Cytolethal Distending Toxin Is Essential for Helicobacter hepaticus Colonization in Outbred Swiss Webster Mice

Division of Comparative Medicine, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 16-873, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02131, USA.
Infection and Immunity (Impact Factor: 3.73). 06/2005; 73(6):3559-67. DOI: 10.1128/IAI.73.6.3559-3567.2005
Source: PubMed


Helicobacter hepaticus, which induces chronic hepatitis and typhlocolitis in susceptible mouse strains, produces a cytolethal distending toxin (CDT)
consisting of CdtA, CdtB, and CdtC. A cdtB-deficient H. hepaticus isogenic mutant (HhcdtBm7) was generated and characterized for colonization parameters in four intestinal regions (jejunum,
ileum, cecum, and colon) of outbred Swiss Webster (SW) mice. Inactivation of the cdtB gene abolished the ability of HhcdtBm7 to colonize female mice at both 8 and 16 weeks postinfection (wpi), whereas HhcdtBm7
colonized all of four intestinal regions of three of five males at 8 wpi and then was eliminated by 16 wpi. Wild-type (WT)
H. hepaticus was detected in the corresponding intestinal regions of both male and female mice at 8 and 16 wpi; however, colonization
levels of WT H. hepaticus in the cecum and colon of male mice were approximately 1,000-fold higher than in females (P < 0.0079) at 16 wpi. Infection with WT H. hepaticus, but not HhcdtBm7, at 8 wpi was associated with significantly increased mRNA level of ileal and cecal gamma interferon (IFN-γ)
in females (P < 0.016 and 0.031 between WT H. hepaticus-infected and sham-dosed females, respectively). In contrast, the mRNA levels of IFN-γ were significantly higher in the colon
(P < 0.0079) and trended to be higher in the cecum (P < 0.15) in the HhcdtBm7-colonized male mice versus the sham-dosed controls at 8 wpi. In addition, mRNA levels of ileal IFN-γ
were significantly higher in the control females than males at 8 wpi (P < 0.016). There were significantly higher Th1-associated immunoglobulin G2a (IgG2a), Th2-associated IgG1 and mucosal IgA
(P < 0.002, 0.002, 0.002, respectively) responses in the mice infected with WT H. hepaticus when compared to HhcdtBm7 at 16 wpi. Colonic interleukin-10 (IL-10) expressions at 16 wpi were significantly lower in both
female and male mice colonized by WT H. hepaticus or in males transiently colonized through 8 wpi by HhcdtBm7 versus control mice (P < 0.0159). These lines of evidence indicate that (i) H. hepaticus CDT plays a crucial role in the persistent colonization of H. hepaticus in SW mice; (ii) SW female mice are more resistant to H. hepaticus colonization than male mice; (iii) there was persistent colonization of WT H. hepaticus in cecum, colon, and jejunum but only transient colonization of H. hepaticus in the ileum of female mice; (iv) H. hepaticus colonization was associated with down-regulation of colonic IL-10 production.

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    • "After necropsy, tissue samples from both cecum and colon were weighed, homogenized and plated on selective blood plates for H. hepaticus cfu counts per mg tissue (MHH), or DNA was extracted for quantitative PCR (MIT) [58], [59]. CFU counts from MHH infection experiments and qPCR-derived H. hepaticus genome counts from the corresponding MIT infections yielded similar results. "
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    ABSTRACT: The mouse pathobiont Helicobacter hepaticus can induce typhlocolitis in interleukin-10-deficient mice, and H. hepaticus infection of immunodeficient mice is widely used as a model to study the role of pathogens and commensal bacteria in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease. C57BL/6J Il10(-/-) mice kept under specific pathogen-free conditions in two different facilities (MHH and MIT), displayed strong differences with respect to their susceptibilities to H. hepaticus-induced intestinal pathology. Mice at MIT developed robust typhlocolitis after infection with H. hepaticus, while mice at MHH developed no significant pathology after infection with the same H. hepaticus strain. We hypothesized that the intestinal microbiota might be responsible for these differences and therefore performed high resolution analysis of the intestinal microbiota composition in uninfected mice from the two facilities by deep sequencing of partial 16S rRNA amplicons. The microbiota composition differed markedly between mice from both facilities. Significant differences were also detected between two groups of MHH mice born in different years. Of the 119 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) that occurred in at least half the cecum or colon samples of at least one mouse group, 24 were only found in MIT mice, and another 13 OTUs could only be found in MHH samples. While most of the MHH-specific OTUs could only be identified to class or family level, the MIT-specific set contained OTUs identified to genus or species level, including the opportunistic pathogen, Bilophila wadsworthia. The susceptibility to H. hepaticus-induced colitis differed considerably between Il10(-/-) mice originating from the two institutions. This was associated with significant differences in microbiota composition, highlighting the importance of characterizing the intestinal microbiome when studying murine models of IBD.
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    • "Using NF-κBdeficient mice to study persistent C. jejuni infection, one study indicated a proinflammatory role for Cj-CDT in vivo, as toxinproducing strains were associated with significantly enhanced severity of gastritis and significantly higher occurrence of gastric hyperplasia and dysplasia, which are markers of an early neoplastic process (Fox et al., 2004). For Helicobacter hepaticus , which causes chronic hepatitis and typhlocolitis in some mice, CDT was demonstrated to be critical for persistent infection of Swiss Webster mice, which is characterized with severe inflammation (Ge et al., 2005). In another study, H. hepaticus infection of A/JCr mice demonstrated a significantly higher inflammatory response in strains producing Hh-CDT than isogenic mutant strains. "
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    ABSTRACT: The cytolethal distending toxins (CDTs) comprise a family of intracellular-acting bacterial protein toxins whose actions upon eukaryotic cells result in several consequences, the most characteristic of which is the induction of G(2)/M cell cycle arrest. Most CDTs are hetero-tripartite assemblies of CdtA, CdtB, and CdtC, with CdtB required for CDT-mediated cell cycle arrest. Several lines of evidence indicate that CdtA and CdtC are required for the optimal intracellular activity of CdtB, although the exact functional roles of CdtA and CdtC remain poorly understood. The genes encoding the CDTs have been identified in a diverse array of Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria. More recently, the genes encoding several CdtB subunits have been associated with alternatively linked subunits resembling the B-subunits of pertussis toxin. Although the CDTs are generally considered to all function as bacterial genotoxins, the extent to which individual members of the CDTs employ similar mechanisms of cell surface binding, uptake, and trafficking within sensitive cells is poorly understood. Recently, data have begun to emerge suggesting differences in the molecular basis by which individual CDTs interact with and enter host cells, suggesting the possibility that CDTs possess properties reflecting the specific niches idiosyncratic to those CDT bacterial pathogens that produce them. The extent to which functional differences between individual CDTs reflect the specific requirements for intoxicating cells and tissues within the diverse range of host microenvironments colonized by CDT-producing pathogenic bacteria remains to be experimentally explored.
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    • "Bacterial transformation was performed by electroporation as previously described with minor modifications [51]. All mutants were passaged five times to ensure the elimination of any WT contaminants. "
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