Ketamine Inhibits Lipopolysacharide (LPS) Induced Gastric Luminal Fluid Accumulation
Department of General Surgery, The University of Texas Medical School at Houston, Houston, Texas 77026, USA. Journal of Surgical Research
(Impact Factor: 1.94).
09/2005; 127(2):203-7. DOI: 10.1016/j.jss.2005.03.021
Lipopolysacharide (LPS) causes gastrointestinal ileus and gastric luminal fluid accumulation. Ketamine, an anti-inflammatory anesthetic agent attenuates accumulation of luminal fluid. However, its effects on gastrointestinal transit induced by endotoxemia are unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine if the anti-inflammatory properties of ketamine improve impaired gastric emptying and gastrointestinal transit because of LPS.
Rats were given ketamine (70 mg/kg i.p.) or saline 1 h before LPS (20 mg/kg, i.p.) or saline injection. Five hours after LPS injection, rats were gavaged with 1 cc consisting of 0.1 ml of 5 mm FITC Dextran added to 0.9 ml of saline. After 30 min, rats were sacrificed, and gastric emptying, gastrointestinal transit, and gastric fluid accumulation determined. Gastric and ileal mucosa were harvested for analysis of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) (Western immunoblot). Results are reported as mean +/- SE (n > or = 5 per group; ANOVA).
Ketamine did not prevent LPS induced gastrointestinal ileus, nor did it improve gastric emptying. More importantly, it did not worsen gastrointestinal function or gastric emptying when compared to saline controls. However, it did decrease LPS induced gastric luminal fluid accumulation and blunted iNOS expression in both the stomach and ileum.
These data indicate that the ability of ketamine to attenuate gastric fluid accumulation is not because of improved gastric emptying or improved gastrointestinal transit. Moreover, while iNOS may play a role in LPS induced gastric luminal fluid accumulation, it does not appear to be a major mediator of the gastrointestinal ileus caused by LPS.
Available from: uth.edu
Available from: J. Fink-Gremmels
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Ketamine is widely used in equine anaesthesia. Beside its anaesthetic and analgesic properties, ketamine possesses a cytokine-modulating activity. However, to date, no data are available regarding the inhibitory effect of ketamine on the cytokine response in horses. In horses, cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of equine endotoxaemia following gastrointestinal disorders. Hence, the objective of this study was to assess the influence of ketamine on LPS-induced TNF-alpha and IL-6 formation in an equine macrophage cell line (eCAS cells). The results demonstrate a cytokine-modulating activity of ketamine in an equine cell line, suggesting a beneficial role for ketamine in the treatment of equine endotoxaemia.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This study was done to examine the role of cyclooxygenase (COX) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced gastroprotection and gastric stasis. In conscious rats, LPS dose and time dependently increased gastric luminal fluid accumulation. LPS decreased blood flow (laser Doppler) and prevented gastric injury from acidified ethanol at time points before significant fluid accumulation occurred. LPS increased COX-2 but not COX-1 expression. In contrast, LPS decreased gastric mucosal prostaglandin synthesis. LPS-induced gastric luminal fluid accumulation was negated by both nonselective COX inhibition with salicylate and selective COX-2 inhibition with NS-398 but not by selective COX-1 inhibition with SC-560. Neither salicylate nor NS-398 blocked LPS-induced gastroprotection. LPS-induced gastroprotection does not depend entirely on accumulation of luminal fluid and is independent of COX-1 and COX-2. However, the ability of LPS to cause gastric stasis and increase gastric luminal fluid accumulation involves COX-2.
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.