Brown TT, Cole SR, Li X, Kingsley LA, Palella FJ, Riddler SA, et al. Antiretroviral therapy and the prevalence and incidence of diabetes mellitus in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study

ArticleinArchives of Internal Medicine 165(10):1179-84 · June 2005with44 Reads
DOI: 10.1001/archinte.165.10.1179 · Source: PubMed
Abstract
The risk of diabetes mellitus (DM) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has not been well defined. We conducted an analysis in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study to determine the prevalence and incidence of DM in this cohort of HIV-infected and HIV-seronegative men. Prevalence analysis included 1278 men (710 HIV seronegative and 568 HIV infected, 411 receiving HAART) with fasting glucose concentration determinations at baseline. Incidence analysis included 680 of these 1278 men who at the baseline visit had a fasting glucose concentration of 98 mg/dL (5.4 mmol/L) or less, no self-reported history of DM, and no self-reported use of antidiabetic medication. Diabetes mellitus was defined as a fasting glucose concentration of 126 mg/dL (7 mmol/L) or higher, self-reported diagnosis of DM, or self-reported use of antidiabetic medication. Fifty-seven (14%) of the 411 HIV-infected men using HAART at the baseline visit had prevalent DM compared with 33 (5%) of the 711 HIV-seronegative men (prevalence ratio = 4.6; 95% confidence interval, 3.0-7.1, adjusted for age and body mass index [calculated as weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters]). The rate of incident DM was 4.7 cases per 100 person-years among HIV-infected men using HAART compared with 1.4 cases per 100 person-years among HIV-seronegative men (rate ratio = 4.11; 95% confidence interval, 1.85-9.16, adjusted for age and body mass index), during the 4-year observation period, based on a median follow-up of 2.3 years. The incidence of DM in HIV-infected men with HAART exposure was greater than 4 times that of HIV-seronegative men, representing a risk that is higher than previous estimates.
    • "This may be due to residual immune activation associated with HIV infection despite the achievement of virus suppression [26]. Some antiretroviral agents also appear to contribute to cardiovascular risk, either independently or in part mediated by an increased risk of dyslipidaemia and insulin resistance [27, 28]. However, the majority of excess cardiovascular risk in PWHIV is due to a high prevalence of established modifiable risk factors, particularly smoking and dyslipidaemia [29, 30]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background The leading causes of morbidity and mortality for people in high-income countries living with HIV are now non-AIDS malignancies, cardiovascular disease and other non-communicable diseases associated with ageing. This protocol describes the trial of HealthMap, a model of care for people with HIV (PWHIV) that includes use of an interactive shared health record and self-management support. The aims of the HealthMap trial are to evaluate engagement of PWHIV and healthcare providers with the model, and its effectiveness for reducing coronary heart disease risk, enhancing self-management, and improving mental health and quality of life of PWHIV. Methods/Design The study is a two-arm cluster randomised trial involving HIV clinical sites in several states in Australia. Doctors will be randomised to the HealthMap model (immediate arm) or to proceed with usual care (deferred arm). People with HIV whose doctors are randomised to the immediate arm receive 1) new opportunities to discuss their health status and goals with their HIV doctor using a HealthMap shared health record; 2) access to their own health record from home; 3) access to health coaching delivered by telephone and online; and 4) access to a peer moderated online group chat programme. Data will be collected from participating PWHIV (n = 710) at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months and from participating doctors (n = 60) at baseline and 12 months. The control arm will be offered the HealthMap intervention at the end of the trial. The primary study outcomes, measured at 12 months, are 1) 10-year risk of non-fatal acute myocardial infarction or coronary heart disease death as estimated by a Framingham Heart Study risk equation; and 2) Positive and Active Engagement in Life Scale from the Health Education Impact Questionnaire (heiQ). Discussion The study will determine the viability and utility of a novel technology-supported model of care for maintaining the health and wellbeing of people with HIV. If shown to be effective, the HealthMap model may provide a generalisable, scalable and sustainable system for supporting the care needs of people with HIV, addressing issues of equity of access. Trial registration Universal Trial Number (UTN) U111111506489; ClinicalTrial.gov Id NCT02178930 submitted 29 June 2014
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2016
    • "One possible explanation is that the use of cART was associated with a significantly higher risk of insulin resistance and diabetes in HIV-infected patients [6,7, 29] . In the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) performed in the US, the prevalence of diabetes adjusted for age and BMI among seropositive patients taking antiretroviral therapy was 4.6 times greater than among seronegative patients (14% in HIV-infected patients vs. 5% in non–HIV-infected patients) [13]. However, in their cohort of 1046 HIV-infected patients, Capeu et al [5] found a decreasing trend for the incidence of diabetes mellitus over time, from 23.2 cases/1000 person-years in 1999–2000 to 2.7 cases/1000 person-years in 2005–2006, and concluded that the decline in incidence over time may reflect changes in cART practices and the development of less toxic cART alternatives. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: To describe trends in the prevalence of diabetes among hospitalized HIV-infected patients between 1997 and 2012 in Spain and compare them with those of age- and sex-matched non-HIV-infected patients. Methods: The study was based on Spanish national hospital discharge data. We performed a retrospective study for the period 1997-2012. HIV infection (HIV-infected versus non-HIV-infected [control group])and calendar period in relation to widespread use of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) (1997-1999; 2000-2003; 2004-2007 and 2008-2012), were the exposure variables The outcome variables were diagnosis of diabetes and in-hospital mortality (IHM). Results: From 1997 to 2012, we identified 91,752 cases of diabetes: 15,398 in the HIV-infected group (403,277 hospital admissions) and 76,354 in the non-HIV-infected group (1,503,467 hospital admissions). Overall, HIV-infected patients had lower prevalence values for diabetes than non-HIV-infected patients throughout the follow-up (3.8% vs. 5.1%; p<0.001). The prevalence of diabetes increased 1.56-fold among non-HIV-infected patients and 4.2-fold among HIV-infected patients. The prevalence of diabetes in females was almost twice as high in HIV-infected patients as in non-HIV-infected patients during the last study period (4.72% vs. 2.88%; p<0.001). Diabetes showed a protective effect against IHM throughout the study period (aOR = 0.70; 95%CI, 0.65-0.75). Conclusions: During the cART era, the prevalence of diabetes has increased sharply among HIV-infected hospitalized patients compared with matched non-HIV-infected subjects. The prevalence of diabetes is rising very fast among HIV-infected women. Diabetes has a protective effect on IHM among HIV-infected patients. Nevertheless, our study has several limitations. No information is available in the database used on important sociodemographic characteristics and relevant clinical variables including duration of the HIV infection, treatments used, drug resistance, treatment adherence or CD4 count, among others. Also, it is possible that increase of diabetes prevalence could reflect the improvement in recording habits.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2016
    • "The ADA suggests using two FPG to diagnose DM, but a confirmatory measurement was not routinely available in this LMIC. However, prior studies have reported DM incidence using one FPG measurement.[27][28][29]Many lipid panels were not fractionated, which narrowed our definition for dyslipidemia and reduced the number of patients for whom we could calculate CVD risk scores. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading health threat for HIV+ patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART); cardiometabolic comorbidities are key predictors of risk. Data are limited on incidence of metabolic comorbidities in HIV+ individuals initiating ART in low and middle income countries (LMICs), particularly for Hispanics. We examined incidence of diabetes and obesity in a prospective cohort of those initiating ART in the Dominican Republic. Methods: Participants ≥18 years, initiating ART <90 days prior to study enrollment, were examined for incidence of impaired fasting glucose (IFG), diabetes mellitus (DM), overweight, and obesity. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) 100-125mg/dl defined IFG; FPG ≥126 mg/dl, diagnosis per medical record, or use of hypoglycemic medication defined DM. Overweight and obesity were BMI 25-30 and ≥30kg/m2, respectively. Dyslipidemia was total cholesterol ≥240mg/dl or use of lipid-lowering medication. Framingham risk equation was used to determine ten-year CVD risk at the end of observation. Results: Of 153 initiating ART, 8 (6%) had DM and 23 (16%) had IFG at baseline, 6 developed DM (28/1000 person-years follow up [PYFU]) and 46 developed IFG (329/1000 PYFU). At baseline, 24 (18%) were obese and 36 (27%) were overweight, 15 became obese (69/1000 PYFU) and 22 became overweight (163/1000 PYFU). Median observation periods for the diabetes and obesity analyses were 23.5 months and 24.3 months, respectively. Increased CVD risk (≥10% 10-year Framingham risk score) was present for 13% of the cohort; 79% of the cohort had ≥1 cardiometabolic comorbidity, 48% had ≥2, and 13% had all three. Conclusions: In this Hispanic cohort in an LMIC, incidences of IFG/DM and overweight/obesity were similar to or higher than that found in high income countries, and cardiometabolic disorders affected three-quarters of those initiating ART. Care models incorporating cardiovascular risk reduction into HIV treatment programs are needed to prevent CVD-associated mortality in this vulnerable population.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2016
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