Effectiveness and Safety of Risperidone for Children and Adolescents with Chronic Tic or Tourette Disorders in Korea
The aim of this 6-week, open-label design study was to determine the short-term effectiveness and safety of risperidone as an alternative for traditional antipsychotic drugs in the treatment of chronic tic disorder or Tourette's Disorder in young children and adolescents. The subjects were 15 young children and adolescents (the ratio of male:female subjects was 13:2 and their mean age was 10 +/- 2.4 years). Seven subjects were diagnosed with Tourette's Disorder and 8 subjects with chronic tic disorder, and all subjects were administered risperidone without hospitalization. Of the 15 subjects, 1 subject had a comorbid disorder (obsessive compulsive disorder), but no subject had a previous history of psychiatric hospitalization. Ten of the 15 subjects were administered risperidone for the first time, and 5 of the 15 subjects had been previously treated with traditional drugs (haloperidol or pimozide). Clinical responses were measured at baseline and after 1, 3, and 6 weeks of drug treatment by using the Korean version of the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale and the Global Assessment of Functioning Scale. Side effects were carefully monitored using adverse event evaluation charts. The mean dosage of risperidone was 0.53 +/- 0.13 mg on the 1st week, 0.90 +/- 0.28 mg on the 3rd week, and 1.23 +/- 0.37 mg on the 6th week. Comparison between periods according to the Korean version of the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale showed significant differences (t = 4.920; df = 14; p < 0.01) during the 1st- to 3rd-week period. After 6 weeks of administration, the tic severity scale showed a 36% reduction in the overall tic symptom scores and 13 of the 15 subjects showed significant improvement, 1 subject showed no difference in symptoms, and, for 1 subject, the symptoms worsened. Also, the mean Global Assessment of Functioning Scale score was 66.8 +/- 10.8 at baseline and improved to a mean of 73.1 +/- 10.1 after 6 weeks of treatment. Regarding side effects, only 1 case reported sedation, but drug administration was continued because the degree was mild. The results of this study show that, risperidone, a potent combined serotonin (5-HT2) and dopamine (D2) receptor antagonist, is both effective and safe for the treatment for Tourette's Disorder and chronic tic disorder in children and adolescents.
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