Article

Nanotechnology for the biologist. J Leukoc Biol

Nanotechnology Characterization Laboratory, 1050 Boyles St., Frederick, MD 21702-1201, USA.
Journal of Leukocyte Biology (Impact Factor: 4.29). 10/2005; 78(3):585-94. DOI: 10.1189/jlb.0205074
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Nanotechnology refers to research and technology development at the atomic, molecular, and macromolecular scale, leading to the controlled manipulation and study of structures and devices with length scales in the 1- to 100-nanometers range. Objects at this scale, such as "nanoparticles," take on novel properties and functions that differ markedly from those seen in the bulk scale. The small size, surface tailorability, improved solubility, and multifunctionality of nanoparticles open many new research avenues for biologists. The novel properties of nanomaterials offer the ability to interact with complex biological functions in new ways-operating at the very scale of biomolecules. This rapidly growing field allows cross-disciplinary researchers the opportunity to design and develop multifunctional nanoparticles that can target, diagnose, and treat diseases such as cancer. This article presents an overview of nanotechnology for the biologist and discusses "nanotech" strategies and constructs that have already demonstrated in vitro and in vivo efficacy.

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    • "The growing production and use of nanoparticles inevitably leads to their release into the environment but their impact remains largely unknown. Both in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that engineered nanoparticles with sizes in the 1–100 nm range, comparable to the size of some biological structures [1], are potentially toxic to organisms [2] [3]. Physicochemical parameters such as size, specific surface area, shape and surface ligand are potential factors influencing their interactions with cells, their cellular uptake and ultimately their toxicity [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9]. "
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    ABSTRACT: 3-Aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS) was used as ligand to prepare ZnO@APTMS, Cu2+ -doped ZnO (ZnO:Cu@APTMS) and ZnO quantum dots (QDs) with chemisorbed Cu2+ ions at their surface (ZnO@APTMS/Cu). The dots have a diameter of ca. 5 nm and their crystalline and phase purities and composition were established by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, UV-visible and fluorescence spectroscopies and by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The effect of Cu2+ location on the ability of the QDs to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) under light irradiation was investi- gated. Results obtained demonstrate that all dots are able to produce ROS (•OH, O2•−, H2O2 and 1O2) and that ZnO@APTMS/Cu QDs generate more •OH and O2•− radicals and H2O2 than ZnO@APTMS and ZnO:Cu@APTMS QDs probably via mechanisms associating photo-induced charge carriers and Fenton reactions. In cytotoxicity experiments conducted in the dark or under light exposure, ZnO@APTMS/Cu QDs appeared slightly more deleterious to Escherichia coli cells than the two other QDs, therefore pointing out the importance of the presence of Cu2+ ions at the periphery of the nanocrystals. On the other hand, with the lack of photo-induced toxicity, it can be inferred that ROS production cannot explain the cytotoxicity associated to the QDs. Our study demonstrates that both the production of ROS from ZnO QDs and their toxicity may be enhanced by chemisorbed Cu2+ ions, which could be useful for medical or photocatalytic applications.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · Journal of Hazardous Materials
    • "The growing production and use of nanoparticles inevitably leads to their release into the environment but their impact remains largely unknown. Both in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that engineered nanoparticles with sizes in the 1–100 nm range, comparable to the size of some biological structures [1], are potentially toxic to organisms [2] [3]. Physicochemical parameters such as size, specific surface area, shape and surface ligand are potential factors influencing their interactions with cells, their cellular uptake and ultimately their toxicity [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: 3-Aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS) was used as ligand to prepare ZnO@APTMS, Cu(2+)-doped ZnO (ZnO:Cu@APTMS) and ZnO quantum dots (QDs) with chemisorbed Cu(2+) ions at their surface (ZnO@APTMS/Cu). The dots have a diameter of ca. 5nm and their crystalline and phase purities and composition were established by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, UV-visible and fluorescence spectroscopies and by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The effect of Cu(2+) location on the ability of the QDs to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) under light irradiation was investigated. Results obtained demonstrate that all dots are able to produce ROS (OH, O2(-), H2O2 and (1)O2) and that ZnO@APTMS/Cu QDs generate more OH and O2(-) radicals and H2O2 than ZnO@APTMS and ZnO:Cu@APTMS QDs probably via mechanisms associating photo-induced charge carriers and Fenton reactions. In cytotoxicity experiments conducted in the dark or under light exposure, ZnO@APTMS/Cu QDs appeared slightly more deleterious to Escherichia coli cells than the two other QDs, therefore pointing out the importance of the presence of Cu(2+) ions at the periphery of the nanocrystals. On the other hand, with the lack of photo-induced toxicity, it can be inferred that ROS production cannot explain the cytotoxicity associated to the QDs. Our study demonstrates that both the production of ROS from ZnO QDs and their toxicity may be enhanced by chemisorbed Cu(2+) ions, which could be useful for medical or photocatalytic applications.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Journal of hazardous materials
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    • "Considering the vast range of nanomaterial applications, it is a concern that, in the foreseeable future, nanoparticles will be detected in practically all major environmental matrices. From a human health and ecological standpoint, it is often useful to a priori evaluate new nanomaterials being manufactured to compare their apparent societal benefits vis-à-vis their potential adverse impacts (McNeil 2005; Colvin 2003). This may prove problematic simply because the pace of technological advancement does not coincide well with thorough evaluation of associated adverse risks to human health and the environment—more so because there is not a well-defined threshold to determine whether the adverse effects outweigh the benefits. "
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    ABSTRACT: Rapid advances in nanotechnology in recent years have raised concern about the occurrence, distribution, fate, and transport of nanoparticles in the environment. Sources of nanoparticles in the environment include their widespread use in a variety of engineering operations, biomedical applications, consumer goods, food and drug delivery system, and so forth. Because they can be released into the environment either as a waste product or as a byproduct of some engineered processes or applications, nanoparticles or nanoscale materials are increasingly detected in various environmental matrices. By their very nature, nanoparticles are active at molecular levels, and there is a concern that their occurrence in the environment and unintended exposure may pose an adverse risk to human health and ecology. Because of the nature of recent nanotechnology-based applications, our understanding of nanoparticle behavior in the environment is limited. The objective of this literature review is to provide a measure of understanding and to document the state of knowledge on the environmental occurrence, distribution, fate, and risk of nanoparticles. This review covers a wide range of published studies that illustrate the state of understanding about the behavior of nanoparticles in various environmental matrices such as air, soil, water, and wastewater. A brief review of the evolving regulatory framework to deal with the occurrence of nanoparticles is also included.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · Journal of Hazardous, Toxic, and Radioactive Waste
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