Alix regulates cortical actin and the spatial distribution of endosomes
Department of Biochemistry, the Norwegian Radium Hospital, Montebello, Oslo.Journal of Cell Science (Impact Factor: 5.43). 07/2005; 118(Pt 12):2625-35. DOI: 10.1242/jcs.02382
Alix/AIP1 is a proline-rich protein that has been implicated in apoptosis, endocytic membrane trafficking and viral budding. To further elucidate the functions of Alix, we used RNA interference to specifically suppress its expression. Depletion of Alix caused a striking redistribution of early endosomes from a peripheral to a perinuclear location. The redistribution of endosomes did not affect transferrin recycling or degradation of endocytosed epidermal growth factor receptors, although the uptake of transferrin was mildly reduced when Alix was downregulated. Quantitative immunoelectron microscopy showed that multivesicular endosomes of Alix-depleted cells contained normal amounts of CD63, whereas their levels of lysobisphosphatidic acid were reduced. Alix depletion also caused an accumulation of unusual actin structures that contained clathrin and cortactin, a protein that couples membrane dynamics to the cortical actin cytoskeleton. Our results suggest that Alix functions in the actin-dependent intracellular positioning of endosomes, but that it is not essential for endocytic recycling or for trafficking of membrane proteins between early and late endosomes in non-polarised cells.
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- "Meanwhile, another Bro1 protein, HD-PTP, plays a part in CHMP4 recruitment during EGFR sorting (Ali et al., 2013). The selective role that HD-PTP appears to have over Alix in ubiquitylated MVB cargo sorting (Bowers et al., 2006; Cabezas et al., 2005; Doyotte et al., 2008) is underlined by its selective binding to the ESCRT-0 subunit signal transducing adaptor molecule (STAM), and to UBAP1 (Ali et al., 2013; Stefani et al., 2011). A further ESCRT component with selective function is IST1, an ESCRT-III subunit that is essential for cytokinesis but not for EGFR sorting or virus budding (Agromayor et al., 2009; Bajorek et al., 2009). "
ABSTRACT: ESCRT-I is essential for the multivesicular body (MVB) sorting of ubiquitinated cargo such as epidermal growth factor receptor, as well as for divergent cellular functions such as cell division and retroviral budding. ESCRT-I has four subunits; TSG101, VPS28, VPS37 and MVB12. There are several members of VPS37 and MVB12 families in mammalian cells, and their differential incorporation into ESCRT-I could provide function-specific variants of the complex. However, it remains unclear whether these different forms of VPS37 and MVB12 combine randomly or generate selective pairings within ESCRT-I, and what the mechanistic basis for such pairing would be. Here we show that the incorporation into ESCRT-I of two MVB12 members, UBAP1 and MVB12A, is highly selective with respect to their VPS37 partners. We map the selective assembly of UBAP1/VPS37A to the core ESCRT-I binding domain of VPS37A. In contrast, selective integration of UBAP1 requires both the minimal ESCRT-I binding region and a neighbouring predicted helix. The biochemical specificity in ESCRT-I assembly is matched by functional specialisation, since siRNA-mediated depletion of UBAP1, but not MVB12A or MVB12B, disrupts ubiquitin-dependent sorting at the MVB.
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- "The plasmid pCMV-FLAG-ALIX was kindly provided by Jörg Votteler (University of Erlangen, Germany). The small interfering RNAs (siRNA) used to down regulate Tsg101 has been previously described [6,38] as well as the Alix specific siRNAs [39,40]. As non-target siRNA the “AllStars Neg. "
ABSTRACT: Late assembly (L)-domains are protein interaction motifs, whose dysfunction causes characteristic budding defects in enveloped viruses. Three different amino acid motifs, namely PT/SAP, PPXY and YPXnL have been shown to play a major role in the release of exogenous retroviruses. Although the L-domains of exogenous retroviruses have been studied comprehensively, little is known about these motifs in endogenous human retroviruses. Using a molecular clone of the human endogenous retrovirus K113 that had been engineered to reverse the presumed non-synonymous postinsertional mutations in the major genes, we identified three functional L-domains of the virus, all located in the Gag p15 protein. A consensus PTAP tetrapeptide serves as the core of a main L-domain for the virus and its inactivation reduces virus release in HEK 293T cells by over 80%. Electron microscopy of cells expressing the PTAP mutant revealed predominantly late budding structures and budding chains at the plasma membrane. The fact that this motif determines subcellular colocalization with Tsg101, an ESCRT-I complex protein known to bind to the core tetrapeptide, supports its role as an L-domain. Moreover, two YPXnL motifs providing additional L-domain function were identified in the p15 protein. One is adjacent to the PTAP sequence and the other is in the p15 N-terminus. Mutations in either motif diminishes virus release and induces an L-domain phenotype while inactivation of all three L-domains results in a complete loss of particle release in HEK 293T cells. The flexibility of the virus in the use of L-domains for gaining access to the ESCRT machinery is demonstrated by overexpression of Tsg101 which rescues the release of the YPXnL mutants. Similarly, overexpression of Alix not only enhances release of the PTAP mutant by a factor of four but also the release of a triple mutant, indicating that additional cryptic YPXnL domains with a low affinity for Alix may be present. No L-domain activity is provided by the proline-rich peptides at the Gag C-terminus. Our data demonstrate that HERV-K(HML-2) release is predominantly mediated through a consensus PTAP motif and two auxiliary YPXnL motifs in the p15 protein of the Gag precursor.
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- "Importantly, interfering with LBPA (Luyet et al. 2008) or ALIX (Schmidt et al. 2004; Cabezas et al. 2005; Bowers et al. 2006; Doyotte et al. 2008; Luyet et al. 2008) does not affect the trafficking of EGF receptor to lysosomes, nor EGF receptor down-regulation, despite the fact that ALIX interacts with the two ESCRT subunits TSG101 and CHMP4 in mammalian cells. ALIX, however , may be involved in the ubiquitin-independent , ESCRT-III-dependent sorting of the GPCR PAR1 (Dores et al. 2012). "
ABSTRACT: Intracellular organelles, including endosomes, show differences not only in protein but also in lipid composition. It is becoming clear from the work of many laboratories that the mechanisms necessary to achieve such lipid segregation can operate at very different levels, including the membrane biophysical properties, the interactions with other lipids and proteins, and the turnover rates or distribution of metabolic enzymes. In turn, lipids can directly influence the organelle membrane properties by changing biophysical parameters and by recruiting partner effector proteins involved in protein sorting and membrane dynamics. In this review, we will discuss how lipids are sorted in endosomal membranes and how they impact on endosome functions.
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