Mechanism of Oxidation of Benzaldehyde by Polypyridyl Oxo Complexes of Ru(IV)
Department of Chemistry, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United StatesInorganic Chemistry (Impact Factor: 4.76). 06/2005; 44(11):3931-41. DOI: 10.1021/ic040119z
The oxidation of benzaldehyde and several of its derivatives to their carboxylic acids by cis-[Ru(IV)(bpy)2(py)(O)]2+ (Ru(IV)=O2+; bpy is 2,2'-bipyridine, py is pyridine), cis-[Ru(III)(bpy)2(py)(OH)]2+ (Ru(III)-OH2+), and [Ru(IV)(tpy)(bpy)(O)]2+ (tpy is 2,2':6',2''-terpyridine) in acetonitrile and water has been investigated using a variety of techniques. Several lines of evidence support a one-electron hydrogen-atom transfer (HAT) mechanism for the redox step in the oxidation of benzaldehyde. They include (i) moderate k(C-H)/k(C-D) kinetic isotope effects of 8.1 +/- 0.3 in CH3CN, 9.4 +/- 0.4 in H2O, and 7.2 +/- 0.8 in D2O; (ii) a low k(H2O/D2O) kinetic isotope effect of 1.2 +/- 0.1; (iii) a decrease in rate constant by a factor of only approximately 5 in CH3CN and approximately 8 in H2O for the oxidation of benzaldehyde by cis-[Ru(III)(bpy)2(py)(OH)]2+ compared to cis-[Ru(IV)(bpy)2(py)(O)]2+; (iv) the appearance of cis-[Ru(III)(bpy)2(py)(OH)]2+ rather than cis-[Ru(II)(bpy)2(py)(OH2)]2+ as the initial product; and (v) the small rho value of -0.65 +/- 0.03 in a Hammett plot of log k vs sigma in the oxidation of a series of aldehydes. A mechanism is proposed for the process occurring in the absence of O2 involving (i) preassociation of the reactants, (ii) H-atom transfer to Ru(IV)=O2+ to give Ru(III)-OH2+ and PhCO, (iii) capture of PhCO by Ru(III)-OH2+ to give Ru(II)-OC(O)Ph+ and H+, and (iv) solvolysis to give cis-[Ru(II)(bpy)2(py)(NCCH3)]2+ or the aqua complex and the carboxylic acid as products.
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ABSTRACT: Mixed-chelate [Ru(TDL)(XY)Z] type complexes (TDL=tridentate ligand; XY=bidentate ligand and Z=H2O or halide) are known to perform hydrocarbon oxidation under ambient conditions. The subject of this review comprises the use of various tri-dentate polypyridyl and Schiff-base complexes of ruthenium as catalysts for performing oxo-functionalization of a number of organic substrates using various precursor oxidants. The catalytic ability and mechanistic details of such ruthenium based catalyst complexes in the oxidation of saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons under homogeneous reaction are systematically reviewed in this article highlighting the author’s own recent investigations on such catalytic systems.
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ABSTRACT: Many transition metal complexes accomplish or catalyze the oxidation of CH, OH, and other σ-bonds. Under aerobic conditions, metal complexes typically modulate an autoxidation radical chain. In anaerobic reactions, a metal complex can be the reactive species that attacks the σ-bond, in many cases by abstracting a hydrogen atom from the substrate. Examples described here include the oxidation of alkylaromatic compounds by ruthenium oxo complexes and reactions of deprotonated iron(III) complexes. In general, these reactions occur with addition of H+ to a ligand and e− to the metal center. Rate constants for such hydrogen-atom transfer reactions can, in many cases, be predicted by the Marcus cross relation. Autoxidation and metal-mediated radical mechanisms are so prevalent that proposals of non-radical oxidations of CH bonds carry a higher burden of proof. It is argued here that the oxidation of H2 by OsO4 occurs by a non-radical, [3+2] mechanism. OsO4 oxidizes alkanes under similar aqueous conditions. For example, isobutane is oxidized to tert-butanol, and cyclohexane to adipate and succinate. The alkane oxidations do not have the hallmarks of a radical mechanism but sufficient questions remain that a radical pathway cannot be excluded at this time.
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