Validity of Antonovsky's Sense of Coherence Scale – a systematic review

Nordic School of Public Health, Box 12133, S-40242 Gothenburg, Sweden.
Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health (Impact Factor: 3.5). 07/2005; 59(6):460-6. DOI: 10.1136/jech.2003.018085
Source: PubMed


The aim of this paper is to systematically review and analyse the validity and reliability of Antonovsky's life orientation questionnaire/sense of coherence scale (SOC).
The study is descriptive and analytical with a systematic integration of the contemporary knowledge base on the salutogenic research published 1992-2003. The review includes 458 scientific publications and 13 doctoral theses.
Worldwide, based on postgraduate scientific publications in eight authorized databases, doctoral theses, and available books.
The SOC questionnaire has been used in at least 33 languages in 32 countries with at least 15 different versions of the questionnaire. In 124 studies using SOC-29 the Cronbach's alpha ranges from 0.70 to 0.95. The alpha values in 127 studies using SOC-13 range from 0.70 to 0.92, and in 60 studies using a modified SOC scale range from 0.35 to 0.91. Test-retest correlation show stability and range from 0.69 to 0.78 (1 year), 0.64 (3 years), 0.42 to 0.45 (4 years), 0.59 to 0.67 (5 years) to 0.54 (10 years). The means of SOC-29 range 100.50 (SD 28.50) to 164.50 (SD 17.10) points and SOC-13 from 35.39 (SD 0.10) to 77.60 (SD 13.80) points. After 10 years SOC seems to be comparatively stable, but not as stable as Antonovsky initially assumed. SOC tends to increase with age. The factorial structure of SOC seems rather to be multidimensional than unidimensional. SOC predicts a positive outcome in a long term perspective, although there are divergent findings reported. The SOC scale seems to be a reliable, valid, and cross culturally applicable instrument measuring how people manage stressful situations and stay well.

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    • "The questionnaire has been discussed and found to be valid and reliable [31]. Weak SOC is estimated at a cut-off of ≤57 and strong SOC as ≥75 [30] [31]. "
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    • "In a systematic review regarding the validity and reliability of the SOC scale, the Cronbach α ranged from 0.70 to 0.92(Lindstrom and Eriksson 2005). Our study reported a Cronbach α value of 0.784 which is acceptable. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To assess the content validity and reliability of the 13-item Sense of Coherence (SOC) scale among 13-15 year old school children in Chennai city. Participants: A total of 258, 13 – 15 year old ethnic Dravidian students from two randomly selected schools within Chennai city, present on both days of the study were included. Study design: A cross sectional study. Method: The 13-item Sense of Coherence questionnaire was translated to the vernacular, back translated and subjected to expert opinion to check its validity. The 13-item SOC questionnaire was used to assess the Sense of Coherence of the selected school students. The questionnaire was re-administered after one week to measure to measure Internal consistency reliability and Infraclass correlation coefficient. Results: The Internal consistency reliability checked using Cronbach α was found to be 0.784. The intra class correlation coefficient was 0.7 and remained the same with an item deleted. Conclusion: Our results suggest that the 13 item SOC questionnaire is a valid and reliable epidemiological tool among an adolescent Dravidian population in Chennai city. Further studies are recommended to assess the stability of SOC concept over a period of time.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016
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    • "The questionnaire is based on self-report, and the scale consists of 13 items on a seven-point Likert scale, and they cover the three dimensions of SOC: comprehensibility – the cognitive component (five items); manageability – the instrumental or behavioral component (four items); and meaningfulness – the motivational component (four items), The SOC-13 scale is regarded as a reliable and valid instrument, with a reported internal consistency (Cronbach's α) of 0.70-0.92 (Eriksson and Lindström, 2005). In the present study, the Cronbach's score was 0.65. "
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to investigate changes in, and associations between, sense of coherence (SOC) and emotional distress in women who participated in an accredited motivational program (VINN) in correctional institutions in five countries. Design/methodology/approach - A prospective study with a pre- and post-test design included 316 participants from Sweden, Estonia, Denmark, Russia and Norway. Global emotional distress was measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. SOC was measured using the 13-item Orientation to Life Questionnaire. One-way analysis of variance and multilevel regression models were used in the statistical analyses. Findings - An increase in SOC was associated with a decrease in emotional distress. Emotional distress decreased significantly -3.80 points (95 percent CI (-4.61, -2.97)), and SOC significantly improved from pre- to post-measurement by 1.82 points (95 percent CI (0.72, 2.92)), regardless of country and correctional institution. Practical implications - The results add new knowledge regarding a coherent theoretical foundation of a motivational program for women. The ability of a program promoting health is important for researchers, health-care workers and facilitators delivering programs for women in correctional facilities. An increase in SOC can act as a protective factor in order to manage stressors and risk factors among women serving in correctional facilities. Originality/value - The present study indicates that enhancing women's coping resources and providing income alternatives to crime is fundamental to their capacity to desist from criminal behavior.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · International Journal of Prisoner Health
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