To understand how cells respond to altered oxygenation, a frequent experimental paradigm is to isolate known components of bona fide oxygen responsive proteins. Recent studies have shown that a protein known as CSN5 or JAB1 interacts with both the HIF-1alpha oxygen-responsive transcription factor and its oxygen-dependent regulator, the Von Hippel-Lindau (pVHL) tumor suppressor. CSN5 is a component of the COP9 Signalosome (CSN) which is a multi-subunit protein that has high homology to the lid of the 19S lid of 26S proteasome. The exact function of the CSN5 interaction with pVHL and HIF-1alpha remains to be fully elucidated, but it is clear that the interaction is both oxygen dependent and that CSN5 may play different roles under oxic and hypoxic responses. Further, evidence has also been published indicating that pVHL can be potentially post-translationally modified by CSN5 (de-neddylation) and that CSN5 transcription is regulated by hypoxia as are many of the key pVHL/HIF-1alpha regulatory genes such as the PHDs and OS-9. This review will give a broad overview of known CSN5 and COP9 Signalosome functions and how these functions impact the pVHL/HIF-1alpha signaling complex and potentially other oxygen-sensitive response networks.
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"Activity of the Cullin-based E3 complexes is in turn regulated by the protein complex called COP9 (COnstitutive Photomorphogenesis mutant 9) signalosome , , . The COP9 signalosome (CSN), which is composed of eight subunits (CSN1–8), is an evolutionarily conserved protein complex that has been reported to control pleiotropic functions from yeast to humans , , , , . Increasing evidence indicates that CSN-mediated removal of a small ubiquitin-like molecule Nedd8 from Cullin component of ubiquitin ligases (or deneddylation) plays a critical role in regulating Cullin-dependant proteolysis , , . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Altered dendritic arborization contributes to numerous physiological processes including synaptic plasticity, behavior, learning and memory, and is one of the most consistent neuropathologic conditions found in a number of mental retardation disorders, schizophrenia, and neurodegenerative disease. COP9 signalosome (CSN), an evolutionarily conserved regulator of the Cullin-based ubiquitin ligases that act in the proteasome pathway, has been found associated with diverse debilitating syndromes, suggesting that CSN may be involved in regulation of dendritic arborization. However, the mechanism of this control, if it exists, is unknown. To address whether the CSN pathway plays a role in dendrites, we used a simple and genetically tractable model, Drosophila larval peripheral nervous system. Our model study identified the COP9 signalosome as the key and multilayer regulator of dendritic arborization. CSN is responsible for shaping the entire dendritic tree through both stimulating and then repressing dendritic branching. We identified that CSN exerts its dualistic function via control of different Cullins. In particular, CSN stimulates dendritic branching through Cullin1, and inhibits it via control of Cullin3 function. We also identified that Cullin1 acts in neurons with the substrate-specific F-box protein Slimb to target the Cubitus interruptus protein for degradation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: In the last several years, multiple lines of evidence have suggested that the COP9 signalosome (CSN) plays a significant role in the regulation of multiple cancers and could be an attractive target for therapeutic intervention. First, the CSN plays a key role in the regulation of Cullin-containing ubiquitin E3 ligases that are central mediators of a variety of cellular functions essential during cancer progression. Second, several studies suggest that the individual subunits of the CSN, particularly CSN5, might regulate oncogenic and tumor suppressive functions independently of, or coordinately with, the CSN holocomplex. Thus, deregulation of CSN subunit function can have a dramatic effect on diverse cellular functions, including the maintenance of DNA fidelity, cell cycle control, DNA repair, angiogenesis, and microenvironmental homeostasis that are critical for tumor development. Additionally, clinical studies have suggested that the expression or localization of some CSN subunits correlate to disease progression or clinical outcome in a variety of tumor types. Although the study of CSN function in relation to tumor progression is in its infancy, this review will address current studies in relation to cancer initiation, progression, and potential for therapeutic intervention.
Preview · Article · Jan 2006 · Molecular Cancer Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: A major adaptive pathway for hypoxia is hypoxic preconditioning (HPC), a form of endogenous protection that renders cells tolerant to severe challenges of hypoxia. We sought to define the antiinflammatory properties of HPC. cDNA microarray analysis of lung tissue from mice subjected to hypoxia or HPC identified a cluster of NF-kappaB-regulated genes whose expression is attenuated by HPC. Studies using an NF-kappaB luciferase reporter assay confirmed a significant suppression of NF-kappaB activation during HPC. HPC-elicited activity was conferrable, as a soluble supernatant from HPC-treated cells, and the active fraction was purified and identified as adenosine (Ado). Guided by recent studies demonstrating bacterial inhibition of NF-kappaB through cullin-1 (Cul-1) deneddylation, we found a dose-dependent deneddylation of Cul-1 by Ado receptor stimulation predominantly mediated by the Ado A2B receptor subtype. Further, siRNA-mediated repression of CSN5, a subunit of the COP9 signalosome responsible for deneddylation of Cul-1, partially reversed HPC-mediated inhibition of NF-kappaB. Cul-1 deneddylation was evident in a murine model of HPC and lost in animals lacking extracellular Ado (Cd73-/- mice). Taken together, these results demonstrate that HPC induces extracellular accumulation of Ado and suppresses NF-kappaB activity through deneddylation of Cul-1. These results define a molecular regulatory pathway by which Ado provides potent antiinflammatory properties.