Matsuoka et al. [37] found that CD4+ lymphopenia was a critical factor in Treg cell homeostasis, and that prolonged imbalance of Treg cell homeostasis resulted in a loss of tolerance and significant clinical disease manifestations. Moreover, some studies had shown that homing of Treg cells into the draining lymph nodes was required for the suppressive function of these cells [38,39]. Therefore, the specific suppressive function of topical 0.5% FTY720 on corneal transplantation can be explained by significantly increasing the percentage of Treg cells in the cervical lymph nodes. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To investigate the effects of topical FTY720 and cyclosporin A (CsA) on allogeneic corneal transplantation in mice. A total of 75 BALB/c mice received corneal grafts from C57BL/6 donors. Recipients were treated with 0.1%, 0.3%, or 0.5% FTY720 ophthalmic gel or 1% CsA eye-drops after the graft (controls received no treatment). The number of cluster of differentiation (CD)4+ T cells and CD4+CD25+forkhead box P3 (Foxp3)+ regulatory (Treg) cell phenotypes were measured by flow cytometry. Cytokine mRNA expression in corneal grafts was analyzed by real-time quantitative PCR. CD4 + T cells and cytokines in corneal samples were identified by immunohistochemical staining. Corneal graft survival was prolonged by treatment with topical 0.5% FTY720 (mean survival time [MST], 24.1±1.6 days) or 1% CsA eye-drops (MST 25.0±1.9 days) compared with controls (MST, 13.4±0.5 days; n=9, both p<0.01). Topical 0.5% FTY720 treatment significantly increased the percentages of CD4 + T (p<0.05) and Treg cells (p<0.01; n=5) in the cervical lymph nodes compared with controls. Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) mRNA transcription in corneal grafts after topical 0.5% FTY720 increased (p<0.05, n=3), while interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) mRNA expression in corneal grafts treated with 1% CsA decreased (p<0.01, p<0.05, respectively). These cytokine results were paralleled by similar immunohistochemical staining. Topical 0.5% FTY720 and 1% CsA treatment reduced the infiltration of CD4+ Tcells in the grafts. Topical 0.5% FTY720 and 1% CsA can effectively prolong allogeneic corneal graft survival in mice. Treatment with topical 0.5% FTY720 increases the percentage of CD4+ T cells and the percentage of Treg cells in cervical lymph nodes. The 0.5% FTY720 increased TGF-β1 mRNA expression and decreases infiltration of CD4+ T cells in corneal grafts, while topical 1% CsA down-regulated the expression of IL-2 and IFN-γ.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2012 · Molecular vision
  • Source
    • "Furthermore, the presence of MBP-specific [69] or PLP-specific [75] Treg cells was associated with prevention of EAE. However, the self-reactivity of the Treg repertoire has been challenged by reports of Treg cells recognizing foreign antigens from bacteria [38, 80], fungi [81], the protozoan parasite Leishmania major [82, 83], allergens [30] and alloantigens [84, 85]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: CD4(+) T cells are commonly divided into regulatory T (Treg) cells and conventional T helper (Th) cells. Th cells control adaptive immunity against pathogens and cancer by activating other effector immune cells. Treg cells are defined as CD4(+) T cells in charge of suppressing potentially deleterious activities of Th cells. This review briefly summarizes the current knowledge in the Treg field and defines some key questions that remain to be answered. Suggested functions for Treg cells include: prevention of autoimmune diseases by maintaining self-tolerance; suppression of allergy, asthma and pathogen-induced immunopathology; feto-maternal tolerance; and oral tolerance. Identification of Treg cells remains problematic, because accumulating evidence suggests that all the presently-used Treg markers (CD25, CTLA-4, GITR, LAG-3, CD127 and Foxp3) represent general T-cell activation markers, rather than being truly Treg-specific. Treg-cell activation is antigen-specific, which implies that suppressive activities of Treg cells are antigen-dependent. It has been proposed that Treg cells would be self-reactive, but extensive TCR repertoire analysis suggests that self-reactivity may be the exception rather than the rule. The classification of Treg cells as a separate lineage remains controversial because the ability to suppress is not an exclusive Treg property. Suppressive activities attributed to Treg cells may in reality, at least in some experimental settings, be exerted by conventional Th cell subsets, such as Th1, Th2, Th17 and T follicular (Tfh) cells. Recent reports have also demonstrated that Foxp3(+) Treg cells may differentiate in vivo into conventional effector Th cells, with or without concomitant downregulation of Foxp3.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2009 · Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
Show more