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Community Psychology Is (Thank God) More Than Science

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Abstract

Thinking about Community Psychology primarily as a science may make it harder, rather than easier, to embrace certain aspects of the field to which we are deeply committed, but usually fall outside the conventional meaning of "doing science." While community psychologists use (and expand) the tools of science, this is different than saying that Community Psychology is only, or even primarily, a science. The field is just as much social criticism as it is science. In order to further conversation about these matters, seven thoughts about why (thank God) community psychology is more than a science are offered, the most basic of which is that today the greatest danger to freedom is not in the union of church and state, but in the union of science and state.

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... One can still use empirical means to achieve this goal without leaving it up to the science of the matter itself to achieve it independently of the researcher. As stated by Rappaport, therefore, CP is more than a science; it is equally a social criticism, a tool, a resource, and an engaged form of psychology (Rappaport, 2005). Community psychology prizes transparency, social action, the coupling of scientific and humanistic goals, and the deconstruction of power between participants of research and researchers (Orford, 1992;Prilleltensky, 2001) Considerations for implementing CP as a praxis include the following: ...
... Compassion for disadvantaged communities is not enough, and neither is empowering an individual of that community when the community as a whole is oppressed (Kloos et al., 2012;McKinnon, 2017;Prilleltensky, 2001;Rappaport, 2005). Value-based praxis is the key to addressing this failing, because values drive change towards a "desired state of affairs" (Prilleltensky, 2001;Rappaport, 2005). ...
... Compassion for disadvantaged communities is not enough, and neither is empowering an individual of that community when the community as a whole is oppressed (Kloos et al., 2012;McKinnon, 2017;Prilleltensky, 2001;Rappaport, 2005). Value-based praxis is the key to addressing this failing, because values drive change towards a "desired state of affairs" (Prilleltensky, 2001;Rappaport, 2005). I aimed for community embeddedness to underpin this project. ...
Thesis
This thesis aimed to investigate the role of minority stress (MS) and autistic community connectedness (ACC) on mental health (MH) and wellbeing in the autistic community. Multiple methods were used, across four studies. Study one consisted of a qualitative study using grounded theory tools to create a measure of ACC, as none existed. The findings indicated that ACC compromises of three sub-domains – belongingness, social, and political connectedness. Stigma and identity both informed the level of ACC experienced by participants. In study two, a measure of ACC was created and validated in a new sample of autistic individuals (N = 133) using confirmatory factor analysis to test factor-structure and for item purification. Results indicated factorial, convergent and discriminant validity, for a 10-item scale. Studies three and four consisted of a cross-sectional and longitudinal survey where 195 autistic and 181 non-autistic people completed questionnaires at baseline and 99 autistic participants completed measures nine months later at follow-up. Resilience resources, ACC, MH and wellbeing, and MS were measured both times. Study three showed that the differences in MH, wellbeing, and resilience resources between the autistic and non-autistic sample persisted beyond demographics and general stress. Higher MS predicted lower MH and wellbeing, while ACC moderated the relationship between MS and MH, ameliorating the effects of MS. The longitudinal study (study four) showed that higher MS scores at baseline were associated with worse MH and wellbeing nine-months later, while higher ACC was associated with better MH and wellbeing. The results suggest a model of ACC and MS whereby autistic people may experience differing levels of ACC depending on experiences of stigma and autistic identity. This ACC in turn moderates the impact of MS on MH.These findings and implications of the research are further integrated into autism, MS, MH, and community literature.
... In the past two decades, there have been increasing calls for the field of community psychology to be concerned with social justice and raising critical consciousness. This has established a growing expectation that community psychologists would become allies with oppressed groups in the struggle for social justice (Prilleltensky, & Nelson, 1997;Prilleltensky & Nelson, 2009;Rappaport, 2005). ...
... Community psychology always implies a particular vision of society: one grounded in the ideals of social justice, social inclusion, self-determination, solidarity, and collective wellness (Kagan & Burton 2001;Prilleltensky, 2001). This vision begins with a conception of what ought to be that is not constrained by what might be normally acceptable (Angelique & Kyle, 2002;Rappaport, 2005). Community psychologists are therefore concerned with the gap between the current state of affairs and an idealized set of societal conditions. ...
... As suggested by Prilleltensky and Nelson (2000) and Rappaport (2000Rappaport ( , 2005, community psychology has been steadfastly clinging to traditional, largely psychological, theories and language while espousing values of social justice and equality. For a field that is concerned with issues of power, social justice and equality, why have we maintained so much of the language of traditional psychology? ...
... Smail (2001) indicated that we are constrained, as psychologists, by our frames of reference-the ways in which we conceptualize and then design interventions. We are further constrained by philosophical models of training which emphasize objectivity, the scientific method, and being apolitical and value free (Rappaport, 2005). ...
Article
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Much of the training of psychologists in the western world follows a logical positivist, scientist-practitioner model based in scientific objectivity and removed from politics. In this paper, we explore issues around alternative understandings of the role and place of psychologists and psychological actions. In so doing, we discuss a number of issues of ontology, epistemology and pragmatics to demonstrate that the role and function of power in our society need to be addressed more directly and more politically in order for us to successfully achieve our roles as community psychologists. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
... El empoderamiento enlaza de un modo complejo y dialéctico los niveles personales y colectivos, de allí que se haya propuesto una perspectiva ecológica para comprenderlo (Laverack, 2001;Rappaport, 2005;Zimmerman, 2000). Zimmerman (2000) plantea que el empoderamiento puede presentarse en tres niveles interdependientes: individual, organizacional y comunitario. ...
... Destacamos que la consolidación conceptual de la presente investigación se impregna de los planteamientos teóricos que ponen de relieve la importancia de reactivar el poder transformador de lo comunitario (Laverack, 2001), enfatizando su carácter multinivel (Jennings, Parra-Medina, Hilfinger-Messias, & McLoughlin, 2013) y la mutualidad e interdependencia del empoderamiento comunitario entre las características del individuo y su contexto para el cambio social (Rappaport, 2005;Zimmerman, 2000). A partir de la integración de los determinantes del empoderamiento comunitario y los aportes teóricos de Montero (2003) y Zambrano (2007), además de los dominios del constructo propuestos por Laverack (2001Laverack ( , 2005 y la destacada contribución de un panel de expertos internacionales, es que se desarrolla la elección y definición de cinco factores para la construcción de esta escala: participación, poder y control, politización, autogestión, e identidad comunitaria, las cuales se definen a continuación con mayor profundidad y según su desarrollo teórico. ...
Article
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Se presentan las propiedades psicométricas de un instrumento construido para evaluar la percepción del empoderamiento comunitario en universitarios. Participaron 617 estudiantes de una universidad estatal del sur de Chile. Para determinar la confiabilidad de la Escala de Percepción de Empoderamiento Comunitario se utilizó alfa de Cronbach y el análisis factorial exploratorio (AFE) y confirmatorio (AFC) para la validez factorial. Los resultados arrojaron cinco factores: participación, politización, autogestión, poder y control, e identidad comunitaria, todas con confiabilidades mayores a 0,80. Por su parte, el AFC confirmó que cada uno de los cinco factores son explicados por un modelo único, mostrando cargas factoriales que varían entre 0,69 a 0,81. Con esta escala se pone a disposición de la comunidad científica un recurso para la evaluación de la percepción del empoderamiento comunitario en una comunidad específica, siendo un potencial aporte en el campo de la educación superior y la intervención comunitaria, mediante su adecuación y validación en otros contextos.
... However, we were also responsible for psychopolitical validity (Prilleltensky, 2003), defined as the ability of a program of research to disrupt existing power dynamics through problematizing status quo processes. We were responsible for the science but also "more than science" (Rappaport, 2005). In pursuit of implementing our RCT, we became more acutely aware of these power dynamics and our own risk of unintentionally colluding with oppressive practices (Ladner, 1971). ...
... We conclude with a lesson re-learned, echoed by Rappaport's (2005) argument that community psychologyand allied disciplines-"do more than science," and we underscore that such an endeavor may produce better science. This notion is not new. ...
Article
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In this article, we describe ethical tensions we have faced in the context of our work as intervention scientists, where we aim to promote social justice and change systems that impact girls involved in the juvenile legal system. These ethical tensions are, at their core, about resisting collusion with systems of control while simultaneously collaborating with them. Over the course of designing and implementing a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of an ecological advocacy intervention for girls, called ROSES, ethical paradoxes crystalized and prompted us to engage in critical reflection and action toward the aim of moving away from conducting research on legal-system-involved girls and moving toward a more democratic, participatory process of inquiry with girls. Our experience revealed two intertwined paradoxes that ultimately served generative purposes. First, in collaborating with legal system stakeholders, we observed a single story of girls’ pathology narrated for girls, without girls, and ultimately internalized by girls. Second, in reflecting critically on the ethical implications of our study design, it became clear that the design was grounded in a medical model of inquiry although the intervention we sought to evaluate was based, in part, on resistance to the medical model. We describe emergent ethical tensions and the solutions we sought, which center on creating counternarratives and counterspaces that leverage, extend, and disrupt our existing RCT. We detail these solutions, focusing on how we restructured our research team to enhance structural competence, shifted the subject of inquiry to include the systems in which youth are embedded, and created new opportunities for former research participants to become co-researchers through formal roles on an advisory board.
... Entre otros, se han barajado términos como «potenciación», propuesto por Hombrados (1996), «fortalecimiento» en América latina por Montero (2003) y «empoderamiento» por Sánchez-Vidal (2007). Sin embargo, como en castellano ninguna palabra por sí sola aglutina todo el significado y riqueza que Rappaport (2005) atribuyó al concepto, cada vez se utiliza más el término inglés. Así, entre las numerosas definiciones de «empowerment», cabe señalar: «Proceso por el cual las personas, organizaciones, y comunidades adquieren control y dominio -masterysobre sus vidas», Mechanic (1991). ...
... En el nivel grupal-organizacional, ofrece la oportunidad a los miembros de desarrollar una cultura de crecimiento, de proporcionar a sus miembros oportunidades para asumir roles significativos, generar un sistema de apoyo mutuo que crea una identidad social común, así como un liderazgo compartido con un compromiso hacia los miembros y el propio grupo (Zimmerman, 2011). Según Rappaport (2005), el hecho de reunir a personas que comparten una preocupación relevante en sus vidas les hace identificarse inmediatamente con los demás en un espacio donde intercambian sentimientos y experimentan, por el mero hecho de compartirlos, un notable bienestar psicoafectivo. Se establece una red de apoyo emocional y social que permite un intercambio de información, saberes, y enseñanzas para afrontar con éxito determinadas situaciones (Christens, 2011). ...
Article
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Objective To determine the concept of empowerment and the role of maternal education programs in the process of empowering women and their partners. Materials and methods A systematic review of six databases: Open Thesis, LILACS, Medline / Pubmed, CINAHL, CUIDEN and Cochrane Plus from January 1, 1998 to April 1, 2016. The year 1998, when Rising’s pioneering work was published, was chosen as the starting point. Studies were included regardless of the study scenario. The level of evidence was determined with the Oxford Center for Evidence Based Medicine classification. Results Fifteen studies in Medline/Pubmed met the criteria, five in CUIDEN, five in Cochrane, one in LILACS, one in CINAHL and none in Open Thesis. The information obtained allowed us to structure the review into six significant sections: 1) concept, 2) theories, 3) impact of empowerment theories on the role of health professionals, 4) empowerment and care for women, 5) empowerment through health education programs, and 6) empowerment of women through maternity/paternity education programs. Conclusions Maternity/paternity education programs are a powerful tool to empower the population during gestation, childbirth and post-partum. Keywords: prenatal education, childbirth education, centering pregnancy, program evaluation, empowerment, program assessment.
... Reduced travel time allows researchers to invest more time in building relationships with the community, volunteering services, or fulfilling extra-research obligations (e.g., faculty responsibilities, parenting). This also makes for less expensive research, which makes community-based research more feasible for a wider range of researchers and helps to mitigate concerns expressed by community psychologists regarding the influence of external funding agencies over the research process (e.g., Rappaport, 2005). ...
... Second, although all three university-based authors are familiar with community psychology, none maintains a degree in the field. Thus, the disciplinary backgrounds represented by the academic authors could be considered a limitation of this work; however, we would emphasize that, as a decidedly interdisciplinary field, community psychology is best defined by a core set of values (Rappaport, 2005), values that are well represented in the corpus of works in which all four authors have been engaged. ...
Article
The US has witnessed significant growth among urban American Indian (AI) populations in recent decades, and concerns have been raised that these populations face equal or greater degrees of disadvantage than their reservation counterparts. Surprisingly little urban AI research or community work has been documented in the literature, and even less has been written about the influences of urban settings on community-based work with these populations. Given the deep commitments of community psychology to empowering disadvantaged groups and understanding the impact of contextual factors on the lives of individuals and groups, community psychologists are well suited to fill these gaps in the literature. Toward informing such efforts, this work offers multidisciplinary insights from distinct idiographic accounts of community-based behavioral health research with urban AI populations. Accounts are offered by three researchers and one urban AI community organization staff member, and particular attention is given to issues of community heterogeneity, geography, membership, and collaboration. Each first-person account provides "lessons learned" from the urban context in which the research occurred. Together, these accounts suggest several important areas of consideration in research with urban AIs, some of which also seem relevant to reservation-based work. Finally, the potential role of research as a tool of empowerment for urban AI populations is emphasized, suggesting future research attend to the intersections of identity, sense of community, and empowerment in urban AI populations.
... Next, as the Black Lives Matter movement has demonstrated and as the philosopher Rebecca Goldstein (2015) has argued, mattering has a clear moral and political dimension. It therefore aligns with CP's goal of moving past value-neutral approaches to understanding psychosocial phenomena and human well-being (Angelique & Culley, 2007;Kagan et al., 2019;Montero, 2002;Rappaport, 2005;Sarason, 1981). ...
... 1994;Watkins & Shulman, 2008;Watts, 2004) have advocated for the centrality of justice in liberation psychology theory and practice. Fairness, then, is core to CP's goals of being "more than a science" (Rappaport, 2005). Despite this prominence, however, specific empirical paradigms have been slower to emerge (Duff, 2016;Fondacaro & Weinberg, 2002;Munger et al., 2016). ...
Thesis
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Mattering, defined as synergistic experiences of feeling valued and adding value, is a psychosocial construct with underappreciated pragmatic potential. It has explanatory relevance across disciplines, domains of life, and social contexts. It is also both parsimonious and far-reaching in uniting areas of concern relevant to community psychologists and the needs, values, and goals of diverse communities. Nevertheless, it has received limited attention in the community psychology (CP) literature. This dissertation will develop and provide empirical support for an ecological understanding of mattering suited to community research and practice. Empirical support is furnished in three studies using large, representative U.S. samples. The first evaluates a novel multidimensional measure of mattering (MIDLS), providing evidence of MIDLS’ validity as a bifactor measure of general and domain-specific mattering. The second study provides evidence of differences between demographic groups in domain-specific mattering. Finally, covariance-based structural equation modeling (CB-SEM) is used to assess the relationships between multidimensional mattering, fairness, and well-being in six life domains. Findings suggest that mattering fully mediates the relationship between fairness and well-being for all domains investigated except economic well-being. Taken together, these studies show that mattering can be conceived and assessed in multidimensional terms; that doing so can yield novel insights; and that mattering has unique value as an organizing construct which helps map the relationship between key community psychology values and outcomes. The dissertation concludes with a discussion of key limitations and implications as well as next steps for a program of research which can actualize the pragmatic potential of multidimensional mattering for community research and practice.
... Sin embargo, a pesar de este énfasis teórico en lo colectivo y en la comunidad, existe un marcado predominio de la acción socioprofesional sobre lo individual (Rappaport, 2005). ...
... Priman las acciones orientadas por modelos y métodos, que dan más cuenta de los efectos del ajuste social del comportamiento individual que de otras dimensiones (Weinstein, 2006). Al respecto, hay una larga discusión en el campo disciplinario sobre la pertinencia de intervenir en uno u otro nivel (Montero, 2004(Montero, , 2006Rappaport, 2005) y varias constataciones que sitúan la acción preferentemente en lo individual (Martin, et. al., 2004;Graham & Ismail, 2011). ...
Article
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RESUMEN La particularidad del quehacer de la Psicología Comunitaria en su relación con la esfera gubernamental es diversa y confusa, en él se expresan tensiones y contradicciones que resultan difíciles de conciliar en un marco disciplinar rígido. Este texto propone una tentativa para cartografiar estas acciones sobre la figura de un campo expandido de la disciplina, que resulta de la superposición de tres ejes básicos que consideran los reportes internacionales de la acción disciplinar, los principios teóricos y el contexto institucional en que se desarrolla: individuo/comunidad, mejoramiento/transformación y dependencia/ autonomía. Se toman los resultados de seis investigaciones realizadas en Chile para ejercitar esta cartografía, se discuten sus alcances y se comenta la proyección que se deprende de sus resultados. PALABRAS CLAVE Psicología Comunitaria, cartografía, políticas sociales ABSTRACT A distinctive feature of the interactions between Community Psychology practitioners and government agents is that they are diverse and confusing. Internal tensions and contradictions arise that make reconciliation difficult within a rigid disciplinary framework. Using international reports on disciplinary action, theoretical principles and the institutional context in which interactions take place, this paper proposes an attempt to map these actions over an expanded discipline field obtained by superimposing three central concepts: individual/community, improvement/transformation and dependence/autonomy. In order to apply this mapping, we used the results of six Chilean research reports. We discuss their scope and comment on the implications of their results.
... The most prominent originator of community psychology, Rappaport (1977Rappaport ( , 1981Rappaport ( , 1987Rappaport ( , 2000Rappaport ( , 2005 introduced a variety of key principles to community action. In addition to a process of empowerment through narratives and tales transformed from terror to joy, he also embraces ecological thinking and paradox. ...
... Such programs should not simply be transplanted in whole from high-income countries, particularly places with very different cultures and contexts (Knerr et al., 2013;Mejia, Leijten, Lachman, & Parra-Cardona, 2017;Mikton et al., 2013). The scientific nature of these interventions is invaluable (Michelson et al., 2013), particularly in Zimbabwe, and yet there is also the appreciation that human relationships cannot entirely be understood through the lens of science; community psychology is more than a science (Rappaport, 2005). ...
Article
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In this paper, the authors discuss multi‐level systems for parenting in Harare, Zimbabwe. At the micro‐system level, the Tirere Pamwe parenting program is a supportive, empowering prototype, designed to educate parents on child development, with a special focus on socio‐emotional development, from birth to age 18 years. The program has been delivered to a diverse group of parents, in diverse settings, which has helped to bring a greater contextual relevance to parenting practices, and seems thereby to have increased the mental well‐being of children. At the macro‐system level, international law and Zimbabwaean laws emphasise the need to protect children from both physical and psychological harm. These different layers are examined through the varying theoretical perspectives of community psychologist Julian Rappaport (1977, 1981, 1987, 2000, 2005), such as his emphasis on paradox, empowerment, second‐order change, and narrative.
... A vocal handful of our own students strongly resisted the fundamental class approach, with one student criticizing the class as a "community philosophy" course rather than "one centered on solid psychological findings." This important posting to our anonymous course message board prompted a class discussion on values and interpretation within social science (see the elaborated exploration of these questions in the AJCP special issue on community psychology and science, including those of the first author and a mentor, Rappaport, 2005& Hess, 2005. ...
... Community psychology has since been distinguished by dedication to collaboration, empowerment, diversity, and prevention, stemming from empirical, ecological, critical, and contextual analysis (Rappaport, 1977). These commitments have further obligated community psychologists to invoke, justify, and defend alternative approaches to knowledge production (Rappaport, 2005;Tebes, 2005;Trickett, 2009). Thus, a reflexive, open-minded, and self-critical examination of knowledge would not be unfamiliar to most community psychologists, which is why I believe that brief but substantive consideration of the heyoka tradition will illuminate complex tensions that community psychology must be prepared to engage in an increasingly globalized future. ...
Article
In the early years of this globalized century, alternative health knowledges and wellness traditions circulate faster and farther than ever before. To the degree that community psychologists seek collaboration with cultural minority and other marginalized populations in support of their collective wellbeing, such knowledges and traditions are likely to warrant attention, engagement, and support. My purpose in this article is to trace an epistemological quandary that community psychologists are ideally poised to consider at the interface of hegemonic and subjugated knowing with respect to advances in community wellbeing. To this end, I describe an American Indian knowledge tradition, its association with specific indigenous healing practices, its differentiation from therapeutic knowledge within disciplinary psychology, and the broader challenge posed by alternative health knowledges for community psychologists.
... This text addresses the concerns Rappaport (2005) raised in his essay "Community Psychology is (Thank God) More Than Science" that the union of science and state makes is harder for community psychologists to live our values of social justice, especially when doing so goes against the interests of those who fund our work. AEA's ethical principle challenges individuals to take steps to privilege the welfare of society as a whole, which is very different than APA's Justice principle (reviewed above), which stipulated only that we take precautions against unjust practices. ...
Article
In the 50 years since the 1965 Swampscott conference, the field of community psychology has not yet developed a well-articulated ethical framework to guide research and practice. This paper reviews what constitutes an "ethical framework"; considers where the field of community psychology is at in its development of a comprehensive ethical framework; examines sources for ethical guidance (i.e., ethical principles and standards) across multiple disciplines, including psychology, evaluation, sociology, and anthropology; and recommends strategies for developing a rich written discourse on how community psychology researchers and practitioners can address ethical conflicts in our work.
... O segundo desafio atual resume-se à necessidade de assegurar as condições fundamentais para que a educação sexual se desenvolva efetivamente como um projeto comunitário, respondendo às necessidades específicas do contextocomunidade, escola, turma -no qual se desenvolve, e não aos indicadores legais inscritos na Lei nº 60/2009 (Becker et al., 2004;Menezes, 2010); e potenciando a participação dos agentes da comunidade, nomeadamente dos estudantes e dos encarregados de educação, através de estratégias que vão ao encontro das suas necessidades e interesses e que fomentem a sua participação ativa, o que implica trabalhar com eles desde a conceção do projeto (Becker et al., 2004;Illback et al., 1990). (Rappaport, 2005), sendo a este nível essencial adequar o número de recursos humanos alocados à equipa de coordenação, os períodos de trabalho da mesma, bem como os critérios de seleção destes recursos e a sua formação, que deve ser adequada especificamente ao papel desempenhado pelos diferentes profissionais na educação sexual. ...
Article
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A Europa é, provavelmente, o continente com a mais longa experiência no domínio da educação sexual. Contudo, são as experiências desenvolvidas em território norteamericano que dominam os estudos de avaliação do impacto da educação sexual. Segundo o gabinete europeu da OMS, esta dominância deve-se, sobretudo, à ausência, na Europa, de um processo de publicação sistemática das experiências e resultados nacionais no contexto internacional. É neste âmbito que nos propomos a partilhar o caso de Portugal relativamente às políticas de promoção da educação sexual, com base numa perspetiva (bio)ecológica. Portugal tem um percurso longo e algo errático neste domínio, tendo-se verificado, nas últimas três décadas, no plano crono- e macrossistémico, notáveis mudanças ao nível das medidas políticas e legislativas, que culminaram na conceção da mesma como um projeto comunitário. No plano do exo-, meso- e microssistema, estas mudanças refletem-se nas práticas. A percentagem de escolas portuguesas a implementar a educação sexual tem vindo a aumentar e, não obstante alguma variabilidade, há práticas em comum nas escolas, sobretudo no que respeita os papéis/funções desempenhados e os procedimentos de planeamento, implementação e avaliação. Há também dificuldades comuns como: envolver a comunidade escolar, implementar a transversalidade, abordar a sexualidade de forma holística e avaliar adequadamente a educação sexual. Estas dificuldades são potenciadas também por medidas politico-legislativas no domínio da educação, como corroboram as perceções da comunidade escolar e científica. Ambas receiam, atualmente, que a sustentabilidade da educação sexual nas escolas enquanto projeto comunitário esteja em causa, devido às últimas políticas educativas. Neste sentido, e com base em referências teóricas da intervenção comunitária, finalizamos este artigo apresentando uma reflexão sobre os desafios atuais no domínio, bem como um conjunto de propostas para ultrapassar os mesmos. Europe has probably the greatest experience in sexuality education. However, in the most recent research on its impact evaluation, the majority of studies focused on experiences in US territory. According to the European Office of WHO, this dominance happens due to the absence in Europe of a systematic publishing process of national experiences and results on the international context. Therefore, we propose to share the case of Portuguese policies in promoting sexuality education, based on a (bio) ecological approach. Implementation of sexuality education in Portugal has been long and somewhat erratic. At chrono- and macrosystem levels, the last three decades have been marked by changes in policies and laws, and sexuality education has been view as a community project. These changes impact on practices, at meso and microsystem levels. The percentage of Portuguese schools implementing sexuality education has been increasing and, despite some variation, there are common practices in schools, especially those related to roles/functions played by stakeholders, and planning, implementation and evaluation procedures. There are also common difficulties such as: low school community participation, cross-curricular teaching, too heavy a focus on health-related issues, and poor-quality evaluation. These difficulties are also maximized by the educational policies and legislation, and validate the perceptions of academic and scientific community. Both fear that today the sustainability of school-based sexuality education as a community project is endangered because of the latest educational policies. So, in the end of this paper, we present an analysis of the current challenges in sexuality education, based on theoretical references of community intervention, as well as a set of proposals to overcome them.
... came out of the disenfranchisement researchers and practitioners had with clinical, social, and applied psychology, which was described as individualistic, decontextualizing, and responsive to individual crisis, instead of preventative of social crisis (Evans et al., 2014;Orford, 1992;Rappaport, 2005). Within this context, psychologists were frustrated with efforts to address individual issues such as depression, anxiety, and suicide amongst communities in America, when social issues such as discrimination, poverty, and mass unemployment actively facilitated poor mental health and social crises (Fondacaro and Weinberg, 2002). ...
... (Rappaport, 1987 , p.134) Community psychology must be concerned with social justice. (Rappaport, 2003 ) His commitment to these values is also evident in his work with groups, usually on the margins of society or in need of particular services, as can be seen in Figure 11-2 . It also includes much work with communities and in which he has demonstrated the importance of collaboration. ...
Chapter
This book combines a focus on understanding social settings as loci for empowering intervention with a focus on understanding and giving voice to citizens. The book illuminates advances in theory and method relevant to changing a broad spectrum of social settings (including programs, organizations, institutions, communities, and social policy) from a strengths-based perspective. Three cross-cutting concepts—a strengths-based approach to research and social action, empowerment, and narrative research methods—serve as integrating and foundational themes. Part I takes up issues of setting processes and outcomes of influence, research methods, and implications for setting and community change efforts and social policy. Part II examines how action scientists have sought to understand and amplify the voices of those individuals and communities who serve as the focus of their research and social change actions. Finally, the chapters in Part III seek to situate the rest of the volume's chapters in the context of decades of work on empowering settings, giving voice and social change.
... In our view, the boundaries between the two modes are far more fluid than depicted by their original authors, which community psychologists and various other scholars involved in community-engaged research know well because they live in both scientific worlds. Nevertheless, the depictions of Mode 1 and Mode 2 science capture many of the essential critiques of contemporary science noted by scholars in community psychology (Cauce 2011; Gone 2011; Maton et al. 2006; Shinn and Toohey 2003; Stokols 2006; Susskind and Klein 1985; Rappaport 2005; Tebes 2005 Tebes , 2010; Trickett and Schensul 2009; Trickett et al. 2011; Tolan et al. 1990), and are useful frameworks for identifying strengths and limitations of the different approaches to contemporary scientific practice. Yes, much of science remains internally driven, universitybased , and authoritative in its stance toward society; however, this mode does have real value for enhancing knowledge and improving the human condition as the many advances in public health demonstrate. ...
Article
In this paper we maintain that twenty-first century science is, fundamentally, a relational process in which knowledge is produced (or co-produced) through transactions among researchers or among researchers and public stakeholders. We offer an expanded perspective on the practice of twenty-first century science, the production of scientific knowledge, and what community psychology can contribute to these developments. We argue that: (1) trends in science show that research is increasingly being conducted in teams; (2) scientific teams, such as transdisciplinary teams of researchers or of researchers collaborating with various public stakeholders, are better able to address complex challenges; (3) transdisciplinary scientific teams are part of the larger, twenty-first century transformation in science; (4) the concept of heterarchy is a heuristic for team science aligned with this transformation; (5) a contemporary philosophy of science known as perspectivism provides an essential foundation to advance twenty-first century science; and (6) community psychology, through its core principles and practice competencies, offers theoretical and practical expertise for advancing team science and the transformation in science currently underway. We discuss the implications of these points and illustrate them briefly with two examples of transdisciplinary team science from our own work. We conclude that a new narrative is emerging for science in the twenty-first century that draws on interpersonal transactions in teams, and active engagement by researchers with the public to address critical accountabilities. Because of its core organizing principles and unique blend of expertise on the intersection of research and practice, community psychologists are well-prepared to help advance these developments, and thus have much to offer twenty-first century science.
... No entanto, investigação explicitamente assumida do domínio da " psicologia política " é rara e a disciplina não atingiu um nível elevado de disseminação e institucionalização. Por isso, neste artigo de revisão assumimos uma conceção lata da psicologia política que reconhece o seu pluralismo disciplinar, teórico e metodológico (Sabucedo, 1996), envolvendo diversas áreas das ciências sociais, como a psicologia social, a sociologia política, a ciência política, a psicologia comunitária e as ciências da educação – ou seja, acreditamos, como Julian Rappaport (2005:42), que " as fronteiras disciplinares são menos importantes do que cruzar fronteiras " . Assim, os investigadores que analisamos têm contribuído para a construção de uma interface entre a psicologia e a política (Stone & Schaffner, 1988; Sullivan & Transue, 1999), mas também reconhecido o papel que o poder, a participação e a opressão têm na produção de marginalização, empoderamento e transformação social – como afirma Maritza Montero (2009), a psicologia política também se assume como uma disciplina comprometida com a construção de uma sociedade baseada na diversidade, justiça, igualdade, liberdade e democracia, onde, como diria Martin-Baró (1996, p. 23) " o bem-estar dos menos não se faça sobre o mal dos mais " . ...
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Neste artigo assumimos uma conceção ampla da psicologia política que reconhece o seu pluralismo disciplinar, teórico e metodológico. Os contributos analisados provêm de diversas áreas das ciências sociais, ora porque assumem a interface entre a psicologia e a política, ora porque reconhecem o papel do poder, da participação e da opressão nos processos de produção de marginalização, empoderamento e transformação social. As investigações são apresentadas em torno de quatro temas principais: (i) ideologia, valores e atitudes; (ii) cultura cívica, capital social e comportamento eleitoral; (iii) o poder como produtor de realidades sociais e espaços de marginalidade, e (iv) participação cívica e política, empoderamento e transformação social. Apesar de a institucionalização e disseminação da Psicologia Política em Portugal ser ainda moderada, são várias as investigações que enfatizam a saliência da relação entre a psicologia e a política, incluindo os fatores que predizem e medeiam o impacto a/da participação cívica e política.
... These systems are viewed as easy-to-use and 'objective' and as such, are rapidly gaining influence (Cheek, Garnham, & Quan, 2006). As a result, researchers working within emerging fields or from non-traditional epistemologies and methodologies may experience greater difficulties in promoting the quality of their research, gaining competitive funding, and achieving promotion, which further marginalises already marginalised research(ers) and further strengthens the status quo (Cheek et al., 2006;Rappaport, 2005). Indeed, research is becoming increasingly an entrepreneurial activity Psychology and Research 13 whereby researchers within the psy-complex are 'rewarded' for maintaining the prevailing state of affairs (Parker, 1999;Rose, 1996). ...
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Almost since its inception, the dominant narrative of modern psychology has embraced positivism through its insistence that psychological science is objective, generalisable, and value free (or neutral). Consequently, quantitative research and in particular, experimental designs, are privileged over other forms of enquiry and other epistemologies, methodologies, and methods remain marginalised within the discipline. Alternative epistemologies and methodologies remain predominantly at the margins within psychological research yet have resulted from the growing dissatisfaction with the dominance of positivism. We argue that the enduring hegemony of positivism needs to be opposed to enable psychology to genuinely understand the antecedents of, and provides meaningful sustainable solutions for, complex human issues without being constrained by a narrow focus on method. We discuss how psychology in Australia can move towards embracing methodological and epistemological pluralism and provide a number of suggestions for change across the interrelated areas of accreditation, curriculum, the Australian Psychological Society, and research.
... As a way of understanding the policy-making process and creating policy change, the evidence-based approach has been critiqued on several grounds: its roots in empiricism, its assumption that there are technical solutions to objective social problems, its inattention to values and the political context, and its over-reliance on quantitative data provided by research experts (Fischer 2003;Rappaport 2005; Stanhope and Dunn 2011). While it is important to base policy on evidence about what works, there is a danger that exclusive reliance on research evidence privileges the voices of researchers and professionals while diminishing the voices of disadvantaged citizens (Nelson et al. 2008). ...
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I present ideas about how community psychologists, as researcher-activists, can influence public policy. I begin by describing the current neo-liberal era, noting the immense obstacles it poses to progressive policy change. Next I contrast two approaches to understanding policy formation, evidence-based policy and discursive policy analysis, and argue that transformative policy change can benefit from both approaches. I then propose three types of policy outcomes that community psychology research and activism should aim to promote: (a) shaping problem definition, (b) controlling channels for debate and participation, and (c) allocating resources. I use examples from community psychologists' involvement in policy, mostly in Canada, to illustrate how such policy change can be both achieved and constrained. I conclude by discussing implications for theory and practice related to policy change.
... A vocal handful of our own students strongly resisted the fundamental class approach, with one student criticizing the class as a "community philosophy" course rather than "one centered on solid psychological findings." This important posting to our anonymous course message board prompted a class discussion on values and interpretation within social science (see the elaborated exploration of these questions in the AJCP special issue on community psychology and science, including those of the first author and a mentor, Rappaport, 2005& Hess, 2005. ...
... Otro modelo teórico, particularmente interesante, desde la perspectiva del desarrollo positivo, es el modelo del empoderamiento formulado por Rappaport (2005). Este enfoque parte del supuesto de que el bienestar de las personas depende de su capacidad para controlar el curso de sus vidas, tomar decisiones y plantearse cursos de acción ). ...
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RESUMEN El desarrollo positivo es el marco teórico que engloba el presente artículo. El objetivo fue ofrecer una visión general sobre los fundamentos teóricos que vertebran el desarrollo positivo; para posteriormente, profundizar en las características de los programas exitosos a nivel internacional de desarrollo positivo a través de la actividad física (como el programa SUPER, Firs Tee, Play it Smart, Sport Education y Teaching Personal and Socia Responsibility). Por último, se presentan una serie de recomendaciones para la implementación y evaluación de programas de desarrollo positivo a través de actividad física (como son: conseguir la implicación y motivación por participar en el programa del colectivo y comunidad, realizar una evaluación inicial de las necesidades, llevar a cabo la formación inicial y permanente de los mentores, evaluar tanto la fidelidad de la implementación, como el proceso y los resultados, para poder terminar con un análisis global del programa). PALABRAS CLAVE: Desarrollo positivo adolescente, actividad física, intervención educativa.
... As suggested by Beehler and Trickett in Chapter 23 of this volume, many of the same problematic assumptions initially challenged by community psychology are resurging in the evidence-based practice movement. Rappaport's (1981) pointed critiques of prevention and evidenced-based approaches (Rappaport, 2005) appear uncritically overlooked in much of the community psychology of the present, as the field opens itself to the charge of complicity in the promotion of programs designed, operated, and packaged by professionals for social agencies to use on, not with, people. ...
... Given these aims, the research was conducted using a community psychology approach that focuses on understanding people in the context of their communities and pursing social justice (Nelson & Prilletensky, 2010). Within this framework the researcher is positioned as a resource collaborator who works with a community to support them in telling their stories with a view to promote social change (Rappaport, 2005). This article focuses specifically on the way in which the interventions developed a connection to nature and links to wellbeing. ...
Article
This article uses ethnography to explore young people’s engagement with an intervention run by Feral Spaces, which was designed to promote a meaningful connection to a disused space. Over the course of 3 sessions, each lasting 2 hours, 7 young people aged between 11 and 12 years old took part in a range of den-building activities in a semi-wild area that was local to them. The sessions were recorded using audio and video equipment and an inductive thematic analysis informed by a realist framework was used to analyse the naturalistic data collected. The analysis presents 4 themes—(a) engaging with the environment, (b) developing a sense of awe and wonder, (c) respect and attachment to the space, and (d) a sense of belonging, which map out the young people’s growing connection to nature evidenced during the intervention. Within each of these themes the young people’s experiences are discussed in relation to theory of biophilia and the pathways to nature model to evaluate their relevance for researchers and practitioners who seek to understand children’s connection with nature and promote it. Furthermore, the positive relationships and emotions experienced during the intervention are explored. It is argued that the community-based intervention developed the young people’s understandings of the natural world and their confidence to engage with it in a personally meaningful way. This had positive implications in terms of supporting the young people’s wellbeing.
... Community psychologists use research and evaluation to inform practices and policies aimed to reduce disparities in mental and physical health, education, and other human rights issues (Rappaport, 2005). The field contributes to a nascent body of social research by providing practical models of participatory approaches in mixed methods designs, providing a body of work that demonstrates the inclusion and empowerment of stakeholders in mobilizing resources into social action (Arcidiacono, Velleman, & Procentese, 2009;Kloos et al., 2012;Nelson & Prilleltensky, 2005). ...
Article
Community psychologists address social inequalities and problems by employing ecological principles, multiple methodologies and participatory approaches to empower individuals, organizations, and communities to organize action and systems change. This paper aims to contribute to mixed methods literature by presenting three models of mixed methods participatory research across a variety of geographic and sociocultural contexts. The models outline participatory processes and points of qualitative and quantitative data integration. Challenges related to the interplay between participatory approaches and mixed methods studies as well as implications on social science research are discussed.
... O segundo desafio atual resume-se à necessidade de assegurar as condições fundamentais para que a educação sexual se desenvolva efetivamente como um projeto comunitário, respondendo às necessidades específicas do contextocomunidade, escola, turma -no qual se desenvolve, e não aos indicadores legais inscritos na Lei nº 60/2009 (Becker et al., 2004;Menezes, 2010); e potenciando a participação dos agentes da comunidade, nomeadamente dos estudantes e dos encarregados de educação, através de estratégias que vão ao encontro das suas necessidades e interesses e que fomentem a sua participação ativa, o que implica trabalhar com eles desde a conceção do projeto (Becker et al., 2004;Illback et al., 1990). (Rappaport, 2005), sendo a este nível essencial adequar o número de recursos humanos alocados à equipa de coordenação, os períodos de trabalho da mesma, bem como os critérios de seleção destes recursos e a sua formação, que deve ser adequada especificamente ao papel desempenhado pelos diferentes profissionais na educação sexual. ...
... Dentro del desarrollo positivo otro de los modelos existentes es el conocido como Modelo de Empowerment (empoderamiento), formulado por Rappaport (2005). Parte del supuesto de que el bienestar de las personas depende de su capacidad para tener el control de sus vidas, tomar decisiones y plantearse acciones (Buelga et al., 2009). ...
Thesis
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En la actualidad son recurrentes las investigaciones que tienen como objeto de estudio la aplicación en diferentes contextos educativos de los denominados modelos pedagógicos, entre los que se encuentra el Modelo de Responsabilidad Personal y Social (MRPS) de Donald Hellison (1978). Durante las últimas cuatro décadas se han elaborado programas de intervención orientados al desarrollo personal y social de niños y adolescentes en el ámbito de la actividad física y el deporte que han demostrado la eficacia de este modelo. La presente tesis doctoral tuvo como propósito la aplicación de un Programa de Responsabilidad Personal y Social (PRPS) en el marco del área de Educación Física de la etapa de Educación Primaria. Se planteó un diseño de investigación de método mixto caracterizado por la combinación de técnicas, instrumentos y métodos de carácter cuantitativo y cualitativo. El enfoque cualitativo se llevó cabo mediante un estudio de casos para conocer la opinión del profesorado sobre el plan de formación (PFP), saber qué efectos tiene en el profesorado la aplicación del PRPS y valorar el grado de fidelidad o seguimiento del profesorado a los principios del Modelo de Responsabilidad Personal y Social durante la implementación. Los instrumentos utilizados fueron dos grupos de discusión y la observación directa a través del Tool for Assessing Responsibility-based Education (TARE), traducido como “Instrumento de observación de las estrategias del profesorado para enseñar responsabilidad”. En el caso del enfoque cuantitativo se procedió con un diseño cuasi-experimental de tres medidas repetidas: pre-implementación, post-implementación y medida de seguimiento, con la presencia de un grupo experimental y de un grupo de control no equivalente, con el fin de evaluar los efectos del PRPS sobre el alumnado participante. Se utilizó una batería de cuestionarios como instrumentos de recogida de información compuesta por el Cuestionario de Responsabilidad Personal y Social (PSRQ), el Cuestionario de Percepción de Éxito (POSQ) y la Escala de Metas de Logro 2x2 en Educación Física (AGQ-PE). Participaron en el estudio un total de siete docentes y 265 estudiantes pertenecientes a cinco Colegios de Educación Infantil y Primaria (CEIP) de titularidad pública en la Comunidad Autónoma de Madrid (CAM), seleccionados a través de un muestreo no probabilístico de carácter incidental por motivo de viabilidad o acceso a los participantes. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron la satisfacción del profesorado participante en relación con el plan de formación recibido. Destacaron la idoneidad de ajustar las condiciones estructurales del PFP a sus escenarios laborales, otorgando gran importancia a los aprendizajes de carácter práctico y a la necesidad de contar con formación continua. En cuanto a las características que debe poseer el formador, mostraron su preferencia por un perfil que conozca de primera mano el contexto socio-económico de sus centros educativos de referencia y las problemáticas que los determinan. En lo que respecta a los efectos de la aplicación del PRPS sobre el alumnado y profesorado participante, se pudo observar que los estudiantes vieron incrementado los niveles de responsabilidad social tras la aplicación del programa, sin que se produjeran cambios significativos en las otras variables del estudio como la percepción de éxito y la orientación de metas de logro 2x2. Por otro lado, el profesorado participante manifestó una mejora de su competencia como docentes del área de Educación Física. En el mismo sentido, la adquisición de un conjunto de herramientas pedagógicas que les proporciona seguridad en su desempeño profesional diario y la posibilidad de afrontar con mayores garantías la resolución de conflictos dentro del aula, les hizo sentir docentes más cualificados. Sin embargo, la aplicación del PRPS no supuso un aumento del estatus del área de Educación Física entre los diferentes miembros de la comunidad educativa (familias, profesorado y alumnado), argumentando la necesidad de aplicar el programa en toda la etapa educativa a través de las distintas áreas curriculares. En cuanto a la fidelidad de implementación del PRPS al modelo original de Hellison, los resultados mostraron que no todos los elementos clave del programa tuvieron el protagonismo necesario. Hubo una escasa presencia de la estrategia de transferencia y una insuficiente cesión de autonomía a los estudiantes en el ámbito de la evaluación, catalogando por ello el nivel de fidelidad como moderado. Los presentes hallazgos demuestran la utilidad de programas educativos basados en el Modelo de Responsabilidad Personal y Social dentro del área de Educación Física en la Etapa de Educación Primaria e identifican posibles áreas de actuación para incrementar su eficacia.
... Unlike most other fields of psychology, CP adopts alternative epistemologies such as social constructionism and a diverse range of research approaches that include qualitative methodologies to investigate complex human phenomena (Orford, 2008;Rappaport, 2005;Trickett, 2009). Consequently, CP has remained relatively marginal, owing to the continuing dominance of positivism within Australian psychology (Breen & Darlaston-Jones, 2010;Rhodes & Langtiw, 2018). ...
Thesis
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The Community Psychology (CP) Master's program at Victoria University (VU) is currently the sole pathway to becoming a Community Psychologist in Australia. To date, there has been no research examining the experiences of CP students and graduates in Australia, and few studies have been published in other countries. In 2012, recognising the precarious position of CP in Australia, VU students decided to prepare written reflections on their experiences of training to become Community Psychologists. While students intended to analyse and publish these reflections, this task was left incomplete. This study sought to build on this work and fill the gap in research, by interviewing these students five years later to examine their early graduate experiences. This study adopted an insider approach as both researchers were acquainted with all six participants, and Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis was used in order to provide a rich insight into participants' lived experiences. This study's findings indicate that most participants pursued CP due to a deep disaffection with traditional psychology. In reflecting on their training, many participants valued the knowledge and skills they had gained through the course, and felt that it had positively impacted their perspectives and practice approach. While most participants were satisfied with their decision to pursue CP, many were disappointed with the lack of support they received from staff during the course as well as the poor awareness and recognition of CP in Australia. Lastly, most participants reported little engagement with the CP College, and many felt that gaining endorsement as a Community Psychologist was too difficult and not worth it. These findings raise concerns for the future of CP in Australia, and recommendations have been made to help foster the development of CP in Australia.
... The reproducibility movement has extensively promoted replication studies. Generally, these studies recruit a new participant sample, re-run an original study's procedures, and statistically test whether the new study's results "replicate" the original study's results by reaching statistical significance or showing a similar effect size. 4 Yet purely qualitative researchers often argue that their research is not meant to be replicable according to the rules and conventions of inferential statistics (e.g., Freeman, 2011;Rappaport, 2005). From that perspective, qualitative or MM researchers may justifiably wonder whether direct replication is relevant to their work. ...
Article
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A robust dialogue about the (un)reliability of psychological science findings has emerged in recent years. In response, metascience researchers have developed innovative tools to increase rigor, transparency, and reproducibility, stimulating rapid improvement and adoption of open science practices. However, existing reproducibility guidelines are geared toward purely quantitative study designs. This leaves some ambiguity as to how such guidelines should be implemented in mixed methods (MM) studies, which combine quantitative and qualitative research. Drawing on extant literature, our own experiences, and feedback from 79 self-identified MM researchers, the current paper addresses two main questions: (a) how and to what extent do existing reproducibility guidelines apply to MM study designs; and (b) can existing reproducibility guidelines be improved by incorporating best practices from qualitative research and epistemology? In answer, we offer 10 key recommendations for use within and outside of MM research. Finally, we argue that good science and good ethical practice are mutually reinforcing and lead to meaningful, credible science.
... También otros autores (Wilson y cols., 2008) señalan la relevancia de la ética en la construcción de una buena práctica profesional. De forma similar, Rappaport (2005) plantea que el papel de la cien-cia no debe limitarse a ser ciencia sino que debe ser algo más que ciencia, incluyendo conciencia crítica que permita la construcción de una sociedad mejor, esto es, un profesional debe implicarse, tomar conciencia de la situación en la que se encuentra la persona a la que apoya y situarse a su lado. Finalmente, Reinders (2010) plantea que para una excelente prestación del cuidado es necesario el establecimiento de relaciones de alta calidad entre el profesional y la persona a la que apoya. ...
... In short, we have an obligation to do "more than science" (Rappaport, 2005) and in doing so, can produce better science (Javdani, Singh, & Sichel, 2017). ...
Article
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Despite increasing research on suicide, we continue to see rising rates, particularly among youth. In answering recent calls for critical suicidology and transdisciplinary approaches to research, I discuss expanding beyond the paradigmatic confines of suicidology by proposing two related approaches to improve our science: intersectionality theory and socioecological theory. Following a discussion of social identity and its relation to suicide risk, I review the literature on these topics and highlight the importance of paying attention to the unique experiences of youth through the study of intersectionality and using socioecological models in our research moving forward.
... In addition, Indigenous SU researchers described challenges to this work that closely resembled familiar frustrations among community psychologists with regard to community research and action. These challenges included disciplinary biases toward reductionism and deficit models (Cowen, 2000;Kelly, 2006), insufficient federal funds available to support innovative CP research (Rappaport, 2005), challenges with measuring ecological constructs and models (Kelly, 1990;Luke, 2005), and shortcomings of established professional ethical standards (Campbell, 2017;Garc ıa & Tehee, 2014). Thus, Indigenous SU researchers are not only guided by similar principles, but they also share common frustrations with CP. ...
Article
Many Indigenous communities are concerned with substance use (SU) problems and eager to advance effective solutions for their prevention and treatment. Yet these communities also are concerned about the perpetuation of colonizing, disorder-focused, stigmatizing approaches to mental health, and social narratives related to SU problems. Foundational principles of community psychology-ecological perspectives, empowerment, sociocultural competence, community inclusion and partnership, and reflective practice-provide useful frameworks for informing ethical community-based research pertaining to SU problems conducted with and by Indigenous communities. These principles are explored and extended for Indigenous community contexts through themes generated from seven collaborative studies focused on understanding, preventing, and treating SU problems. These studies are generated from research teams working with Indigenous communities across the United States and Canada-inclusive of urban, rural, and reservation/reserve populations as well as adult and youth participants. Shared themes indicate that Indigenous SU research reflects community psychology principles, as an outgrowth of research agendas and processes that are increasingly guided by Indigenous communities. At the same time, this research challenges these principles in important ways pertaining to Indigenous-settler relations and Indigenous-specific considerations. We discuss these challenges and recommend greater synergy between community psychology and Indigenous research.
... Given these aims, the research was conducted using a community psychology approach that focuses on understanding people in the context of their communities and pursing social justice (Nelson & Prilletensky, 2010). Within this framework the researcher is positioned as a resource collaborator who works with a community to support them in telling their stories with a view to promote social change (Rappaport, 2005). This article focuses specifically on the way in which the interventions developed a connection to nature and links to wellbeing. ...
Article
This research identifies themes emerging from a children’s writing task, where they wrote about good things they noticed in nature over a five day period. Eighty four children aged nine to eleven participated, resulting in 847 written statements. Content analysis using an emergent coding approach identified ten themes, with “Active Animals” being the most frequently occurring theme. Combining the themes with pathways to nature connection provides an extended framework to inform children’s activity programmes, design of school grounds and urban spaces, aiming to connect children with nature. Future research could extend the framework into a practitioner’s tool kit.
... 10 During the years after my Ph.D., my emphasis on citizenship and politics became more and more central to my work-and so did my approach to Political Psychology and Citizenship Education, even if strongly flavoured with strong connections with other disciplines such as Educational Sciences, Political Science, Political Sociology, and Political Philosophy. My tendency to find crossing (disciplinary) borders more interesting than staying inside your "own discipline" (Rappaport 2005) did not start here, but the topic of my research clearly reinforced this. The fact that I got a position in the Department of Educational Sciences is both a recognition and a reinforcement of this tendency, as Educational Sciences are founded on disciplinary and methodological hybridism (Charlot 2006;Hofsteter 2012). ...
Chapter
In this chapter, I depart from my personal experience as a child in a country living through a revolution that restored democracy in Southern Europe. I discuss how the severe gender inequality of the dictatorship, the experience of living in a family with women working outside the home for four generations and the social climate of the times when “poetry was in the street”, to quote Sophia, a major Portuguese poet, paved my way to university. I will explore this in articulation with ideas of being tough (Nelson 2017), using humour (Billingsley 2017, 2019; Crawford 2003; Hart 2007; Watson 2011, 2015) and being explicitly feminist as strategies of resistance in a context where, the more you interact with power, the more you feel the misogyny (when not the open sexism) of the institution. I will be using proteins with an “intrinsically disordered nature” [I thank J.E.A. for suggesting it] (Uversky 2013) as a metaphor for my own multiple and diverse, yet strong, connections with academia.
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Community Psychology (CP) is a relatively young and marginalized discipline in Canada, with only four graduate programs, concentrated in two provinces–Ontario and Québec. Recognising the need to develop cohesion and an identity as a field, several senior Canadian community psychologists proposed hosting a biennial conference, which began in 2002 at the University of Ottawa. Starting in 2006, the conference became a forum for CP faculty, students, and community partners to collaboratively develop a vision for the future of CP in Canada. Diverse teams of conference participants were engaged in facilitated discussions, culminating in a plenary session in which delegates shared their perspectives with the larger group. Eight themes emerged from the visioning exercises in 2006, which led to the development of special interest groups in the following areas: developing a sense of identity; clarifying and defining the field of CP; raising the profile of CP in Canada; promoting a CP education across Canada; enhancing recognition, credibility, and accreditation; establishing links within the field of psychology; building interdisciplinary bridges; international and diverse perspectives; and promoting healthy communities through grassroots social action. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This article asks questions about the discourse in community psychology, specifically as it manifests in educational psychology research, in South Africa. With the articles in this special issue of Education as Change in mind, we examine the role of the ecology metaphor in this field and trace aspects of its articulation in a section of literature. We argue for a shared discursive practice of community psychology in a school context, with a language of description for the field that steers clear of clichés and rhetoric, and that uses the ecology metaphor aptly. We further make a case for educational psychologists – especially those working in the national and provincial departments of education – to be trained to do some of the large-scale preventative and interventionist research work. While endorsing what James Kelly refers to as the ‘constraints of pathology discourse’, we argue for a frame of reference that realistically elicits the strengths of a community and the agency of its members. We conclude by warning that small idiographic descriptive inquiries, coupled with similarly brief, smallscale interventions, cannot claim to be (comprehensive) ‘community’ interventions, but that they can be seen, rather, as ‘interventions in a community’.
The integration of treatment and psychiatric rehabilitation in mental health services is challenging to realize but essential for a mental health system that has endorsed recovery as its guiding vision. This paper advocates the use of tensions in practice as a means of reconciling integration issues and advancing recovery-oriented service delivery. The paper follows with three scenarios of daily tensions in practice that serve as a foundation for analyzing and ultimately reconciling tensions in integration. Finally, six guidelines covering a range of organizational, administrative, financial, and service delivery perspectives are provided to guide the development of integrated treatment and rehabilitation toward a recovery-oriented system.
Article
Interest in religion within the field of community psychology has steadily emerged within the last three decades. This interest has focused almost exclusively on the social benefits of religion, glossing over the often-contentious nature of religious life and the ways in which religious individuals and institutions can disrupt healthy human and community development. Considering the recent surge of interfaith conflicts and discriminatory practices targeting religious minorities in communities across the United States, it is imperative that community psychologists begin to examine relevant trends in interfaith relations and potential directions for action research and intervention. This paper serves as the beginning point of just such an examination, proposing a multilevel model for addressing the microsystemic, mesosystemic, and macrosystemic levels of interfaith phenomena. More specifically, I present interfaith contact, congregation-based community partnerships, and theological belief systems as particularly relevant to interfaith community research and intervention. Finally, I detail an interfaith organization that embodies these dimensions of interfaith relations and provides a concrete example of how a multilevel action research model may be effectively employed. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Community psychology blends psychological science, a community-level perspective on social issues, and a social justice orientation. Despite important difference between community psychology and program evaluation, program evaluation is a key component of many community psychologists’ practice and holds a central place in my own. In this essay, I reflect on the contributions of my community psychology training to my evaluation practice, which has centered on social justice issues primarily of HIV prevention and care and gay, bisexual, lesbian, and transgender concerns in communities of color. I also highlight tension between being a community psychologist as an advocate of justice and as an evaluator.
Article
Although community psychology claims to have a social justice-oriented value base, archival studies of publications in the field have identified deficits in marginalized group representation and a tendency for published work to perpetuate social exclusion. This disjuncture has implications for our understanding of power relations in community psychology scholarship. In this article, I analyze who is included and excluded in the participant choices of 895 empirical studies published in 4 international community psychology journals over a decade. The analysis shows that studies largely report on minority world populations that signify privileged social groups or fail to foreground groups affected by processes of social exclusion. I argue that understanding how knowledge creation may perpetuate social exclusion is fundamental to the role of community psychologists. The article highlights the consequences for the field of the choices of groups we choose to study and report on, as well as those we neglect, in knowledge-making enterprises.
Chapter
This chapter traces the cultural contours of "mental health" among the Gros Ventres of the Fort Belknap Indian reservation in north central Montana. This group configures wellness much differently than professional psychology, emphasizing respectful relationships instead of egonic individualism and the ritual circulation of sacred power instead of secular humanism. The chapter concludes with a few general observations regarding the promise of community psychology-especially in its recognition and celebration of narrative and empowerment-for assisting contemporary Native American communities in their efforts toward collective decolonization and communal healing.
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In this final chapter, Julian Rappaport reflects on the evolution of his thinking on empowerment and narrative methods over the years, and explicates his current thinking on the field's potential. In his words, "What matters is that we remain faithful to the underlying values, goals and intentions that have so often established us in settings as both insiders and outsiders, able to both advance and critique the many places where a progressive social and political agenda can benefit from a research-based scholarly analysis".
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In this concluding essay, we review the case studies presented in this Special Issue and examine whether community psychology has a distinctive approach to defining and resolving the core ethical canons of the Belmont Report (1979): Respect for Persons, Beneficence, and Justice. For two of these Principles—Respect for Persons and Beneficence—community psychologists elaborate upon and extend their definitions to consider their meaning in community-based, social justice-oriented research. The field's approach to Respect for Persons is multilevel in nature; in addition to respecting individuals and their diverse identities, we also have obligations to respect our community partnerships, the communities with whom we work, and the populations and cultures represented in our work. Similarly, for community psychologists, Beneficence is a multilevel construct that considers risks and benefits at the group, community, and cultural levels of analysis. With respect to Justice, community psychologists’ views of our ethical responsibilities are qualitatively different in meaning from the original Belmont Report and from disciplinary-specific interpretations of this principle in ethical guidance documents from psychology, sociology, and evaluation. Our valuing of social change demands that we contribute to individual and group empowerment and liberation, and in so doing, that we avoid collusion with oppressive systems. Thus, we define our ethical responsibilities for promoting Justice as more action-oriented than do other disciplines. The essay closes with an exploration of future directions for developing a comprehensive ethical framework for community psychology.
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We conducted a collaborative action research project with stakeholders in Detroit, Michigan, to develop long-term policy strategies to resolve ~11,000 untested rape kits that were discovered in a police storage facility in August 2009. In our research, we uncovered overwhelming evidence of victim-blaming behaviors and fundamental disrespect of rape survivors by the police, which directly contributed to their decisions not to submit kits for forensic testing. We had an ethical responsibility to report these negative findings accurately and completely, and in doing so, we were concerned that police stakeholders might disengage from the action research project and hamper our other ethical responsibilities to promote general and public welfare. In this article, we examine the ethical challenges of balancing accountability, collaboration, and social change.
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In this paper we assume a broad conception of political psychological that recognizes its disciplinary, theoretical and methodological pluralism. As a result, we review research from diverse disciplines in the social sciences that either focus on the relationship between psychology and politics or emphasize the role of power, participation and oppression in the production of marginalization, empowerment and social change. The studies presented here are organized into four main topics: (i) ideology, values e attitudes; (ii) civic culture, social capital and electoral behavior; (iii) power, social relationships and deviant territories; and (iv) civic and political participation, empowerment and social change. Even if the institutionalization and dissemination of political psychology in Portugal is recent, research appears to recognize the need for a deeper understanding of the relationship between psychology and politics, including the factors that predict and mediate the impact of civic and political participation.
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Research methods in community psychology have grown more diverse since the Swampscott conference, but rigorous social experiments maintain a place among the multiplicity of methods that can promote community psychology values. They are particularly influential in policy circles. Two examples of social experiments to end homelessness for different populations illustrate their role. Both studies show that offering extremely poor and disenfranchised people autonomy and the resources they seek works better than “helping” them to overcome deficits in ways designed by well-meaning service providers. Experiments are neither the first nor the last method community psychologists should employ, but are a critical part of the field's armamentarium for systems change.
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Grounded in the trichotomous model of achievement goals (Elliot, 1999; Elliot & Church, 1997), the purpose of this cross-sectional study was to test a model that analyzed the hypothesized effects of the perceived motivational climate on achievement goals and the consequences of the multiple goals on self-determined motivation. Participants were 370 young male soccer players aged 12 - 16 years (M age = 14.77, SD = .72) who completed a multi-section questionnaire tapping the targeted variables. Path analysis results showed task involving climate was a positive predictor of mastery approach goal emphasis while ego involving climate was a positive predictor of performanceapproach goals. In turn, mastery approach was a positive predictor of self-determined motivation while performance and avoidance approach were negative predictors. The results highlight the importance of the coach in the promotion of self-determined motivation in sport domain.
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This paper examines theories and concepts relevant to sociopolitical development (SPD). As an emerging theory, SPD expands on empowerment and similar ideas related to social change and activism in community psychology--oppression, liberation, critical consciousness, and culture among them. SPD is the process by which individuals acquire the knowledge, analytical skills, emotional faculties, and the capacity for action in political and social systems necessary to interpret and resist oppression. Equally as important is a vision of liberation that is an alternative to oppressive conditions. All of these concepts have been underemphasized in the social change literature of U.S. community psychology. In our view, sociopolitical development is vital to human development and the creation of a just society. As part of identifying and illustrating concepts and processes relevant to SPD theory, we will draw from the words of young African American activists who were interviewed as part of a research study.
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A major goal of community science is to improve the quality of life in our communities by improving the quality of the practice of treatment, prevention, health promotion, and education. Community science is an interdisciplinary field, which develops and researches community-centered models that enable communities to use evidence-based interventions more effectively and efficiently. In this article, the gap between science and practice and the need to bridge the gap with new models serve as an entry point and guide to the development of a community science. Therefore, the article describes (1) the "prevention science" model of bringing science to practice, (2) why this model is necessary but not sufficient for influencing the quality of interventions in our everyday world, (3) the gap between science and practice and the need to integrate "prevention science" models with community-centered models in order to bridge the gap, and (4) features of community science.
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Community psychology in general and the field of prevention in particular has unquestioningly accepted the assumption that the research process should proceed in a linear fashion from a search for basic knowledge to application in the community context. This ignores the compelling insight offered by Stokes (1997) that the drive for new knowledge and the pursuit of application can be combined in a single effort. If research in community psychology pursues the drive for application without an equal commitment to the development of knowledge about underlying community processes of social cooperation and change, it will become a field less capable of innovative and enduring contributions to community well-being and effectiveness Opportunities abound in community psychology for the simultaneous pursuit of new knowledge and more effective practice. We offer the example of a community leadership development program to promote collective efficacy as a case in point.
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A major goal of community science is to improve the quality of life in our communities by improving the quality of the practice of treatment, prevention, health promotion, and education. Community science is an interdisciplinary field, which develops and researches community‐centered models that enable communities to use evidence‐based interventions more effectively and efficiently. In this article, the gap between science and practice and the need to bridge the gap with new models serve as an entry point and guide to the development of a community science. Therefore, the article describes (1) the “prevention science” model of bringing science to practice, (2) why this model is necessary but not sufficient for influencing the quality of interventions in our everyday world, (3) the gap between science and practice and the need to integrate “prevention science” models with community‐centered models in order to bridge the gap, and (4) features of community science.
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This paper examines theories and concepts relevant to sociopolitical development (SPD). As an emerging theory, SPD expands on empowerment and similar ideas related to social change and activism in community psychology—oppression, liberation, critical consciousness, and culture among them. SPD is the process by which individuals acquire the knowledge, analytical skills, emotional faculties, and the capacity for action in political and social systems necessary to interpret and resist oppression. Equally as important is a vision of liberation that is an alternative to oppressive conditions. All of these concepts have been underemphasized in the social change literature of U.S. community psychology. In our view, sociopolitical development is vital to human development and the creation of a just society. As part of identifying and illustrating concepts and processes relevant to SPD theory, we will draw from the words of young African American activists who were interviewed as part of a research study.
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The new prevention science put forward by the National Institute of Mental Health and by the Institute of Medicine advocates strict experimental interventions with controls to reduce risks for psychiatric disorders, Articles by R. F. Munoz, P. J. Mrazek, and R. J. Haggerty (1996, this issue), K. Heller (1996, this issue), and D. Reiss and R. H. Price (1996, this issue) support, elaborate and discuss this agenda. Issues that seem controversial include (a) the use of risk reduction of psychiatric disorders as the criteria for acceptable research, (b) rejection of studies of competence promotion as not aimed at specific disorders, and (c) rejection of prevention studies, done before the counterrevolution that occurred in 1980 and thereafter, that advocated social and political change aimed at achieving social equality for disadvantaged groups. Arguments against the restricted new approach are presented.
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Inspired by a literary-feminist reading of biblical texts, it is suggested that the mission of community psychology/social science can be understood as a calling to use our tools (research methods, critical analysis and observation, scholarship, social influence) to assist others in the job of turning tales of terror into tales of joy. Such work is the essence of personal and social change. These are not things we can do alone; they require collaboration between us and the people of concern. Applying concepts from narrative theory, including description and critical analysis of community and setting narratives, dominant cultural narratives, and personal stories, we can learn from our own communities and we can use our resources to help make known (perhaps even help to imagine new) tales of joy. Some of these themes are illustrated in three very different contexts: a religious community that has made itself inclusive of gay and lesbian people, a mutual help organization that offers a sense of community and hope for the future to people with a history of serious mental illness, and a public elementary school.
Chapter
There are four compelling reasons why community psychologists should be directly concerned with community and neighborhood organization: 1 Community organizing, through both the process and product of action, should ordinarily lead to personal empowerment, wellness, and increased competence for those involved; that is, to individual outcomes that are among the primary goals of our discipline 2 Community organization, when successful, should also result in better communities; “better” in terms of the community’s expressed needs. That is, there should bebona fide community accomplishments to point to and tangible improvements in place 3 Scholarly reports (e.g., Berry, Portney, & Thomson, 1993; Fisher, 1985; Homan, 1994; Mattaini & Thyer, 1996; Mattesich & Monsey, 1997; Minkler, 1997; Mondros & Wilson; 1994; Mott, 1997; Wandersman & Florin, Chapter, 11, this volume; Wittig & Bettencourt, 1996) and popular accounts as well (e.g., Alinsky, 1971; Dyson & Dyson, 1989; Kahn, 1982; Medoff & Sklar, 1994) suggest that community organization does, in fact, lead to such positive outcomes, for both individuals and communities. Moreover, psychological research suggests that community organization may have additional personal and social consequences that we view as desirable: greater happiness(Campbell, 1981; Diener, 1984), increased neighboring (Ahlbrandt, 1984), stronger social support networks (Pilisuk & Parks, 1986; Taylor, Repetti, & Seeman, 1997), and lower individual and community pathology (Aneshensel, 1992; Gesten & Jason, 1987; Heller, 1990; House, Umberson, & Landis, 1988; Kretzmann & McKnight, 1993; Naparstek, Biegel, & Spiro, 1982; Rodin, 1985) 4 Finally, in times of economic downturn or worse, community organization can stimulate cooperation and local self-reliance, at little or no cost, thus cushioning and protecting the community from outside adversity
Chapter
The science fiction author Arthur C. Clarke wrote “The only way of discovering the limits of the possible is to venture a little way past them into the impossible…and any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic.” Mr. Clarke’s laws of prediction capture the romance of e-mental health. More concretely, telemedicine (direct patient care) and telehealth (medical records, preventive medicine training) both describe the use of medical information exchanged from one site to another via electronic communications to improve patients’ health status, generally via the Internet or telephony.
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In this paper, the authors outline how quality can be judged in “the typical product of alternative paradigm inquiry,” the case report. Their earlier work has focused on judging the quality of the inquiry process; this paper focuses on the product. They propose and discuss four criteria: resonance, rhetoric, empowerment, and applicability.
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Contrasts the naturalistic research paradigm with the scientific model, noting that the naturalistic paradigm assumes multiple reality, subject-object interrelatedness, and contextuality. Skills required for the pursuit of naturalistic inquiry are described. (JEG)
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The nature of scientific problem-solving has been assumed to be appropriate to all problems, including those in the social realm. There are no intractable problems. If problems in the social realm seem intractable, it is assumed that it is because they have not been formulated and attacked scientifically. The social scientists who entered social action after World War II, armed with theories and scientifically tested knowledge, found a world that would not bend to their paradigms. They entered a world governed by values, not facts, where persuasion and power were in the service of different definitions of age-old questions, where the relationship between action and values was more crucial to living than was the requirement that action lead to a solution. Many social scientists reacted with either petulance or bewilderment, and their attempts at social change fared poorly. A malaise set in, a crisis of confidence. How does one justify trying to cope with what may be intractable problems? The nature of the questions belies its origins in the assumption of science that one has to believe that all problems are solvable. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Considers that the goal of psychology, i.e., understanding the mind, must be approached gradually, but kept in sight, for forgetting this may result in psychologists becoming mere technicians. As a biological science psychology (including social psychology) must eschew vitalism, regarding mind as the capacity for thought and thought as an activity of the brain. Psychology cannot emulate the humanities, which also provide knowledge of man. Certain aspects of thought are discussed. It is argued that (a) free will is a biologically evident phenomenon in higher animals; (b) creativity is a function of "the unconscious," but there is no conscious in the corresponding sense; and (c) thought is inveterately attracted by the unsolved or insoluble problem and even by outright contradiction. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Sarason is concerned with the underlying logic of settings, their origins and social contexts. He provides a conceptual framework for what happens when "two or more people come together in new and sustained relationships to attain stated objectives." Consider the many familiar settings: marriages, clinics, families, schools, youth centers, conventions, and plays. Sarason offers a detailed analysis of the social process of creating a setting, with examples drawn from education, mental health, architecture, history, political science, government, and other fields. In identifying settings that succeed, he asks such questions as: What kinds of leadership do they require? This neglected problem provides endless fascination for a critical set of issues. Social scientists, psychologists, and researchers in related fields will find this a challenging study. Leaders in any field who are engaged in enterprises involving new settings will find that it has immediate practical value. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
While investigative reporting, participant-observer research, and research within the clinical interaction have the advantage of bringing the investigator close to the phenomena of interest, such methods are faulty when subject to no discipline. An analysis of All the President's Men indicates that investigative reporting is a search for evidence to justify publication of a story. The reliability of the evidence is probed by a number of controls, particularly in the editorial process. The analog of replication exists; competitive newspapers check each other's stories and add additional features. The inference process is thus limited by several social controls. Moreover, the method requires theory to guide investigation and can result in concepts and models that have significance beyond the unique set of events for which they were developed. Social science research and investigative reporting differ in their emphasis on the value of abstractions and on the importance of the meaning–feeling dimension of experience. Investigative reporting may provide suggestions for developing teachable, disciplined methods for field research and clinical and case studies. (31 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Discusses citizen participation and community organizations, and how they play important societal roles in work settings, health care programs and environments, neighborhood planning and rehabilitation, human service agencies, and political participation. The authors examine central issues in citizen participation, including individual difference characteristics such as demographic and cognitive social learning variables, environmental characteristics involving the physical environment and groups, and organizational characteristics such as form, structure, and participation within organizations. The effects of the participation are then evaluated in terms of these 3 groupings of citizen characteristics. These evaluations include discussions on the impact of citizen participation on physical and social conditions, interpersonal relationships, and the individual. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
have made the case for adoption of an empowerment agenda as the phenomenon of interest for theory development, as the goal of social and community intervention, and as an organizing force for maintaining community psychology as a social movement / intend to raise some research implications for those who do hold an empowerment social agenda concerned with some orienting assumptions and implications for research practices that are consistent with an empowerment agenda / much of the concern has been with the "how" of doing research than with the content (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The emergence of a new paradigm of inquiry (naturalistic) has, unsurprisingly enough, led to a demand for rigorous criteria that meet traditional standards of inquiry. Two sets are suggested, one of which, the “trustworthiness” criteria, parallels conventional criteria, while the second, “authenticity” criteria, is implied directly by new paradigm assumptions.
Article
Discusses the definition of problems and causal attribution bias in psychological research into social problems. An analysis of the literature on blacks covered in Psychological Abstracts during a 6-mo period indicates the types of variables studied (person vs. situation) and the causal relationships between them. It is concluded that too much research emphasis is placed on "blaming" the personal characteristics of those experiencing problems, and that greater attention should be given to the possible influence of external factors. (21 ref.)
Article
Advocates that psychologists: broaden definitions of therapeutic activities, expand their definitions for the criteria of competent helpers, become participants in their local communities, and alter time perspectives. It is suggested that existing professional roles are invalid and that ecological concepts are useful in creating new roles. 7 ideas for improving training of community psychologists are presented: (a) field assessment for selection of community psychologists, (b) continuous interagency interaction, (c) developing a longitudinal perspective, (d) mixing theory and practice, (e) taking advantage of community events, (f) identification of community resources, and (g) up-dating the community psychologist.
Article
The new prevention science put forward by the National Institute of Mental Health and by the Institute of Medicine advocates strict experimental interventions with controls to reduce risks for psychiatric disorders. Articles by R. F. Muñoz, P. J. Mrazek, and R. J. Haggerty (1996, this issue), K. Heller (1996, this issue), and D. Reiss and R. H. Price (1996, this issue) support, elaborate, and discuss this agenda. Issues that seem controversial include (a) the use of risk reduction of psychiatric disorders as the criteria for acceptable research, (b) rejection of studies of competence promotion as not aimed at specific disorders, and (c) rejection of prevention studies, done before the counterrevolution that occurred in 1980 and thereafter, that advocated social and political change aimed at achieving social equality for disadvantaged groups. Arguments against the restricted new approach are presented.
Article
A multidisciplinary and multilevel framework for social transformation is proposed, encompassing four foundational goals: capacity-building, group empowerment, relational community-building, and culture-challenge. Intervention approaches related to each goal are presented at the setting, geographic community, and societal levels. Four exemplars of social transformation work are then discussed: the Accelerated Schools Project, Meyerhoff Program, ManKind Project, and women's movement. These examples illustrate the synergistic relationship among the four transformational goals, within and across levels of analysis, which is at the heart of the social transformation process. The paper concludes with three challenges to guide our efforts as we enter the new century: (1) to move social transformation to the center of our consciousness as a field; (2) to articulate jointly with allied disciplines, organizations, and citizen groups an encompassing, multidisciplinary, and multilevel framework for social transformation; and (3) to do the above with heart, soul, and humility.
Article
Inspired by a literary-feminist reading of biblical texts, it is suggested that the mission of community psychology/social science can be understood as a calling to use our tools (research methods, critical analysis and observation, scholarship, social influence) to assist others in the job of turning tales of terror into tales of joy. Such work is the essence of personal and social change. These are not things we can do alone; they require collaboration between us and the people of concern. Applying concepts from narrative theory, including description and critical analysis of community and setting narratives, dominant cultural narratives, and personal stories, we can learn from our own communities and we can use our resources to help make known (perhaps even help to imagine new) tales of joy. Some of these themes are illustrated in three very different contexts: a religious community that has made itself inclusive of gay and lesbian people, a mutual help organization that offers a sense of community and hope for the future to people with a history of serious mental illness, and a public elementary school.
Article
The concept of "science" linked to the concept of "community psychology" requires adaptation. In the case of community psychology, science is public to citizens as well as to the scientist. The community psychologist, as scientist, works from the expectation that choices of topics, methods, and interpretation of findings are done in concert with representatives of the community. The following remarks offer 7 ways to keep vital the research of the community psychologist while contributing to robust and useful knowledge.
Article
One of the most important contributions of community psychology is to have community interventions that have intended outcomes and to describe the intervention in ways that are sufficiently complete and replicable. However, the descriptions we have are too incomplete. A suggestion is made for how the field should take steps to remedy the weaknesses.
Women’s ways of knowing
  • M F Belenky
  • B Clinchy
  • Mcv
  • N R Goldenberger
  • J M Tarule