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A study of elder abuse in Korea

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Abstract

This study investigates the state of elder abuse in Korea, and its related factors in a population-based survey. A total of 15,230 persons were interviewed at their homes in 1999. The rate of old people who experienced any one category of abuse was 6.3%, and emotional abuse was the most frequent while physical abuse was least prevalent. The experience of abuse seemed to be associated with personal characteristics such as age, gender, educational level, and economic dependency as well as the physical and mental health status. In addition, family characteristics such as the type of household, the family's economic level, and the quality of family relations were found to be associated with the presence of abuse.

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... A idade foi estudada em quatro pesquisas, em dois artigos viu-se que ser menor de 70 anos é risco para sofrer violência 10,14 , o que divergiu com outros dois artigos que demonstraram ser proteção 12,15 , além disso, três estudos afirmaram que ser do sexo feminino é risco para violência [16][17][18] , o que divergiu de outro artigo 14 (Quadro 3). ...
... A dependência para as atividades de vida diária (AVD) também foi vista como risco para violência em três estudos 15,18,20 , apenas um artigo divergiu e afirmou uma proteção de 4% para quem tem AVD mais baixa 14 . O abuso de álcool foi considerado expressivo para a violência geral, com o risco oito vezes maior para quem abusa do álcool 19 , assim como quem possui higiene pobre . ...
... Ser separado ou divorciado, corresponde a um risco duas vezes maior do idoso sofrer negligência, como também, viver abaixo da linha da pobreza, demonstrado como risco em dois estudos 11,14 . Quem vive com outros membros da família teve cinco vezes mais chances de sofrer negligência, comparado a quem vive sozinho 23 e quem teve depressão, duas vezes mais chances 24 (Quadro 4). ...
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Resumo A violência contra a pessoa idosa desenha-se como um problema de saúde pública de complexa administração. É de fundamental importância conhecer seus fatores associados, com ênfase em cada tipo de violência, para possibilitar a criação de políticas públicas baseadas em evidências. Objetivou-se realizar uma revisão sistemática da literatura de estudos epidemiológicos analíticos sobre os fatores associados à violência contra idosos. Para a pesquisa bibliográfica utilizou-se quatro bases de dados: PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science e Lilacs, sem corte de anos. A seleção dos artigos foi realizada por pares e em duas etapas: leitura dos resumos (3121) e leitura dos artigos completos (64), tendo sido selecionados 27 artigos. O risco de viés foi avaliado. Os fatores associados à violência geral foram idade, sexo, estado civil, nível de educação, renda, arranjo familiar, suporte social, solidão, transtorno mental, depressão, tentativa de suicídio, dependência para atividades da vida diária, função cognitiva, doenças crônicas, abuso de álcool ou drogas, entre outros. A violência contra idosos apresentou-se como um fenômeno multifatorial e complexo, por isso não pode ser vista de forma parcial, unidimensional e sim levando em consideração todas as dimensões e entender que há uma interdependência entre elas.
... [18][19][20][21][22] Risk factors for abuse Advancing age and being female were the main risk factors for abuse in developing and developed countries, 19,20,[23][24][25] whereas in few Asian societies like Korea and China, age appeared to be a protective factor, where participants over 80 were least likely to be abused in comparison with other agegroups. 26,27 As age advances, they showed a greater tendency for being diseased and dependent for daily living and financial dependence on others which makes them vulnerable, especially women as they survive longer and become more disabled than men. The present study and few other studies showed marital status was not associated with abuse 24,26 whereas a few other studies in both India and Korea showed being a widow/unmarried was associated with an increased risk of abuse. ...
... 26,27 As age advances, they showed a greater tendency for being diseased and dependent for daily living and financial dependence on others which makes them vulnerable, especially women as they survive longer and become more disabled than men. The present study and few other studies showed marital status was not associated with abuse 24,26 whereas a few other studies in both India and Korea showed being a widow/unmarried was associated with an increased risk of abuse. 20,25,26,28 The present study showed people living alone or in a nuclear family had higher odds of being abused than people living in a joint family, similar to studies in India, Korea and China. ...
... The present study and few other studies showed marital status was not associated with abuse 24,26 whereas a few other studies in both India and Korea showed being a widow/unmarried was associated with an increased risk of abuse. 20,25,26,28 The present study showed people living alone or in a nuclear family had higher odds of being abused than people living in a joint family, similar to studies in India, Korea and China. 20,26,28 The present study showed no relationship with educational status and abuse as the study was done in a rural area where most participants were illiterate. ...
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Background Elder abuse is an important public health problem hidden from public view in spite of its detrimental effect on physical and mental health. In the last three decades, there is responsiveness toward abuse of children and spouses worldwide but even today abuse and neglect of aged people seem to be the matter of least concern. This study aims to reveal the magnitude of elder abuse and its predictors. Methods This is a cross‐sectional study carried out in a community setting among elderly people (60 years and older) from October 2015 to September 2017 in a rural area of West Bengal, eastern part of India. Elder abuse was elicited by questions adapted from the Actual Abuse Tool. Data were analysed using SPSS (version 16.0). Logistic regression analysis was performed to reveal the factors associated with elder abuse. Results The study found that 25.6% of the respondents had experienced abuse, psychological abuse being the commonest type. Disability was the most common perceived risk for abuse. Univariate logistic regression showed higher age (70 years and older), female gender, who were Scheduled caste, living in a nuclear family, having more than three children, financially and functionally dependent, who was suffering from depression and multimorbidity had increased odds of being abused. In multivariable logistic regression, people aged above 70 years, living in a nuclear family and dependent for instrumental activities of daily living remained significant predictors of abuse. Conclusion Around one in four of the respondents was abused in a 1 year duration which implies the urgent need for action. Routine screening for elder abuse at ground level and abuse prevention campaigns can be an important measure to alleviate this hidden problem. Also, there is a need to explore culturally specific forms of elder abuse to provide an age‐friendly environment.
... However, elder abuse is usually carried out in the family by adult children, family members, or other relatives. Most of the abusers were close to the older individuals (Bond & Butler, 2013;Ergin et al., 2012;Hoover & Polson, 2014;Oh et al., 2006;Orfila et al., 2018;Paris et al., 1995;Warren & Blundell, 2019). ...
... The prevalence of elder abuse from different national studies was 4.6% in Australia , 18.4% in Israel (Eisikovits et al., 2004), 10% in the USA (Acierno et al., 2010), 16% in India , 14% in India (Chokkanathan & Lee, 2006), 6.3% in Korea , 4.5% in Malaysia (Sooryanarayana et al., 2017), 33.4% in Spain (Orfila et al., 2018), 39% in Bolivia ), 8.2% in Canada (McDonald, 2018, 30% in Brazil (Lino et al., 2019), and 9.9% in Korea (Jeon et al., 2019). In these studies, psychological/emotional abuse was determined as the most common types of elder abuse Chokkanathan & Lee, 2006;Jeon et al., 2019;Lacher et al., 2016;Nisha et al., 2016;Oh et al., 2006). ...
... Mental disorders Dong et al., 2011;Friedman et al., 2017;Lachs & Pillemer, 2004;Leung et al., 2017;Liu et al., 2019;Keller et al., 2019;Kurkurina et al., 2018;Nisha et al., 2016;Paris et al., 1995;Pillemer et al., 2016), low physical health Dong, 2015;Dong et al., 2011;Leung et al., 2017;Oh et al., 2006), cognitive disorders Dong, 2015;Hoover & Polson, 2014;Keller et al., 2019;Kurkurina et al., 2018;Lachs et al., 1997;Lachs & Pillemer, 2004;Lacher et al., 2016;Leung et al., 2017;Liu et al., 2019;Pillemer et al., 2016), history of violence Kurkurina et al., 2018;Kurrle et al., 1992;Lacher et al., 2016;Leung et al., 2017;Paris et al., 1995), low daily functions Cohen et al., 2007;El-Khawaga et al., 2018;Friedman et al., 2017;Hoover & Polson, 2014;Keller et al., 2019;Lachs et al., Polson, 2014;Kurkurina et al., 2018;Liu et al., 2019;Leung et al., 2017;Nisha et al., 2016). Also, depression was a major risk factor associated with elder abuse regardless of other factors (Cooper et al., 2006;Dong et al., 2008Dong et al., , 2010Hoover & Polson, 2014;Keller et al., 2018;Leung et al., 2017;Liu et al., 2019;Nisha et al., 2016). ...
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In this study, face-to-face interviews were conducted with older people who applied to the family health center (N = 152) in the traditional rural district of Turkey. Although the prevalence rate was 23%, the mean value of “Characteristics of the elder that make him or her vulnerable to abuse” subscale (X̄ = .37) was highest among other subscales. The mean values for “Characteristics of potentially abusive situations” (X̄ = .06) and “Overt violation of personal rights and direct abuse” (X̄ = .05) were quite low. The majority of the elder abuse prevalence was composed of participants who were vulnerable to elder abuse. The rural area makes older individuals vulnerable to abuse. Also, risk factors associated with elder abuse in rural areas were interaction with family (p = .000), interaction with neighbors/friends (p = .001), chronic diseases (p = .002), psychiatric diseases (p = .007), gender and marital status (p = .008), and additional income (p = .028), respectively. The only predictor of elder abuse in rural areas was family interaction. There was a significant negative relationship between rural elder abuse and family interaction (T= −4.239, p < .001).
... In a study by Keskinoğlu et al. (2007), it was reported that the rate of financial abuse of the elderly from lower socioeconomic groups was 2.5%, while it was only 0.3% for those from a higher socio-economic group. Özer (2013) highlighted the rate of financial abuse at 21.9%, while Alizadeh-Khoei et al. (2014) found that it was 3.0% and Oh et al. (2006) noted a rate of 4.1%. Our study found that the average rate of financial abuse experienced by elderly individuals was higher than that of other studies. ...
... Kıssal's (2008) study noted that 9.4% of elderly individuals were exposed to psychological abuse, while Özer (2013) showed that 51.4% of elderly individuals experienced emotional abuse. Oh et al. (2006) reported that the rate of psychological abuse of the elderly was 4.2%, while Pavlik et al. (2001) found it to be 7.2%. DeLiema et al. (2012) found that the rate of severe psychological abuse was 10.6%. ...
... Özer (2013) stated that older age groups (such as the 75-79 years age group) were exposed to psychological abuse more than younger age groups (60-64 and 65-74 years age groups). There are many studies inferring that old age is influential in the abuse and neglect of the elderly (Keskinoğlu et al. 2004;Oh et al. 2006;Pavlik et al. 2001). The need for care increases with age, which may boost the number of cases of elderly abuse and neglect. ...
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Aim This study was conducted to determine the level of abuse and neglect of individuals over the age of 65 years and the factors influencing it. Subjects and methods A cross-sectional, population-based, descriptive study was conducted on 455 elderly persons in Turkey. At data collection, a socio-demographic form, which was developed by the researcher herself, an abuse evaluation form with six Likert-type questions, the Katz Index of Independence in Activities of Daily Living (ADL) and the Perceived Emotional Abuse Scale for Adults (PEASA) were used. Results Of the participants, 26.8% experienced physical abuse, 26.9% financial abuse, 12.6% sexual abuse and 56.5% neglect and psychological abuse at an intermediate level. The average score of the ADL index was 11.0 ± 3.3. This score shows that these elderly individuals were semi-independent. Conclusion The rate of abuse and neglect was found to be intermediate. There was a positive relationship between abuse of the elderly and their ADL index.
... The prevalence of elder abuse varies widely due to the lack of a consensus definition of elder abuse and its subtypes and methodological cultural differences [4]. For example, based on a meta-analysis of 52 studies from 28 countries, the pooled prevalence of overall elder abuse was 15.7% (95% CI 12. [8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19].3%) [4]. ...
... Studies in Korea have reported various prevalence estimates of elder abuse. The prevalence of elder abuse in Korean community settings is reported to range from 6.3% [8] to 6.6% [9]. Over the past few decades, research on elder abuse and mistreatment in Korea has increased substantially. ...
... Participants whose proxy responded or who did not respond to major questions on, for example, depressive symptoms, cognitive function, and income were also excluded from the analysis. Additionally, participants who had never married were excluded because the majority of perpetrators in elder abuse have been family members, such as the spouse or adult-children [7,8]. Consequently, 4179 men and 6005 women aged 65 years or older were analyzed. ...
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Background: We examined gender differences in the prevalence estimates and correlates of elder abuse in a community-dwelling older population in Korea. Methods: We analyzed responses from the Living Profiles of Older People Survey (LPOPS), which comprises a nationally representative sample of non-institutionalized Korean older adults living in the community. A total of 10,184 older persons (4179 men and 6005 women) were included in the analysis. Results: The overall rate of elder abuse was 9.9%, and emotional elder abuse was the most frequent type. Of the men and women subjects, 8.8 and 10.6%, respectively, had experienced elder abuse. We observed significant gender differences in the correlates of elder abuse. Educational attainment was significantly associated with elder abuse in men but not in women. Poor self-rated health was significantly associated with elder abuse in women but not in men. Household income and relationship with children were significantly associated with elder abuse in both men and women. Conclusion: Our results suggest that the factors that make elderly persons vulnerable to elder abuse may differ by gender. A better understanding of the risk factors for elder abuse across genders will facilitate the development of elder abuse prevention strategies, practices, and policies.
... However, this type of abuse is frequently encountered in society. In a study, the physical abuse rate among the elderly was reported as 1.9%, while the psychological abuse rate among the elderly was found to be 4.2% (11). In the study, the fact that the majority of the elderly (87.4%) regard ignoring the emotional needs of the elderly by the family as abuse shows their awareness of psychological abuse. ...
... accept this economic abuse. Similarly, Oh et al. found that the Korean elderly, who provided their children with financial support, were subject to economic abuse at a higher rate (11). Based on the results, it may be suggested that not only social and cultural values but also the fear of being alienated by their families influence this acceptance. ...
... These studies, although they do not precisely define the characteristics of people who abuse, report that family members with mental, drug addiction and emotional problems are more likely to abuse the elderly (17). Furthermore, it was found that the abuse of the elderly is made by the sons or daughter-inlaws (11), and that the rate of the elderly who thought that the abusers are family members is 79.8% (7). In the study, the majority of the participants (83.2%) hold the family members responsible for the abuse; and the rate of those who think that the individuals with mental, physical and social problems like drug addiction or mental diseases abuse the elderly is 26.4%. ...
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Giriş: Toplumda istismara uğrama riski yüksek olan yaşlının istismara ilişkin algılarının belirlenmesi;mevcut istismarın tanımlanması ve gerekli farkındalığın oluşmasında etkili olabilecektir. Bu yüzden çalışma, yaşlıların istismara yönelik algılarının tespit edilmesini amaçlamaktadır.
... In South Korea, the prevalence of elder abuse is 6.3%. Experiencing abuse seems to be related to personal characteristics such as age, gender, education level, economic dependence, and physical health [20]. ...
... In addition, the prevalence of different types of abuse are related. Individuals who have suffered physical abuse and financial abuse may also experience emotional abuse and neglect [20]. First, income is the only factor that had an important influence on the prevalence of the four types of abuse. ...
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Background With the accelerated aging of the Chinese population, elder abuse has become a serious social problem. As COVID-19 has had a very large impact on economic development and lifestyle in China, it has also affected elder abuse. The purpose of this study is to estimate the prevalence of elder abuse in China during the COVID-19 pandemic, and to identify changes in risk factors for elder abuse in the context of COVID-19. Methods We designed a cross-sectional study. In Hunan Province, a face-to-face questionnaire survey was conducted among elderly people over 65 years of age. To ensure the consistency of the measurement standards, we used the elder abuse questionnaire from the “Third Survey on Chinese Women’s Social Status.” According to related research, we selected 10 victim-related risk factors as independent variables. A logistic regression model was established to analyze the relationship between the independent variables and the four kinds of abuse. Results We collected 10,362 samples from Hunan Province. During the COVID-19 pandemic, the prevalence of financial abuse and neglect was significantly higher than that in 2010. Income had a significant impact on the four types of abuse. The lower the income was, the greater the risk of abuse. Moreover, factors such as an older age, being a woman, a lower cognitive ability, and not having a cohabiting spouse increased the possibility of abuse. The greater the number of children was, the greater the risks of physical abuse, financial abuse, and elder neglect. Seniors with higher education levels, those who frequently participated in social activities, and those with religious beliefs were less likely to suffer abuse. Conclusions During the COVID-19 epidemic, the prevalence of elder abuse in China has increased, which may be related to economic instability and social distancing measures. Increasing the income of the elderly and giving them more social support are important measures to reduce the prevalence of elder abuse.
... However, the abuse score for the elderly who were illiterate and unemployed was reported as high. However, in some studies, educational level [28,29] and employment [30] were correlated with increased risk of abuse. The probable reason for this finding seems to be that most elderly who participated in this study had lower education; as a result, due to their lack of awareness of instances of abuse, they failed to perceive it as abuse. ...
... Our study demonstrated that physical disability to walk and chronic diseases were independent variables for elder abuse. Other studies also indicated similar results [28,29]. However, Murphy reported no direct relationship between the elders' physical dependence and elder abuse. ...
... Many scales developed previously were components of generic elder abuse measurements or results of a purely a clinical approach; they did not take into account the social context or medical risk factors (Ayalon, 2015;Dong, 2017;Friedman et al., 2017;Reis & Nahmiash, 1998). Examples of instruments that include some neglect indicators are the Elder Assessment Instrument (EAI), Minimum Dataset Home Care (MDS-HC; Shugarman, Fries, Wolf, & Morris, 2003), and the tool used by Oh, Kim, Martins, and Kim (2006) to measure five types of abuse, including neglect. Another example is the Conflict Tactics Scale, designed to measure abuse and neglect in the older population, although its validity was assessed mainly with students (Fulmer, Guadagno, Bitondo Dyer, & Connolly, 2004;Imbody & Vandsburger, 2011). ...
... By comparison, a study of people The Gerontologist, 2020, Vol. 60, No. 3 aged 65+ from Seoul did not report significant differences in the risk of neglect by gender, age, or number of years of education (Oh, Kim, Martins, & Kim, 2006). The protective effect of marital status found in our study is in line with some aggregated results about elder abuse in the United States, Europe, Mexico, and China (Pillemer et al., 2016). ...
Article
Background and objectives: The purpose of the study was to create and validate a tool that could be implemented easily to recognize the presence and assess the level of neglect in community-dwelling older adults, and to provide information about the prevalence of the phenomenon in different subgroups of older adults in Poland. Research design and methods: The cross-sectional study of elder neglect and self-neglect was conducted in Lesser Poland in 2017. It included 2,443 face-to-face interviews with randomly selected community-dwelling individuals from among the general population (1,635), social service users (280), and hospital patients (528). Classical Test Theory and Item Response Theory (IRT) were used to build the scale, and its content and construct validity and reliability were assessed. Results: The Self-Reported Neglect Scale (SRNS) with a 2-factor structure (basic needs and psychological needs dimensions) was created. Results of the IRT analysis showed high item discrimination (2.7-4.8 for the first factor, 0.8-3.2 for the second). The 1-year prevalence of neglect as a percentage of nonzero values of the SRNS was estimated at 11.4%. Discussion and implications: The SRNS exhibited good psychometric properties. It may have promise as a tool for the assessment of neglect in epidemiological studies as well in the everyday practice of medical professionals and social workers.
... 23 It has been reported that family conflict serves as a risk factor for EM. 24,25 In addition, generation disparities in Eastern and Western values and practices could lead to social strain and insufficient family SS for Chinese older adults. 21 Given the changes in environment and culture collision, spousal and family support may not be accessible all the time. ...
... 22 Frequent contacts and interactions with spouse and other family members might generate strains and trigger EM, 33 and family disharmony was a risk factor for EM. 24 Such findings are consistent with previous studies suggesting that feeling uncomfortable with someone in the family (9.1%) and having family conflicts (6.7%) at home were the top two common forms of EM among US Chinese older adults. 31 Both of EM forms involved spouse and other family members. ...
Article
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Objectives: Research has examined the relationships between positive social support (PSS) and elder mistreatment (EM) but less is known regarding the negative aspect of social support (NSS), especially among minority groups in the United States. This study aimed to investigate the relationships between PSS/NSS from different sources and EM among US Chinese older adults. Design: Population-based cross-sectional study. Setting: Greater Chicago, IL, area. Participants: A representative sample of Chinese older adults aged 60 years or older (N = 3157) from the Population Study of ChINese Elderly in Chicago in 2011 to 2013. Measurements: We applied a 10-item widely used instrument to assess EM. PSS and NSS from spouse/family members/friends were measured by a 12-item scale. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the relationships. Results: After adjusting for confounders, higher levels of overall PSS from all three sources, including spouse, family members, and friends (odds ratio [OR] = 0.88 [95% confidence interval {CI} = 0.85-0.91]), were associated with lower risk of EM. But participants with a higher level of overall NSS from all three sources (OR = 1.51 [95% CI = 1.41-1.61]) were more likely to experience EM. The results on the relationships between PSS from spouse (OR = 0.70 [95% CI = 0.64-0.76]), PSS from family members (OR = 0.73 [95% CI = 0.68-0.79]), and EM were similar to overall PSS. But PSS from friends had a nonsignificant association with EM. Greater levels of NSS from spouse (OR = 1.84 [95% CI = 1.64-2.07]), family members (OR = 2.36 [95% CI = 2.03-2.75]), and friends (OR = 1.69 [95% CI = 1.32-2.17]) were associated with increased risks of EM. Conclusion: Higher levels of SS were not always associated with lower risks of EM among US Chinese older adults. NSS might have counter effects. Future qualitative or longitudinal research needs to explore detailed cultural explanations and casual relationships between SS and EM. J Am Geriatr Soc 67:S499-S505, 2019.
... The majority of indicators measuring elder neglect correspond to basic needs, although it is not demonstrated in the studies that these needs are most often neglected in providing care for older adults, in general. As we go up the levels of the pyramid, the number of indicators decreases, even though statistically, psychological needs are more neglected in most of the countries (Chompunud et al., 2010;Kissal & Beşer, 2011;Oh, Kim, Martins, & Kim, 2006;Sooryanarayana et al., 2013;World Health Organization, 2019). The self-fulfillment needs were not covered by any of the analyzed indicators. ...
... Furthermore, acknowledgment of a case of neglect can be considered insufficient without rankings of frequency and seriousness of incidents. Most researchers establish the criterion of at least 10 incidents of neglect in the past year or more than two times during 1 month to confirm that an older person is neglected (Comijs, Pot, Smit, Bouter, & Jonker, 1998;Kissal & Beşer, 2011;O'Keeffe et al., 2007;Oh et al., 2006). The ranking of seriousness or severity of incidents is equally substantial as it allows to avoid the risk of over-or underestimation (Vilar-Compte & Gaitán-Rossi, 2018). ...
Article
Background and objectives: Neglect of older adults is a complex and important social problem which is difficult to detect. The aim of this review is to explore and categorize different characteristics of elder neglect, to facilitate a uniform conceptualization and provide recommendations for identification of the phenomenon. Research design and methods: Articles published between January 1990 and February 2019, both from developed and developing countries, were taken into consideration. The literature search was performed in PubMed, Web of Science, and CINAHL using keywords related to elder abuse and neglect. Articles regarding the concept of elder neglect, identifying or measuring this phenomenon were reviewed. The identified indicators were presented according to the Maslow's hierarchy of needs. Results: From 7,207 articles found in the initial search, 63 relevant studies were selected for the final analysis. Indicators most frequently used by researchers (functionality, physical appearance and health, social and psychological background, mental health, and environment) correspond to different aspects of needs. Caregiver's responsibility, satisfaction of needs, and risk of harm are the core elements to consider in identification of neglect. Discussion and implications: The identified elements and categories of indicators provide the framework for developing standard definitions and measures of elder neglect. The proposed diagram demonstrates gaps in identification and can be useful in detecting potential neglect in various categories of needs. Further research on perceptions and prevalence of elder neglect in different countries would be helpful for cross-country analysis as well as for adaptation of the instruments to cultural specifics.
... The factors affecting EA are mostly related to individual characteristics of older people (Burnett et al., 2014;Tobiasz-Adamczyk, Brzyski, & Brzyska, 2014), some others to the caregiver's features including psychological problems, and finally others to the status of physical and social environment including weak social support, living with others, and living lonely respectively (Bond & Butler, 2013;Cooley, 2015;Johannesen & Logiudice, 2013;Oh, Kim, Martins, & Kim, 2006;Palmer, Brodell, & Mostow, 2013;Tareque, Ahmed, Tiedt, & Hoque, 2014). Therefore, it is a known socio-cultural and health problem which encounters modern societies. ...
... Most of the studies on EA emphasize the economic and social factors that cause of this phenom- enon and are less focused on personal conditions and factors (Kaur, Kaur, & Sujata, 2015;Kim & Sim, 2011;Moon, 2000). Those who mentioned to individual factors only show a correlation between EA and many factors such as age and gender (Cook, 2012;Melchiorre, Penhale, & Lamura, 2014) as well as physical difficulties (Jones, Holstege, & Holstege, 1997;Martins, Neto, Andrade, & Albuquerque, 2014;Oh et al., 2006), however there is no specific and depth explanation of the mechanism of these correlations particularly from the victims' view. ...
Article
We aimed to explore the meaning of elder abuse and its socio-cultural factors from the perspectives of Kurdish older people. We purposively selected the participants, 38 female and 17 male, from a rural area in Boukan country, Iran. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions and were analyzed applying conventional content analysis. Researchers finally characterized viewpoints of the participants into two themes including structural changes in family interactions and changes in sociocultural values. Public education about moral norms and enactment of supportive laws for elderly people may help minimize elder abuse.
... [ Downloaded from ehj.ssu.ac.ir on 2022-[12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30] ...
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Introduction: Elder abuse is a major public health concern worldwide. Considering the high prevalence of misbehavior towards the elderly, this study investigated the prevalence of elder abuse and its related factors among the elderly people in Yasouj, Iran in 2021. Methods: Using a convenience sampling method, this cross-sectional study included 299 older adults aged over 60 years referring to the Social Security Outpatient Clinic in Yasouj. To collect data, we used the Domestic Elder Abuse Questionnaire. To analyze the data, chi-square and multiple logistic regression statistical tests were used. Results: Of the participants, 55.2 % reported at least one type of misbehavior. While psychological misbehavior had the highest prevalence (41.8 %), rejection had the lowest prevalence (10.7 %). Multiple regression analysis showed that elder abuse was statistically associated with higher educational status (p = 0.002), lower economic status (p = 0.002), and single people reported a higher rate of elder abuse (p = 0.001). Conclusion: According to our results, more than half of the participants reported at least one type of elder abuse, and psychological abuse was the most common type of abuse experienced by the elderly. Since elder abuse can have serious effects on the health and well-being of the elderly, it is critical to identify the related risk factors. Furthermore, it is essential to implement screening programs to increase the awareness of the elderly and caregivers.
... This result is largely in line with current literature showing that Korean elderly victims who receive public income support (National Basic Livelihood Security Program which guarantees the minimum cost of living) are at high risk of repeated abuse (Lee & Jang, 2016). Low income has been considered a risk factor for elder abuse in the several US and Asian studies (Dong et al., 2007;Du & Chen, 2021;Johannesen & LoGiudice, 2013;Lachs et al., 1997;Oh et al., 2006). Our findings suggest that low income may also be associated with re-abuse risk. ...
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Purpose Elder abuse continues to be a serious problem that greatly affects the overall health and quality of life of elderly victims. Although abused elders have a substantial risk of re-abuse, very limited knowledge is available about elder re-abuse. This study examines whether differences exist between substantiated initial elder abuse and re-abuse cases in terms of victims’, perpetrators’, abuse-related, and contextual characteristics. Method Data were collected from 12 Elder Protective Service (EPS) agencies in South Korea, and EPS caseworkers completed multi-section questionnaires based on case records. Elderly victims’ and perpetrators’ characteristics, and abuse-related and contextual data were obtained. Data were analyzed using chi-square, t-test, Mann–Whitney U test, and logistic regression analysis. Results A total of 276 substantiated elder abuse cases (90.9% initial abuse, and 9.1% re-abuse cases) were included in this analysis. There are some differences between the initial abuse and re-abuse in the characteristics of victims (income, education), perpetrators (living with the victim, alcohol/substance abuse), and contextual factors (social isolation, relationship with neighbors). Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that elderly victims’ low-income (OR = 6.42, 95% CI = 1.67–24.74, p < .01) and perpetrators’ alcohol/substance abuse problems (OR = 2.69, 95% CI = 1.07- 6.75, p < .05) were associated with a higher likelihood of re-abuse. Conclusions Victims’ low income and perpetrators’ alcohol/substance abuse problems should be considered as factors associated with elder re-abuse. This study provides additional knowledge on elder re-abuse and offers implications for practice and future research.
... The study of Li Wu, showed that the elderly people who live alone usually experience higher levels of abuse [27], and other studies indicated that being widowed can be considered as the high risk for experiencing abuse [28]; this may result from the fact that cohabitation increases the risk of con icts and contacts; therefore, the level of abuse may increase in contrast. In the current study, elderly men were at higher risk of abuse than women; while, in the studies of Li Wu, Garre, and oh women had experienced higher abuse [21,27,29].This difference may result from different sampling methods, more men rather women in the population under study, or elderly women are more respectable and usually experience lower levels of abuse; This is because elderly women have responsibilities at home such as cooking or taking care of grandchildren. Also in the current study, adequate income, and having their own home were among the factors which increase the risk of nancial abuse. ...
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Background elder abuse is a neglected problem and many cases remain unreported. This study aimed to identify types of elder abuse and to investigate its associated risk factors. Methods This cross sectional study was conducted on people over 60 years old in Ardabil, Iran. Data were collected using elder abuse questionnaire. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 22, Descriptive statistics, chi-square test and logistic regression. The significance level was P < 0.05. Results Among 500 participants, 377(75.4%) reported that they had experienced at least one type of abuse in the past year. The highest rate of elder abuse was observed regarding Emotional abuse (47.2%) and psychological abuse (40.8%), and the lowest rate was measured for ostracizing (15.4%) and physical abuse (12.4%). Result showed that elder abuse was significantly associated with Having a chronic illness and Number of children 1–4. Conclusions Considering at least eight out of ten elderly people experienced on type of abuse. for the majority of the reported elder abuse cases at least two associated risk factors could be identified. Knowledge about these red flags and a multifaceted strategy are needed to identify and prevent elder abuse.
... Women were found to be at greater risk for all types of abuse, mostly physical violence [51][52][53][54]. The connection between victims' functional condition and abuse may mean that the stresses incapacity-related can translate into violence from caregivers [26,55,56]. ...
Article
Older adults are subject to vulnerability and abusive behaviours have serious negative health consequences. Since the phenomenon is underestimated, several challenges are faced to prevent, diagnose, and treat abuses on older adults. In this context, clinical forensic medicine practitioners can play a pivotal role. A retrospective monocentric analysis of all the files concerning victims of violence observed in the SVSeD Center in Milan over the age of 65 for a five-year period was performed. For each medical report, data regarding the variables of the victims, the type of violence, and the variables of the perpetrators were analysed. Older adult victims of abuses were 166. Abuses against women were more frequent than against men (less than 6% of consultations). In one third of cases, subjects also suffered from disabling diseases and reported signs of physical violence. Perpetrators were male known individuals in almost 90% of cases. Violence was perpetrated by a partner or a family member. The present study may help in identifying risk factors for domestic violence against older adults. Consequently, preventive policies should be designed to interrupt the vicious circle of violence. Older adult abuse deserves additional focus and better education for healthcare professionals and further research should be carried out to better understand the actual epidemiology of the phenomenon and to develop therapeutical and caring strategies.
... The "Impaired", who present with health issues that make them more prone to violent behaviour. These include individuals with a history of mental or physical health problems, substance dependence, a history of serious psychiatric conditions such as personality disorder, or a history of offending (Laumann, Leitsch & Waite, 2008;Amstadter, Zajac, Strachan, Hernandez, Kilpatrick, & Acierno, 2011;Chokkanathan & Lee, 2006;Oh, Kim, Martins, & Kim, 2006;Soares et al., 2010;O'Keeffe et al., 2007). ...
Chapter
Older people are at a higher risk of becoming the victims of crime than of being the perpetrators of it, given the added vulnerability that comes with aging. This chapter examines crime in relation to old age. The first section presents data around older people as victims of crime, and further discusses different types of abuse against older people, which, in the presence of intensive care needs and carer burden, may be perpetrated within the family or in residential and institutional settings. The second section of the chapter examines older people as the perpetrators of crime. In particular, it describes how older offenders are dealt within the justice system. It presents data on the growing population of older offenders in prisons and in forensic psychiatric services and reports on whether the unique needs of older offenders are being met in these settings.
... A Canadian study on the homicide of people aged 65 years and above demonstrated that 89% of victims were female of which 93% were perpetrated by a current or former male intimate partner (Bourget et al., 2010). While studies focusing on male victims of intimate partner violence are limited (Hackenberg et al., 2017), older adult men are more likely than women to suffer from financial and emotional abuse (Oh et al., 2006). Elder abuse has also been associated with physical problems such as bone fractures and chronic pain (Lacey & Mouzon, 2016;Levine, 2003;Stöckl & Penhale, 2015). ...
Article
We aimed to document in primary care older adults the relationship between family violence (FV) and mental and physical health, satisfaction with life, and health service use, by gender. The study sample included data from 1,658 older adults recruited in primary care practices, in one of the largest health regions in the province of Quebec. The presence of FV (partner/spouse, adult child) was assessed with the 21-item Family Violence Scale (FVS) adapted from the conflicts Tactics Scale 2. Self-rated mental health (SRMH) and self-rated physical health (SRPH) were assessed with single-item measures. Satisfaction with life (SWL) was measured using a validated French version of the SWL scale. Health service use over a 2-year period included outpatient consultations (number), emergency department (ED) visits (yes/no), and hospitalizations (yes/no). Multi-level logistic and Poisson’s regression models were conducted to assess study outcomes as a function of FV. Analyses were stratified by perpetrator and gender. There was an association between FV and SRMH in women (OR = 0.41, 95% CI = [0.27, 0.62]), and SWL in both men and women ( B = −5.74, 95% CI = [–6.71, –4.76]; B = −10.07, 95% CI = [–14.16, –5.98], respectively). Significant associations were found in women between FV and ED visits (OR = 1.45, 95% CI = [1.12, 1.18]), hospitalizations (OR = 1.36, 95% CI = [1.32, 1.43]), and outpatient consultations (RR = 1.25, 95% CI = [1.19, 1.30]). SWL moderated the association between FV and likelihood of hospitalization. Gender differences were observed between FV and SRMH and SWL. FV was associated with increased health service use in women but not men. These gender differences may suggest stigma-related barriers to health service use. Victims of violence with higher SWL had a lower likelihood of being hospitalized. Public health programs aimed at increasing awareness of the different types of FV and interventions aiming to improve resilience in victims are needed.
... Aging is a complex process of physiological and social changes that leads to disease, disability, the lower experience of happiness (Khazaee-Pool, Sadeghi, Majlessi & Rahimi Foroushani, 2015), a gradual decrease in functional ability, individual changes, and mortality (Sadrollahi, Hosseinian, Alavi, Khalili & Esalatmanesh, 2016). In recent years, social and economic changes, as well as the development of various sciences have greatly reduced the age-related deaths which is the most important cause of an increase in the elderly population worldwide (Oh, Kim, Martins & Kim, 2006). Iran is one of the developing countries that its elderly population has been increasing rapidly due to the significant decline in fertility and higher life expectancy (Noroozian, 2012). ...
Article
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Purpose: Aging is a complex process of physiological and social changes that leads to disease, disability, and the lower experience of happiness. On the other hand, fatigue is one of the most important indicators of aging syndrome. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the level of physical activity and fatigue in elderly residents of rest homes in Tehran. Method: This was a descriptive correlational study in which 20 rest homes located in Tehran province constituted the study population. By visiting rest homes, the eligible subjects were chosen. Physical activity was measured by the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE). The FACIT Fatigue Scale is a short, 13-item, easy to administer tool that measures an individual's level of fatigue during their usual daily activities over the past week. Nutritional status was evaluated by mini nutritional assessment (MNA). Results: The results of statistical analysis indicated a significant and positive correlation between PASE and FACIT scores (r=0.48, p<0.01) while, there was a significant negative correlation between FACIT score and age (r=-0.23, p<0.01). Also, there was a significant positive correlation between MNA and FACIT (r=0.40, p<0.01). In addition, a significant positive correlation was found between MNA and PASE score (r=0.31, p<0.01). Conclusions: The findings of this study indicate that holding sports classes under the supervision of exercise physiologists is an essential matter to increase health and prevent age-related complications in elderly residents of Tehran rest homes.
... Aging is a complex process of physiological and social changes that leads to disease, disability, the lower experience of happiness (Khazaee-Pool, Sadeghi, Majlessi & Rahimi Foroushani, 2015), a gradual decrease in functional ability, individual changes, and mortality (Sadrollahi, Hosseinian, Alavi, Khalili & Esalatmanesh, 2016). In recent years, social and economic changes, as well as the development of various sciences have greatly reduced the age-related deaths which is the most important cause of an increase in the elderly population worldwide (Oh, Kim, Martins & Kim, 2006). Iran is one of the developing countries that its elderly population has been increasing rapidly due to the significant decline in fertility and higher life expectancy (Noroozian, 2012). ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Aging is a complex process of physiological and social changes that leads to disease, disability, and the lower experience of happiness. On the other hand, fatigue is one of the most important indicators of aging syndrome. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the level of physical activity and fatigue in elderly residents of rest homes in Tehran. Method: This was a descriptive correlational study in which 20 rest homes located in Tehran province constituted the study population. By visiting rest homes, the eligible subjects were chosen. Physical activity was measured by the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE). The FACIT Fatigue Scale is a short, 13-item, easy to administer tool that measures an individual's level of fatigue during their usual daily activities over the past week. Nutritional status was evaluated by mini nutritional assessment (MNA). Results: The results of statistical analysis indicated a significant and positive correlation between PASE and FACIT scores (r=0.48, p<0.01) while, there was a significant negative correlation between FACIT score and age (r=-0.23, p<0.01). Also, there was a significant positive correlation between MNA and FACIT (r=0.40, p<0.01). In addition, a significant positive correlation was found between MNA and PASE score (r=0.31, p<0.01). Conclusions: The findings of this study indicate that holding sports classes under the supervision of exercise physiologists is an essential matter to increase health and prevent age-related complications in elderly residents of Tehran rest homes.
... Social, economic, and scientific developments in recent years have increased life expectancy and reduced mortality rates, leading to an increase in the world's older adult population [3]. The older adult population is estimated to be doubled during next 40 years in the world [4]. ...
Article
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Background: Depression is one of the most common psychiatric disorders in the older adult and one of the most common risk factors for suicide in the older adult. Studies show different and inconsistent prevalence rates in Iran. This study aims to determine the prevalence of severe depression in Iranian older adult through a meta-analysis approach. Methods: The present meta-analysis was conducted between January 2000-August 2019. Articles related to the subject matter were obtained by searching Scopus, Sciencedirect, SID, magiran, Barakat Knowledge Network System, Medline (PubMed), and Google Scholar databases. The heterogeneity of the studies was evaluated using I2 index and the data were analyzed in Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software. Results: In a study of 3948 individuals aged 50-90 years, the overall prevalence of severe depression in Iranian older adult was 8.2% (95% CI, 4.14-6.3%) based on meta-analysis. Also, in order to investigate the effects of potential factors (sample size and year of study) on the heterogeneity of severe depression in Iranian older adult, meta-regression was used. It was reported that the prevalence of severe depression in Iranian older adult decreased with increasing sample size and increasing years of the study, which is significantly different (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Considering the high prevalence of severe depression in Iranian older adult, it is necessary for health policy makers to take effective control measures and periodic care for the older adult.
... A number of studies suggested that the risk of victimization (Pillemer et al., 2016), especially psychological (Laumann, Leitsch, & Waite, 2008) and financial exploitation (Lowenstein et al., 2009), tended to be greater among women than men, although there is no consensus in the literature in this regard (Oh et al., 2006). Debate also surrounds the risk of victimization according to age. ...
Article
This study aimed to examine the prevalence of elder mistreatment (EM) in an Italian population and to determine the risk factors. The sample consisted of 393 older adults (Mage = 77.07; standard deviation = 9.45) of whom 60.1% were females. The prevalence of EM was of 20.1%. Older elders who were separated, divorced, with a poor state of health, and problems of autonomy were more likely to experience EM. The most common forms of EM were physical/sexual (9.9%) and emotional mistreatment (9.9%). The most common perpetrators were paid caregivers and members of the victim’s family. A path analysis model suggested that limited autonomy and poor perceived health status appeared to be predictors of EM. We conclude that the results of this study have important implications in terms of reducing mistreatment of older adults. Understanding EM is essential to promoting equality, tolerance, and supportive attitudes and developing better prevention policies and practices.
... Although women are generally more likely to be abused than men, there may be gender differences depending on the type of abuse [4,27,31]. Our finding of a higher prevalence of financial abuse among men was similar to that in a Korean study, although they also noted more emotional abuse among men than women [32]. In Japan, the cultural norm is for women to do the housekeeping. ...
Article
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Background: Elder abuse is a serious public health issue worldwide, but large-scale epidemiologic studies remain sparse. Although social factors in human relations such as social support and social isolation have been proposed as the factors related to elder abuse, cognitive social capital has not been examined. Objective: This study aims to clarify the prevalence of and the factors associated with elder abuse among independent older adults in Japan. Methods: The study design is a retrospective observational study. The data were derived from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study (JAGES). These self-report data were collected from 26,229 people aged 65 years or older living in 28 municipalities in 2013. The types of elder abuse and factors associated with them were examined using logistic regression analysis. Results: The prevalence of elder abuse among the sample was 12.3% (11.1% in males and 13.3 in females). In the entire sample, physical, psychological, and financial abuses were reported to be 1.26, 11.12, and 1.45%, respectively. Factors associated with increased odds of experiencing abuse were being a woman, living with family members, having poor self-rated health, and having mild or severe depression. By contrast, age ≥85 years, being widowed, or unmarried, and having a positive view of community trust were associated with a lower risk of experiencing abuse. Conclusion: While particular demographic factors and health are associated with a greater risk of elder abuse, our findings that trust within the community lessens the risk indicates the importance of social capital. This should be taken into consideration when developing population-based strategies to prevent elder abuse.
... These factors create additional layers of complexity, including shame, gratitude for receiving care, and fear of losing this care if disclosing the abuse. Financial abuse is said to be the most common form of elder abuse, although emotional and physical abuse along with neglect are not uncommon either (Oh et al., 2006). ...
... The negligence of the elderly is defined as "Not giving the things needed by the elderly such as food, beverages, drugs by their relatives or caregivers, with or without awareness, and behaving in a careless way in fulfilling the responsibilities for the elderly or not fulfilling such responsibilities at all" [5]. NAE is one of the important mortality and morbidity reasons [6][7][8]. Healthcare employees, especially emergency department (ED) physicians should be careful in detecting this condition [9]. Several tests were developed in the past to detect the elderly abuse [10,11]. ...
... Ankara'da yapılan bir çalışmada, yaşlı popülasyonun % 20,3'ünün ekonomik istismara maruz kaldığı bildirilmiştir (14). Kore'de 15.230 yaşlının değerlendirildiği bir çalışmada, 1814 (% 11,9) yaşlının ekonomik istismara maruz kaldığı bildirilmiştir (15 ...
... Ankara'da yapılan bir çalışmada, yaşlı popülasyonun % 20,3'ünün ekonomik istismara maruz kaldığı bildirilmiştir (14). Kore'de 15.230 yaşlının değerlendirildiği bir çalışmada, 1814 (% 11,9) yaşlının ekonomik istismara maruz kaldığı bildirilmiştir (15 ...
Article
zet: Türk Medeni Kanunu'na (TMK) göre fiil ehliyeti kişinin, hukuka uygun fiiller yapabilme ve hukuka aykırı fiillerden sorumlu tutulabilmesi ile ilgilidir. Ayırt etme gücüne sahip ve kısıtlı olmayan her ergin kişinin fiil ehliyeti vardır. Hukuk açısından tam bir eylem yeterliliği için kişinin ayırt etme gücü bulunması ve kısıtlı olmaması gerekir. Noterlikler, mahkemeler, tapu müdürlükleri ve benzeri kurumlar, hekimlerden, fiilin hukuki anlam ve sonuçlarını algılama yeteneği ile ilgili olarak rapor istemektedir. Bu raporun istenme nedenlerinden birisi de işlem yaptıracak kişinin 65 yaş ve üzerinde olması durumudur. Ülkemizde yaşlılar için fiil ve hukuki ehliyet ile ilgili istenilen raporların bir standardizasyonu olmadığı görülmektedir. Mevcut yasal düzenlemelere göre bu raporları tüm hekimlerin düzenleme yetkisi vardır. Ancak hangi durumlarda ileri değerlendirme yapılması gerektiği, bu değerlendirmeleri hangi uzmanlık dallarının yapması gerektiği açık değildir. Bu çalışmada, adli psikiyatri uygulamalarında geliştirilen Hukuki Ehliyet Değerlendirme Formunun (HEDEF) uygulanabilirliğinin saptanması amaçlanmaktadır. HEDEF formunun uygulanabilir olması, sonraki uygulamalarda standardın sağlanması ve yaygınlaştırılması açısından önemlidir. ESOGÜ Tıp Fakültesi Adli Tıp Anabilim Dalı'na hukuki ve fiili ehliyet raporu için müracaat eden tüm 65 yaş ve üzeri yaşlılar değerlendirildi. Hastaların tümüne iki farklı uygulayıcı tarafından HEDEF ve Mini Mental Test birlikte uygulandı. Formdan alınan sonuçlar, hasta hakkındaki nihai adli psikiyatrik değerlendirme ile karşılaştırıldı. HEDEF testi 12 puan ve üzerinde olan yaşlıların rutin adli psikiyarik değerIendirme ile uyumlu olarak hukuki ehliyetinin olduğu belirlendi. HEDEF testini iki farklı uygulayıcı yapmasına karşın sonuçların tutarlı ve anlamlı olduğu belirlendi. Testin uygulanabilir, güvenilir olduğu, adli psikiyatri uygulamalarında yaygınlaştırılabileceği düşünüldü. Abstract: According to the Turkish Civil Code, individual's capability to act is related to act in accordance with the law and to be held accountable for the acts that are contrary to the law. Every adult who has the power to distinguish and who is not restricted has an capability to act. In terms of law, individual must have the power to distinguish and should not be restricted for a complete action competence. Notary, courts, land registry offices and similar institutions request report on the ability of individual to perceive the legal meaning and consequences of the act from physician. One of the reasons in order to be requested this report is that the person who is going to act is 65 years of age or older. It is seen that there is no standard for the requested reports related to capacity to act and legal capacity for the elderly in our country. According to the current legal regulations, it is seen that all physicians have the authority to draw up these reports. However, it is not clear in which circumstances it is necessary to carry out further evaluation and which specialist branches should make these evaluations. In this study, it is aimed to determine the applicability of the Legal Capacity Assessment Form developed in forensic psychiatric practices. The applicability of this form is important in terms of ensuring standard in the following applications and dissemination of thes standard.In practice, the report on the legal capacity is still drawn up in our Forensic Medicine Department. No certain scale is used in routine practice. Physicians working in our department are trying to understand whether or not persons older than 65 years have legal capacity being made by forensic psychiatric examination. Informed consent is routinely applied to these patients. The research is planned in a 6 month period after approval of the ethics committee. All patients aged 65 years and over who apply to the ESOGÜ Faculty of Medicine Forensic Medicine Deartment for the report on legal capacity and capacity to act will be evaluated. Legal Capacity Assessment Form and mini mental test will be applied to all patients by two different practitioners. The results from the form were compared with the final forensic psychiatric evaluation of the patient. The elderly with a Legal Capacity Assessment Form score of 12 points or more were judged to have legal capacity in accordance with routine forensic psychiatric evalutiation. İt was determined that the results were consistent and meaningful even though the Legal Capacity Assessment Form was conducted by two different practioners. İt was thought that the test was feasible, reliable and could be extendedand forensic psychiatric practice.
... [17] It has been observed in the literature that representative sample of 15,230 older Koreans residing in Seoul indicated overall prevalence rate of 6.3 percent for elder abuse. Prevalence of emotional abuse was 4.2 percent and the physical abuse was 1.9 percent [18] . Current review analysis found that prevalence of elder abuse was 13.5 percent among 934 Koreans recovering from stroke. ...
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Physical and emotional abuse is ongoing problem that go with public health concern. Physical injuries and emotional distress in elder is become social hubbubs that needs medical attention. Current study aims at eliciting patterns that will aid in detection of these social malaises. This review study was completed using electronic databases that had analyzed reviewing 100 articles. This review study used articles from 1985 to 2015 that was suitable for tracking reviews that gives information on physical and emotional abuse in elderly from case-control studies, cross-sectional studies, and case series or in medico legal reports were. A review of 63 articles from a total of 100 articles screened draw together different aspects of the physical abuse and emotional abuse. Study concluded that frequency of physical and psychological elder abuse is seen with less difference it's also determines the fact commonality of multiple abuse, its impact and prevention. Implication of this review study opens the door to come out with different intervention against this social malaise.
... In the Philippines, a single or repeated act, or a lack of appropriate action that occurs within any relationship which has an expectation of trust and it causes distress or harm to an elderly is considered as elderly abuse (Guruge, Tiwari, & Lucea, 2010 & Davey, 2005;Brownell & Heiser, 2006;Chokkanathan & Lee, 2005;Daly & Jogerst, 2001Desy & Prohaska, 2008;Golding, Yozwiak, Kinstle, & Marsil, 2005;Hsieh, Wang, Yen, & Liu, 2008;Jogerst, Daly, Brinig, Dawson, Schmuch, & Ingram, 2003;Jogerst, Daly, Dawson, Peek-Asa, & Schmuch, 2006;Laumann, Leitsch, & Waite, 2008;Leedahl & Ferraro, 2007;Manthorpe, Biggs, McCreadie, Tinker, Hills, et al., 2007;Nusbaum, Mistretta, & Wegner, 2007;Oh, Kim, Martins, & Kim, 2006;Pathman, Viera, & Newton, 2008;Phua, Ng, & Seow. 2008;Reay & Browne. ...
... In the first Nationwide Survey on Dementia Epidemiology of Korea, which was conducted in 2008, 54% of family caregivers of community-dwelling PWD admitted to one or more abusive behaviors within the prior month, 3 which was approximately nine times higher, than those caring for the healthy older population (6.3%). 4 PWD are at a greater risk for abuse, with a reported prevalence of abuse of 27.9-62.3%, compared with the elderly with normal cognition where the prevalence was 3.2-27.5%. ...
Article
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Objective: We investigated the prevalence and risk factors of physically abusive behaviors (PhAB) and psychologically abusive behaviors (PsAB) towards people with dementia (PWD) in family caregivers, and compared their prevalences between East Asian and Western countries. Methods: We estimated the prevalence and risk factors of PhAB and PsAB in 467 Korean pairs of community-dwelling PWD and their primary family caregivers. We evaluated abusive behaviors using the Modified Conflict Tactics Scale. In addition, we compared the prevalence of abusive behaviors between Asian and Western countries through a meta-analysis on 12 studies including the current one. Results: More than a half of the caregivers reported PsAB and about one out of seven caregivers admitted PhAB within past three months. PsAB and PhAB were slightly more prevalent in East Asian countries than in Western countries. Non-Alzheimer type and moderate to severe behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia were associated with the risk of PhAB but not with the risk of PsAB. Severe care burden and low income were associated with the risk of PhAB and PsAB. Conclusion: PhAB and PsAB were as prevalent in the family caregivers of PWD in Asian countries including Korea as in Western countries. Prevention strategies should be implemented according to the type of abusive behaviors.
Article
Objectives Elder abuse is one of the major social health problems in communities which has significant effects on decreasing their health and safety. The present study aims to investigate the prevalence of elder abuse by family members and its related factors in Gonabad, Iran. Methods & Materials This analytical cross-sectional study was conducted in 2020 on 401 elderly people in Gonabad, Iran. Who were selected using cluster random sampling. Data collection tools were a two-part questionnaire including a demographic form and the questionnaire of elder abuse by family members. The questionnaires were completed in a community health center. Data were analyzed in SPSS software version 23, using descriptive and inferential statistics. The significance level was set at 0.05. Results The mean age of participants was 68.53±6.75 years. The prevalence of elder abuse by family members was 44.6%. The highest prevalence of elder abuse was related to care negligence and the lowest prevalence was related to rejection. The educational level (P=0.03), history of hospitalization (P
Article
Guided by the contextual theory of elder mistreatment, this study examined the psychological mistreatment (PM) of aging parents and parents-in-law by their married children and compared the risk factors of PM. We used nationally representative data on the adverse experiences of Korean adults in 2017 (n=2,974). Results showed similarities and differences in the PM of aging parents and parents-in-law. Common risk factors included children's sex, greater victimization experiences, and co-residence. Daughters and daughters-in-law were more likely than their male counterparts to psychologically mistreat parents and parents-in-law. While parents' PM was more frequent when children had a temporary work status and when parents were younger, PM of parents-in-law occurred more often when children had a full-time job, poor self-rated health, and a negative perception of family relations. These findings provide insights into policy intervention against PM, suggesting the need for complex prevention strategies for PM of aging parents and parents-in-law.
Chapter
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Yaşlılık döneminde yaşlıların karşılaştıkları çeşitli sorunlar olmakla birlikte bu sorunların başında kötü sağlık koşulları, ekonomik yetersizlik, duygusal destek eksikliği ve emeklilik sonrası dönemde hastalıklar yer almaktadır. Bu durum yaşlılık döneminin bir sosyal ve ekonomik sorun hâline dönmesine neden olmaktadır. Emeklilik sonrasında yeterli gelire sahip olmama sorunu, eşin kaybı, artan boş zaman süresi, sosyal izolasyon, aile ilişkileri ve fiziksel ve finansal bağımlılık gibi bütün bu durumlar birbirleriyle yakından ilişkili ve karşılıklı bağımlıdırlar. Çalışmada yaşlılık döneminde karşılaşılan sorunlar sağlık, sosyal ve ekonomik sorunlar olmak üzere üç bağlamda ele alınmıştır.
Chapter
This chapter investigates gender differences in the prevalence of and the factors associated with abuse among Vietnamese older people. Utilizing the 2011 Vietnam Aging Survey, a nationally representative survey on aging in Vietnam, we found that the prevalence of elder abuse was higher for older women than for their male counterparts, but there were no gender differences in the likelihood of being abused in multiple logistic regression models for the full sample, controlling for other factors. However, for gender stratification samples, we observed gender differences in the factors associated with the probability of being abused. Specifically, locality of residence, financial contribution to the household, the number of children, and household income were important factors determining the likelihood of being abused for older men, while marital status and education were more important predictors of elder abuse for older women. Findings of this chapter provide empirical evidence based on the determinants of elder abuse, which are largely unexplored in Vietnam. This chapter also highlights the need for policies to tackle issues related to abuse at old ages in order to achieve healthy aging.
Article
Objective Elder abuse (EA) is a critical social, health, and economic issue worldwide. To date, there is limited information on EA in certain similar culture-specific subpopulations, especially in East Asia. This study aims to summarize EA incidence in East Asia through a systematic review and meta-analysis and identify its variations and heterogeneity in the incidence estimates. Methods/Design The study followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses protocol. Systematic review registration number PROSPERO CRD42020197131. A systematic literature search was performed to identify relevant articles published before July 5th, 2020, from six electronic databases. Two reviewers screened for relevance of the studies against eligible criteria and assessed the bias of the included studies independently. A random-effect model was adopted to estimate the incidence of EA, followed by subgroup analyses and multi meta-regression. Sensitivity and publication bias tests were performed to verify the robustness of the meta-analysis by Stata version 15.1. Results Twelve eligible studies were included in the meta-analysis, which involved 79395 subjects from 3 East Asian countries (China, Japan, and South Korea) ranging from 2004 to 2020. The overall incidence of EA was 78.33per 1000 person-year (95%CI: 39.12-156.87) with high between-study variability (χ²=15568, d.f.=11, P<0.001; I²=99.9%). The sampling method, sample size, scope, instrument, data collection method, income classification, types of participants, and urbanity are all the sources of heterogeneity, which can explain nearly 100% of the variance between studies. Conclusions The incidence of EA in this study is not as high as the global level. It may be furtherly underestimated in East Asia due to cultural norms. It is imperative to develop a culture-tailored EA assessment instrument to evaluate potential victims. Future studies should also identify more effective educational programs to raise the public's awareness and promote recognition ability. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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From past to present, silver has existed available in many treatments in the field of health including dentistry. In the 1800s, antimicrobial and antirheumatic properties were discovered. Silver components were used in medicine for tetanus and rheumatic drugs as well as for the treatment of cold and gonorrhea. In the following years, with the discovery of antibiotics, studies on the use of silver in medicine were suspended. However, with the emergence of antibiotic resistance and the inability to prevent it, the interest in silver and its compunds has increased and studies on combined use have become the focus of attention. Silver compounds including silver nitrate (AgNO3) and silver sulfadiazine have been utilized as topical antibacterial agents with the aim of controlling skin infections which are confronted in incidents such as burns and chronic ulcers. Using silver compounds in the field of dentistry dates back to previous times owing to their antibacterial and antimicrobial properties. Silver amalgam and dental casting alloys are utilized in dentistry for a long time. In this respect, silver nitrate, being a silver compound, was used as an anti- caries, cavity sterilizing and dentin desensitizing agent. In the 1960s, combined agent studies were carried out, which put forward that compounds with fluoride would be more effective. AgNO3, AgF and Ag (NH3)2F as well as other silver particulate additives were investigated and utilized for management of caries. Various clinical studies have been conducted upon silver in caries management. Applying silver fluoride (AgF) compounds clinically, however, is limited as a result of the associated black staining. In order to eliminate this disadvantage, studies are carried out on silver nanoparticles (NPs) and silver diamine fluoride (Ag (NH3)2F ) compound, which are new compounds and used as anti-caries and dentin desensitizing agents today. Moreover, silver compounds and NPs are focused on for different types of dental applications which involve restorative material, endodontic retrograde cement, dental implants and caries preventive solution.
Article
We investigated the association between type and frequency of elder maltreatment (EM) and residential setting (rural, suburban, and urban settings in the U.S. and northern and southern cities in Europe). We used data on 7,225 participants from European and U.S. cross-sectional studies to estimate rates of EM in three domains in the five settings in logistic-linear models that included setting and demographic variables and tested prespecified contrasts on settings. Northern Europe is similar to the U.S. in rate of financial exploitation; the Mediterranean has higher rates than either of the other two. For emotional and physical maltreatment, the Mediterranean is similar to the U.S; Northern Europe has higher rates. EM differs between and within settings in the U.S. and Europe. There is a need for rigorous research to examine the effects of residential settings and environment on EM. Interventions to reduce EM should be explored.
Article
This article reports a two-year study on the impact of a meditation program in building resilience, optimism, peace, and affirming meaning in life for South Asian older widows who faced maltreatment from their children-in-laws. The customized program for the study was effective (Cohen’s d range= 2.14–4.19, p ≤.01) for the intervention group (pretest n = 232, post-test n = 218) as compared to the control group (pretest n = 232, post-test n = 203). Meditation had greater impact on middle class participants, living alone or with kin, financially independent, in good health, Hindus, better educated, who regularly attended the lessons and practiced at home. Intervention adherence mediated the association between socio-demographic predictors and outcomes. With some context-specific modifications for older widows from the upper class, living in institutions, financially dependent on kin, in poor health, Buddhists, and less educated, the meditation program could be an effective intervention in building psychological resources of older widows to deal with maltreatment.
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Background: Depression is one of the most common psychiatric disorders in the older adult and one of the most common risk factors for suicide in the older adult. Studies show different and inconsistent prevalence rates in Iran. This study aims to determine the prevalence of severe depression in Iranian older adult through a meta-analysis approach. Methods: The present meta-analysis was conducted between January 2000-August 2019. Articles related to the subject matter were obtained by searching Scopus, Sciencedirect, SID, magiran, Barakat Knowledge Network System, Medline (PubMed), and Google Scholar databases. The heterogeneity of the studies was evaluated using I2 index and the data were analyzed in Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software. Results: In a study of 3948 individuals aged 50-90 years, the overall prevalence of severe depression in Iranian older adult was 8.2% (95% CI: 4.14-6.3%) based on meta-analysis. Also, in order to investigate the effects of potential factors (sample size and year of study) on the heterogeneity of severe depression in Iranian older adult, meta-regression was used. It was reported that the prevalence of severe depression in Iranian older adult decreased with increasing sample size and increasing years of the study, which is significantly different (P<0.05). Conclusion: Considering the high prevalence of severe depression in Iranian older adult, it is necessary for health policy makers to take effective control measures and periodic care for the older adult.
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Background: Depression is one of the most common psychiatric disorders in the older adult and one of the most common risk factors for suicide in the older adult. Studies show different and inconsistent prevalence rates in Iran. This study aims to determine the prevalence of severe depression in Iranian older adult through a meta-analysis approach. Methods: The present meta-analysis was conducted between January 2000-August 2019. Articles related to the subject matter were obtained by searching Scopus, Sciencedirect, SID, magiran, Barakat Knowledge Network System, Medline (PubMed), and Google Scholar databases. The heterogeneity of the studies was evaluated using I 2 index and the data were analyzed in Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software. Results : In a study of 3948 individuals aged 50-90 years, the overall prevalence of severe depression in Iranian older adult was 8.2% (95% CI: 4.14-6.3%) based on meta-analysis. Also, in order to investigate the effects of potential factors (sample size and year of study) on the heterogeneity of severe depression in Iranian older adult, meta-regression was used. It was reported that the prevalence of severe depression in Iranian older adult decreased with increasing sample size and increasing years of the study, which is significantly different (P
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Depression is one of the most common psychiatric disorders in the older adult and one of the most common risk factors for suicide in the older adult. Studies show different and inconsistent prevalence rates in Iran. This study aims to determine the prevalence of severe depression in Iranian older adult through a meta-analysis approach. Methods: The present meta-analysis was conducted between January 2000-August 2019. Articles related to the subject matter were obtained by searching Scopus, Sciencedirect, SID, magiran, Barakat Knowledge Network System, Medline (PubMed), and Google Scholar databases. The heterogeneity of the studies was evaluated using I 2 index and the data were analyzed in Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software. Results : In a study of 3948 individuals aged 50-90 years, the overall prevalence of severe depression in Iranian older adult was 8.2% (95% CI: 4.14-6.3%) based on meta-analysis. Also, in order to investigate the effects of potential factors (sample size and year of study) on the heterogeneity of severe depression in Iranian older adult, meta-regression was used. It was reported that the prevalence of severe depression in Iranian older adult decreased with increasing sample size and increasing years of the study, which is significantly different (P
Book
Domestic and family violence (DFV) is an enduring social and public health issue of endemic proportions and global scale, with multiple and lasting consequences for those directly affected. This book tackles current debates in the field and addresses the social norms and settings that perpetuate this type of violence, along with implications for service delivery. The book offers a thorough introduction into the nature and extent of DFV in contemporary social contexts and serves as a foundation for informed practice. It provides a firm theoretical and empirical overview of core issues, covering the challenges and support needs experienced by those affected, along with the implications this raises for the range of relevant response services. The authors also offer insight into the predominantly gendered nature of DFV and its influence beyond the traditional couple context, across age, gender, sexual orientation, cultural background, and family relationships. Drawing on theoretical explanations, international research, and practice experience, they highlight examples of good practice and holistic responses, including primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention. Written in a clear and direct style, this book will appeal to students and scholars of criminology, sociology, and social work engaged in studies of domestic and family violence, violence against women, and intimate partner violence. It will be an invaluable resource for those designing, coordinating, and conducting service responses.
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Objectives: Elderly people often are abused in many ways with serious and pasting consequences. Elder abuse remains one of the most hidden forms of family conflict and it is anticipated that it is rising in many countries which are rapidly experiencing population aging. The purpose of study is to investigate the status of domestic elder abuse in elderly women and their related factors in Tehran. Methods: This cross-sectional study conducted in 2017 on 260 women aged 60 and older, selected through multistage random sampling. The information of abuse and its risk factors was collected through interviews with the elderly in their homes. To measure domestic elderly abuse, the standard domestic elderly abuse questionnaire was used. The ordinal logistic test was used in Stata 12 to identify the factors related to elder abuse. Results: Results showed that 90.4% of subjects have experienced at least one type of abuse, which the highest rate of abuse was authority deprivation (68.5%), and the lowest was rejection (11.2%). The ordinal logistic analysis showed that the odds of being in higher levels of abuse is significantly higher in elderly people over 72 years than older people aged 60-62 years (OR=2.07, CI: 1.03- 4.17). Conclusion: Results showed that domestic elder abuse is common in older women. Old age is an important risk factor for domestic elder abuse in elderly women in Tehran. Managing and preventing elderly abuse is an important issue that needs to be addressed.
Article
Elder abuse is generally defined as the maltreatment of individuals over the age of 60, although no precise definition exists in the literature. Types of abuse include, but are not limited to, psychological/emotional, physical, sexual abuse, and financial exploitation. Certain risk factors exist leaving an individual more susceptible to abuse, and many obstacles exist preventing the elimination of abuse. There are also identifiable risk factors that increase the likelihood of perpetration of abuse. This systematic review provides an overview of the scope of the problem, types of abuse, risk factors, characteristics of abusers, and key aspects of elder abuse prevention.
Article
Elder abuse is one of the most important problems encountered by the elderly. Health, economical and psychological dimensions of the experience of aging also pose risk for elder abuse. This study aims to determine the abuse to which elder people are exposed based upon their own evaluations and to investigate the risk factors associated with elder abuse. This is a cross-sectional study among quantitative designs. Population of the study comprises 309 outpatient elders over the age of 65 referring to Aydın Doğan Geriatrics Clinic of Ankara University, Turkey. Collected data were analyzed by chi-square test and logistic regression. In total, 70.9% of the elderly participating in this study experienced abuse more than once. Majority of the participants were victims of emotional abuse (64.1%), followed by neglect and abandonment (26.9%) and economic abuse (12.6%). There was significant relation between sex, marital status, health status of the elderly and being abused (p < 0.05). Being female and evaluating health status as bad are risk factors (p < 0.05). Elder abuse is a quite complex and multifaceted social problem. It is expected that this study will increase awareness of helping professionals (social workers, nurses, doctors, counsellors) about elder abuse risk factors and contribute to the development of social policies for preventing elder abuse. For future research, it will be more beneficial if studies on elder abuse adopt a holistic approach that will incorporate the family and relatives of the elderly and institutions.
Article
The human rights of older people have gotten more attention recently in South Korea, a country that is in transition to a super-aged society. This study aimed to systematically review studies on elder abuse and related factors among community-dwelling older adults in South Korea over twenty years (1994-2016). We searched major databases (Riss, DBpia, KISS, KMbase, and PubMed) and identified published studies relevant to the topic. Based on inclusion and exclusion criteria related to study quality, a total of 31 studies were selected for this review. We examined types, measurements, and risk factors of elder abuse as well as study designs in the selected studies, guided by Johannesen’s theoretical framework on elder abuse. All of the reviewed studies on elder abuse in Korea were cross-sectional studies, most of which focused on older people living in urban areas, using a non-random sampling method. All of the studies focused on certain types of elder abuse only. Some adopted elder-abuse instruments that were not validated, and others used self-developed instruments without psychometric tests. As for the risk factors of elder abuse in South Korea, the physical and mental health of the victims and aggressors impacted the risk of elder abuse, but general sociodemographic factors such as age, sex, and education were less likely to be related to the risk. In addition, decreasing caregiver burden and building elder-friendly communities are important for the prevention of elder abuse. Needed are further empirical studies on elder abuse with a theoretical framework that gives consideration to the unique sociocultural contexts of Korea. It is also recommended to develop instruments to measure elder abuse reflecting the sociocultural contexts of Korea, and to examine the multi-dimensional risk factors of elder abuse.
Article
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Introduction: Frailty is a dynamic condition that affects individuals who suffer from loss in one or more areas of human functioning (physical, psychological, and social). It is possible to reduce morbidity and mortality by recognizing this condition in the elderly. This study aimed to develop a Turkish adaptation of the Tilburg Frailty Indicator and assess whether it is a valid, reliable tool for the Turkish population. Materials and Method: Our descriptive cross-sectional study enrolled 271 individuals aged >65 years. The scale was adapted into Turkish before conducting the study. Known groups were tested using confirmatory factor analysis to assess the validity of the scale. The Cronbach"s alpha reliability and the Kuder?Richardson Formula-21 internal consistency coefficients were used to assess the reliability. Results: The median age of the participants was 71 years (range=65?90 years). The average total frailty score was 4.56±3.09. The total Cronbach"s alpha coefficient for the Tilburg Frailty Indicator was 0.758. The Kuder?Richardson Formula-21 reliability coefficient was 0.758 for the entire scale. The summary of good agreement findings obtained by confirmatory factor analysis showed that the scale can conceptually define the construct it was designed to measure at a good level. Conclusion: Based on our results, it has been established that the Turkish adaptation of the Tilburg Frailty Indicator is a valid and reliable tool. We believe that our findings have contributed to early detection of problems related to elderly health and the management of frailty in primary care.
Article
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Future trends suggest both a continued growth of the elderly population, as well as the likelihood of increased demand for family caregiving which may, in turn, be associated with increasing rates of elder abuse. It is important to consider issues related to such caregiving, including potential abuse from an ecological perspective which, in turn, provides a fruitful basis for framing the problem of abuse as a set of contextually-based risk factors. This paper focuses on the contextual risk factors using an applied ecological model, a useful framework for understanding the intergenerational character of elder abuse in families, for developing recommendations for empirically-based action research, and for the development of community-based prevention and intervention strategies.
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(1) To assess the prevalence and the consequences of chronic verbal aggression, physical aggression, financial mistreatment, and neglect in a community-based sample; (2) to investigate the circumstances that led to the abuse and the ways in which the victims handled the problem. Prevalence was assessed in a population-based sample of 1797 older people living independently in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. In a follow-up study 1 year later, the victims were questioned again about the background and consequences of the abuse. The 1-year prevalence of elder abuse was 5.6%. The prevalence of the various types of elder abuse was: verbal aggression 3.2%, physical aggression 1.2%, financial mistreatment 1.4%, and neglect 0.2%. Most victims reported emotional reactions immediately after the abuse. Seven of 36 victims experienced physical or financial damage as a consequence of the abuse. More than 70% of the victims were able to stop the abuse, either by themselves or with the help of others. The rate of occurrence and the consequences of elder abuse in the Netherlands was established. Elder abuse is more widely spread if not only close relatives or people with whom the older person lives are considered as possible perpetrators but other familiar and trusted people are considered as well. Intervention should be focused on the roughly 40% of victims who were not able to stop the abuse.
Article
Geriatric abuse is a possible dimension of intrafamily violence within American society. Representative situations are presented here that may go unrecognized as intrafamily violence by human service organizations. Issues relevant for developing protective and preventive strategies for these aged victims are proposed.
Article
The rapid emergence of elderly abuse as a social problem has led to the public dissemination of data derived from exploratory research. This paper assesses the state of knowledge of elderly abuse and examines the limitations of current research on the extent, patterns, and causes of elderly abuse. Suggestions are offered to researchers and practitioners.
Article
Elder neglect and abuse represent a widespread, largely undiagnosed problem in the United States. Factors contributing to misdiagnosis and underreporting include denial by both the victim and the perpetrator, clinicians' reluctance to report victims, disbelief by medical providers, and clinicians' lack of awareness of warning signs. Physical abuse is most recognizable, yet neglect is most common. Psychological and financial abuse may be more easily missed. Elder neglect and abuse have many clinical presentations, ranging from the overt appearance of bruises and fractures, to the subtle appearance of dehydration, depression, and apathy. Risk factors are varied and may be categorized by victim or perpetrator. Dependency, on the part of the victim or perpetrator, and caregiver stress are frequent common denominators in abusive situations. Increasingly, Institutionalization is recognized as a risk factor for neglect and abuse. Most states require primary care providers to report suspected elder abuse. Awareness of the risk factors and clinical manifestations allows primary care physicians to provide early detection and intervention for elder neglect and abuse.
Article
We present a conceptual framework for understanding two distinct but related phenomena: violent feelings (i.e., the fear of becoming violent) and violent behaviors by family caregivers toward relatives with dementia. Based on both the literature on family caregiving and on family violence, four factors are hypothesized to explain these two dimensions of violence: caregiving demands, interactional stressors, caregiver characteristics, and caregiving context. Analyses of quantitative and qualitative data on 236 family caregivers to dementia victims revealed several characteristics that were predictive of violent feelings on the part of caregivers, including physical aggression by the care recipient, disruptive behaviors, and a shared living situation. Structural relationship and caregiver's age were found to be related to actual violence; spouses were more likely to engage in violence than other relatives, as were older individuals. In addition, violence by the care recipient was positively related to caregiver violence.
Article
In this first large-scale random sample survey of elder abuse and neglect, interviews were conducted with 2020 community-dwelling elderly persons in the Boston metropolitan area regarding their experience of physical violence, verbal aggression, and neglect. The prevalence rate of overall maltreatment was 32 elderly persons per 1000. Spouses were found to be the most likely abusers and roughly equal numbers of men and women were victims, although women suffered more serious abuse. Implications for public policy are discussed.
Article
Because the dynamics of elder abuse are not readily discernible, detection and intervention are possible only after abuse has occurred. Yet, some elder abuse can be prevented by systematic assessment of the older person and the potential caregiver, as well as of the family constellation. Research findings were used to identify high risk factors associated with elder abuse, factors that can be used to guide placement decisions.
Article
This study summarizes the outcome of all investigations of elder abuse conducted in Forsyth County, North Carolina, during a 3-year period ending December 1991. Of the 123 cases investigated, 23 were confirmed as elder abuse. There were no statistically significant differences in age, sex, race, living arrangements, mental status, mobility, or source of report between confirmed and unconfirmed cases. Unconfirmed compared to confirmed cases were more likely to reside in a nursing home and/or to be ill. The most frequently substantiated charge was exploitation of resources (46%). Only 3% of charges of physical abuse were substantiated. Among confirmed cases, 70% were offered and accepted protective services.
Article
An anonymous postal questionnaire was distributed to 200 members of a voluntary organisation providing information and support for the carers of dementia sufferers. Carers were asked about the possible occurrence of verbal, physical abuse and neglect. Those carers who admitted to any form of abuse were compared with those who did not and risk factors in both carers and patients were analysed to determine risk factors for abuse. Fifty-five per cent of carers admitted to some form of abuse with verbal abuse being the most common form. Verbal abuse was associated with a poor premorbid relationship and social isolation of the carer and was found to be a risk factor for physical abuse. Those carers who had high GHQ scores and who had been caring for longer were more likely to physically abuse the person they cared for. This study supports the hypothesis that various categories of abuse have different correlates.
Article
This article explores the role of abuser substance abuse in 552 cases of substantiated elder abuse in Illinois. When the abuser was identified as having a substance abuse (SA) problem, the type of elder abuse substantiated was more likely to involve either physical or emotional abuse than neglect or financial exploitation. Abusers with SA problems were more frequently men and children of their victims, and less likely to be caregivers. Abuser SA was associated with victim SA. Cases involving abusers with SA problems were more likely to be evaluated by case workers as having a high potential risk for future abuse. Elder abuser case workers should be trained to identify both victim and abuser SA and appropriate intervention strategies.
Article
It is important to enable social service agency practitioners to identify cases in which seniors are abused by their caregivers. The Indicators of Abuse (IOA) screening measure provides an abuse screening tool, based on abuse indicators, for use by practitioners. Thestudy (N = 341) supports the validity of the 29-item set of indicators of the IOA, which discriminates abuse cases (84.4% of the time) from nonabuse cases (99.2% of the time).An abuse-indicator model evolving from the IOA suggests three main types of abusesignals: (a) caregiver personal problems/issues; (b) caregiver interpersonal problems/issues; (c) care receiver social support shortages and past abuse.
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Case Study of the State on the Elderly Abuse: Among the Elderly Using the Welfare Facilities in 6 Big Cities
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