Cytotoxic effects of a decoction of Nigella sativa, Hemidesmus indicus and Smilax glabra on human hepatoma HepG2 cells. Life Sci
Faculty of Medicine, University of Kelaniya, Ragama, Sri Lanka.Life Sciences (Impact Factor: 2.7). 09/2005; 77(12):1319-30. DOI: 10.1016/j.lfs.2005.01.022
A decoction of Nigella sativa seeds, Hemidesmus indicus root and Smilax glabra rhizome is used by traditional medical practitioners in Sri Lanka to treat cancer and has been shown to prevent chemically induced carcinogenesis in rats. The cytotoxicity of the decoction and the individual plant extracts were tested on the human hepatoma HepG2 cell line. The effects of 24 h incubation with different concentrations (0--50 mg/ml) of the extracts on HepG2 cells were determined. Results from MTT and SRB assays, and [(14)C]-leucine and [(3)H]-thymidine uptake demonstrated that the decoction had a strong dose-dependent cytotoxic activity. The greatest inhibitory effects were observed on DNA synthesis with both the decoction (91+/-S.E. 3.7% inhibition) and N. sativa plant extract (88+/-3.8%) even at low concentrations (5 mg/ml). The three individual plant extracts were cytotoxic in the order of potency N. sativa>H. indicus>S. glabra. Flow cytometric analysis using Annexin V and propidium iodide staining showed that after 24 h exposure to the decoction, cells were in the late stage of apoptosis and/or necrosis. Further experiments are worthwhile to determine the anticancer potential of this plant decoction and its components.
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- "K562 and Jurkat cells were differently sensitive to the treatments, because the decoction was only active on Jurkat cells, while the hydroalcoholic preparation was active on both K562 (IC 50 values of 177.11 μg/mL) and Jurkat (IC 50 values of 63.79 μg/mL) cells. These data are of interest when compared with a previous study (Thabrew et al., 2005) showing that the decoction prepared with Nigella sativa seeds, H. indicus (roots), and Smilax glabra (rhizome), used by traditional medical practitioners in Sri Lanka to treat cancer, has a dose-dependent inhibition activity with the maximum effect at concentrations higher than 40 mg/mL (dose causing 50% inhibition, ED 50 = 17 mg/mL). All three individual plant extracts demonstrated inhibitory activity with interesting H. indicus values for ED 50 (32 mg/mL). "
ABSTRACT: Indian Sarsaparilla (Hemidesmus indicus R. Br.) is widely used in Indian traditional medicine. In the present work, we explored the effects of decoction, traditional Ayurvedic preparation, and hydroalcoholic extract, a phytocomplex more traditionally studied and commercialized as food supplement in western medicine, from the roots as possible source of chemicals with new functional potential linked to their nutritional uses. The antiproliferative and antioxidant properties were assayed. To test antiproliferative affects, different cancer cell lines, growing both as monolayers (CaCo2, MCF-7, A549, K562, MDA-MB-231, Jurkat, HepG2, and LoVo) and in suspension (K562 and Jurkat) were used. The decoction showed strong activity on HepG2 cells, while the hydroalcoholic extracts were active on HepG2, LoVo, MCF-7, K562, and Jurkat cell lines. Weak inhibition of cancer cell proliferation was observed for the principal constituents of the preparations: 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde, 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzoic acid, and 3-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde that were tested alone. The antiradical activity was tested with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)diammonium salt tests and inhibition of nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Interesting result has also been obtained for hydroalcoholic extract regarding genoprotective potential (58.79% of inhibition at 37.5 µg/mL). Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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- "The decoction of the roots of HI is traditionally used for the treatment of blood diseases, dyspepsia, loss of taste, dyspnea, cough, poison, menorrhagia, fever, and diarrhea (Mary et al., 2003). Moreover, poly-herbal preparations containing HI are used by traditional medical practitioners for the treatment of cancer (Thabrew et al., 2005) and different studies demonstrated the anticancer potential of HI (Costa-Lotufo et al., 2005; Fimognari et al., 2011; Samarakoon et al., 2012; Zarei and Javarappa, 2012; Ferruzzi et al., 2013). Aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro anti-angiogenic potential of HI on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and delineate the main molecular mechanisms involved in its antiangiogenic activity both in normoxia and hypoxia. "
ABSTRACT: Ethnopharmacological relevance: The decoction of the roots of Hemidesmus indicus is widely used in the Indian traditional medicine for many purposes and poly-herbal preparations containing Hemidesmus are often used by traditional medical practitioners for the treatment of cancer. In the context of anticancer pharmacology, anti-angiogenic therapy has become an effective strategy for inhibiting new vessel formation and contrast tumor growth. These considerations are supported by the evidence that most tumors originate in hypoxic conditions and limitation of oxygen diffusion stimulates the formation of tumor abnormal microvasculature. Aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro anti-angiogenic potential of Hemidesmus indicus (0.31-0.93 mg/mL) on human umbilical vein endothelial cells and delineate the main molecular mechanisms involved in its anti-angiogenic activity both in normoxia and hypoxia. Materials and methods: The decoction of Hemidesmus indicus was subjected to an extensive HPLC phytochemical characterization. Its in vitro anti-angiogenic potential was investigated in normoxia and hypoxia. Cell proliferation, apoptosis induction, and inhibition of endothelial cell migration and invasion were analyzed by flow cytometry. The endothelial tube formation assay was evaluated in matrix gel. The capillary tube branch points formed were counted using a Motic AE21 microscope and a VisiCam videocamera. The regulation of key factors of the neovascularization process such as VEGF, HIF-1α and VEGFR-2 was explored at mRNA and protein level by real time PCR and flow cytometry, respectively. Results: Treatment with Hemidesmus resulted in a significant inhibition of cell proliferation and tube formation in both normoxia and hypoxia. Hemidesmus differently regulated multiple molecular targets related to angiogenesis according to oxygen availability. In normoxia, the inhibition of VEGF was the main responsible for its anti-angiogenic effect; the angiogenesis inhibition induced in hypoxia was regulated by a more complex mechanism involving firstly HIF-1α inhibition, and then VEGF and VEGFR-2 down-regulation. Additionally, the inhibition of endothelial cell migration and invasion by Hemidesmus was more pronounced in normoxia than in hypoxia, possibly due to the physiological enhanced induction of invasion characteristic of hypoxia. Conclusions: Our results indicate that Hemidesmus might represent a promising therapeutic strategy for diseases in which the inhibition of angiogenesis could be beneficial, such as cancer. The antiangiogenic activity of Hemidesmus is based on multiple interactions with critical steps in the angiogenic cascade. VEGF expression stimulated by HIF-1α as well as endothelial cell migration and differentiation represent important targets of Hemidesmus action and might contribute to its cancer therapeutic efficacy that is presently emerging and offer a scientific basis for its use in traditional medicine.
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- "cancer diseases, including cervical cancer (Effenberger et al., 2010), blood cancer (El-Mahdy et al., 2005), hepatic cancer (Thabrew et al., 2005), colon cancer (Salim and Fukushima, 2003), pancreatic cancer (Chehl et al., 2009), skin cancer (Salomi et al., 1991), fibrosarcoma (Awad, 2005), renal cancer (Khan and Sultana, 2005), prostate cancer (Yi et al., 2008), and breast cancers (Farah and Begum, 2003; Ahmad et al., 2012). Pharmacologically important components of N sativa extracts have also been studied against lung cancer as an anticancer agent. "
ABSTRACT: Nigella sativa (N sativa), commonly known as black seed, has been used in traditional medicine to treat many diseases. The antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial activities of N sativa extracts are well known. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the anticancer activity of seed extract (NSE) and seed oil (NSO) of N sativa against a human lung cancer cell line. Cells were exposed to 0.01 to 1 mg/ml of NSE and NSO for 24 h, then percent cell viability was assessed by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2, 5-biphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and neutral red uptake (NRU) assays, and cellular morphology by phase contrast inverted microscopy. The results showed NSE and NSO significantly reduce the cell viability and alter the cellular morphology of A-549 cells in a concentration dependent manner. The percent cell viability was recorded as 75%, 50%, and 26% at 0.25, 0.5, and 1 mg/ml of NSE by MTT assay and 73%, 48%, and 23% at 0.25, 0.5, and 1 mg/ml of NSE by NRU assay. Exposure to NSO concentrations of 0.1 mg/ml and above for 24 h was also found to be cytotoxic. The decrease in cell viability at 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, and 1 mg/ml of NSO was recorded to be 89%, 52%, 41%, and 13% by MTT assay and 85%, 52%, 38%, and 11% by NRU assay, respectively. A-549 cells exposed to 0.25, 0.5 and 1 mg/ml of NSE and NSO lost their typical morphology and appeared smaller in size. The data revealed that the treatment of seed extract (NSE) and seed oil (NSO) of Nigella sativa significantly reduce viability of human lung cancer cells.
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