To develop an automated imaging assessment tool that accommodates the anatomic variability of the elderly and demented population as well as the registration errors occurring during spatial normalization.
20 subjects with Alzheimer's disease (AD), mild cognitive impairment, or normal cognition underwent MRI brain imaging and had their 3D volumetric datasets manually partitioned into 68 regions of interest (ROI) termed sub-volumes. Gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), and cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) voxel counts were then made in the subject's native space for comparison against automated volumetric measures within three sub-volume probabilistic atlas (SVPA) models. The three SVPAs were constructed using 12 parameter affine (12 p), 2nd order (2nd), and 6th order (6th) transforms derived from registering the manually partitioned scans into a Talairach compatible AD population-based target. The three SVPA automated measures were compared to the manually derived measures in the 20 subjects' native space with a "jack-knife" procedure in which each subject was assessed by an SVPA they did not contribute toward constructing.
The mean left and right GM ratio (GM ratio = [GM + CSF] / CSF) "r values" for the 3 SVPAs compared to the manually derived ratios across the 68 ROIs were 0.85 for the 12p SVPA, 0.88 for the 2nd SVPA, and 0.89 for the 6th SVPA. The mean left and right WM ratio (WM ratio = [WM + CSF] / CSF) "r values" for the 3 SVPAs being 0.84 for the 12p SVPA, 0.86 for the 2nd SVPA, and 0.88 for the 6th SVPA.
We have constructed, from an elderly and demented cohort, an automated brain volumetric tool that has excellent accuracy compared to a manual gold standard and is capable of regional hypothesis testing and individual patient assessment compared to a population.
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"In almost all cases contributed to the CAP, contours were contributed in association with the images and clinical information. These contours can be used as the input to a standardized model-based analysis to establish shape and motion with respect to a standard coordinate system, similar to the Talairach coordinate system used in the brain (Mega 2005; Tang, Hojatkashani et al. 2010). Since shape and motion are mathematically mapped, statistical tools such as principal component analysis can be used to quantify the significant modes of variation present within a population. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Integrative mathematical and statistical models of cardiac anatomy and physiology can play a vital role in understanding cardiac disease phenotype and planning therapeutic strategies. However, the accuracy and predictive power of such models is dependent upon the breadth and depth of noninvasive imaging datasets. The Cardiac Atlas Project (CAP) has established a large-scale database of cardiac imaging examinations and associated clinical data in order to develop a shareable, web-accessible, structural and functional atlas of the normal and pathological heart for clinical, research and educational purposes. A goal of CAP is to facilitate collaborative statistical analysis of regional heart shape and wall motion and characterize cardiac function among and within population groups.
Three main open-source software components were developed: (i) a database with web-interface; (ii) a modeling client for 3D + time visualization and parametric description of shape and motion; and (iii) open data formats for semantic characterization of models and annotations. The database was implemented using a three-tier architecture utilizing MySQL, JBoss and Dcm4chee, in compliance with the DICOM standard to provide compatibility with existing clinical networks and devices. Parts of Dcm4chee were extended to access image specific attributes as search parameters. To date, approximately 3000 de-identified cardiac imaging examinations are available in the database. All software components developed by the CAP are open source and are freely available under the Mozilla Public License Version 1.1 (http://www.mozilla.org/MPL/MPL-1.1.txt).
Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
"Accurate, robust and efficient parameter estimation is critical in making inference about observable experiments, summarizing process characteristics and prediction of experimental behaviors. For example, a 2005 study proposing a new computational brain atlas for Alzheimer's disease  investigated the mean volumetric characteristics and the spectra of shapes and sizes of different cortical and subcortical brain regions for Alzheimer's patients, individuals with minor cognitive impairment and asymptomatic subjects. This study estimated several centrality and variability parameters for these populations. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Many scientific investigations depend on obtaining data-driven, accurate, robust and computationally-tractable parameter estimates. In the face of unavoidable intrinsic variability, there are different algorithmic approaches, prior assumptions and fundamental principles for computing point and interval estimates. Efficient and reliable parameter estimation is critical in making inference about observable experiments, summarizing process characteristics and prediction of experimental behaviors. In this manuscript, we demonstrate simulation, construction, validation and interpretation of confidence intervals, under various assumptions, using the interactive web-based tools provided by the Statistics Online Computational Resource (http://www.SOCR.ucla.edu). Specifically, we present confidence interval examples for population means, with known or unknown population standard deviation; population variance; population proportion (exact and approximate), as well as confidence intervals based on bootstrapping or the asymptotic properties of the maximum likelihood estimates. Like all SOCR resources, these confidence interval resources may be openly accessed via an Internet-connected Java-enabled browser. The SOCR confidence interval applet enables the user to empirically explore and investigate the effects of the confidence-level, the sample-size and parameter of interest on the corresponding confidence interval. Two applications of the new interval estimation computational library are presented. The first one is a simulation of confidence interval estimating the US unemployment rate and the second application demonstrates the computations of point and interval estimates of hippocampal surface complexity for Alzheimers disease patients, mild cognitive impairment subjects and asymptomatic controls.
"One approach to investigate the contribution of different anatomical regions to functional deficits is to utilize quantitative brain morphological measures (Bigler, 2001b). Such measures are made by dividing, or parcellating, brain tissue into separate regions using either manual processes (Kennedy et al., 1989) or computational ones (Fischl et al., 2002, 2004; Chen et al., 2004; Mega et al., 2005). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Cognitive deficits following traumatic brain injury (TBI) commonly include difficulties with memory, attention, and executive dysfunction. These deficits are amenable to cognitive rehabilitation, but optimally selecting rehabilitation programs for individual patients remains a challenge. Recent methods for quantifying regional brain morphometry allow for automated quantification of tissue volumes in numerous distinct brain structures. We hypothesized that such quantitative structural information could help identify individuals more or less likely to benefit from memory rehabilitation. Fifty individuals with TBI of all severities who reported having memory difficulties first underwent structural MRI scanning. They then participated in a 12 session memory rehabilitation program emphasizing internal memory strategies (I-MEMS). Primary outcome measures (HVLT, RBMT) were collected at the time of the MRI scan, immediately following therapy, and again at 1-month post-therapy. Regional brain volumes were used to predict outcome, adjusting for standard predictors (e.g., injury severity, age, education, pretest scores). We identified several brain regions that provided significant predictions of rehabilitation outcome, including the volume of the hippocampus, the lateral prefrontal cortex, the thalamus, and several subregions of the cingulate cortex. The prediction range of regional brain volumes were in some cases nearly equal in magnitude to prediction ranges provided by pretest scores on the outcome variable. We conclude that specific cerebral networks including these regions may contribute to learning during I-MEMS rehabilitation, and suggest that morphometric measures may provide substantial predictive value for rehabilitation outcome in other cognitive interventions as well.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2010 · Frontiers in Human Neuroscience