Ecological factors may play an important role in the bioaccumulation of polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Geochemical and bioaccumulation behavior of these chemicals also appears to be related to the presence of black carbon (BC) in sediment. In situ PCB and PAH biota to sediment accumulation factors (BSAF) for benthic invertebrates, as well as 6h Tenax-extractable (fast-desorbing) concentrations and lake characteristics (including BC in sediment), were determined for different seasons in chemically similar but ecologically different lakes (fish-dominated turbid, algae-dominated turbid, and macrophyte-dominated). BSAFs could be explained with a model including a term for Freundlich sorption to BC and a term for uptake from fast-desorbing concentrations in ingested sediments. Freundlich coefficients for in situ sorption to BC (KF) were calculated from slow desorbing fractions and BC contents and agreed well with literature values for KF. Furthermore, in contrast to BSAFs based on total extracted concentrations, Tenax-based BSAF showed a strong positive correlation with log Kow. We therefore argue that BC caused slow desorption and limited BSAFs in these lakes. Seasonal and lake effects on BSAFs were detected, while the differences between oligochaetes and other invertebrates were small for PCBs and within a factor of 10 for PAHs. BSAFs for pyrogenic PAHs were much lower than for PCBs, which was explained by stronger sorption to BC and lesser uptake from ingested sediment.
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"Despite these severe deviations for one specific site, the two-carbon model provided more accurate predictions, compared to the total organic carbon based equilibrium model, and highlights the importance of black carbon in accurate bioaccumulation predictions. This is in agreement with previous studies (Moermond et al., 2005; Werner et al., 2010). The remaining difference between the two-carbon model predicted tissue concentrations and the measured concentrations of PAHs, can stem from several possibilities: The variation in sediment black carbon content can lead to uncertainty in the BC-water partition coefficients, and a poor bioaccumulation estimation (Hauck et al., 2007). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: There were two main objectives in this study. The first was to compare the accuracy of different prediction methods for the chemical concentrations of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the organism, based on the measured chemical concentrations existing in sediment dry matter or pore water. The predicted tissue concentrations were compared to the measured ones after 28-day laboratory test using oligochaeta worms (Lumbriculus variegatus). The second objective was to compare the bioaccumulation of PAHs and PCBs in the laboratory test with the in situ bioaccumulation of these compounds. Using the traditional organic carbon-water partitioning model, tissue concentrations were greatly overestimated, based on the concentrations in the sediment dry matter. Use of an additional correction factor for black carbon with a two-carbon model, significantly improved the bioaccumulation predictions, thus confirming that black carbon was important in binding the chemicals and reducing their accumulation. The predicted PAH tissue concentrations were, however, high compared to the observed values. The chemical concentrations were most accurately predicted from their freely dissolved pore water concentrations, determined using equilibrium passive sampling. The patterns of PCB and PAH accumulation in sediments for laboratory-exposed L. variegatus were similar to those in field-collected Lumbriculidae worms. Field-collected benthic invertebrates and L. variegatus accumulated less PAHs than PCBs with similar lipophilicity. The biota to sediment accumulation factors of PAHs tended to decrease with increasing sediment organic carbon normalized concentrations. The presented data yields bioconcentration factors (BCF) describing the chemical water-lipid partition, which were found to be higher than the octanol-water partition coefficients, but on a similar level with BCFs drawn from relevant literature. In conclusion, using the two-carbon model method, or the measured freely dissolved pore water concentrations method is recommended for predicting the bioaccumulation of PAHs and PCBs.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2016 · Science of The Total Environment
"The results from this study are in accordance with those of Wang et al. (2009). The evident trend between BSAF and logK OW values could be explained by molecular steric hindrance which restricts large and particularly hydrophobic organic compounds from penetrating cellular membranes or by strong binding of such compounds to carbonaceous soil adsorbents in sediments (Moermond et al., 2005). The extensive use of PBDEs as flame retardants, the rapid increase of their levels in human milk (Kalantzi et al., 2004) and their abilities as endocrine disruptors are important reasons to implement monitoring of human exposure to these compounds. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) mass fractions were determined in mussel samples collected from 6 locations around Thermaikos Gulf in north Greece. PBDEs were present in all sampling sites and the average total (ΣPBDEs) ranged from 17.7 to 32.3 ng/g l.w., characterising Thermaikos as low polluted, a fact further supported by congener ratios and literature comparison. Distribution was even among stations with one exception. Congener profiles exhibited predominance of penta-/octa-BDEs as well as BDE-209. Statistical analysis showed significant difference in pollution levels between the two types of mussel cultures. No variations were observed for mussel bunch position or between cultures and natural population. Congener correlation analysis suggested different pollution sources between higher and lower brominated congeners as well as different metabolic/degradation processes. Bioaccumulation factors indicated that an increase in congener bromination degree leads to bioaccumulation capacity reduction. Consumption of mussels from Thermaikos gulf area poses no threat for public health concerning PBDEs.
No preview · Article · May 2016 · Marine Pollution Bulletin
"BSAF values for L. variegatus were constant or increased slightly until logK OW 6.5–7.2, after which BSAF decreased with increasing logK OW of the PCBs (Fig. 1). This pattern was observed before and several explanations have been given (Diepens et al., 2015b; Fisk et al., 1998; Lamoureux and Brownawell, 1999; Moermond et al., 2005; Oliver, 1984; Thomann et al., 1992; Tracey and Hansen, 1996; Zeng et al., 1996). One explanation is that steady state is not reached, which was indeed the case for L. variegatus (Table S17 ). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Understanding the role of species traits in chemical exposure is crucial for bioaccumulation and toxicity assessment of chemicals. We measured and modelled bioaccumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in Chironomus riparius, Hyalella azteca, Lumbriculus variegatus and Sphaerium corneum. We used a battery test procedure with multiple enclosures in one aquarium, which maximized uniformity of exposure for the different species, such that the remaining variability was due mostly to species traits. The relative importance of uptake from either pore water or sediment ingestion was manipulated by using 28 d aged standard OECD sediment with low (1%) and medium (5%) OM content and 13 months aged sediment with medium OM (5%) content. Survival was ≥76% and wet weight increased for all species. Reproduction of H. azteca and weight gain of H. azteca and S. corneum were significantly higher in the medium OM aged sediments than in other sediments, perhaps due to a more developed microbial community (i.e., increase in food resources). Biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAF) ranged from 3 to 114, depending on species and PCB congener, with C. riparius (3-10)<S. corneum (10-17)≤L. variegatus (7-61)≤H. Azteca (5-114), thus challenging the presumed value of 1-2 typically employed in ecological risk assessment schemes. BSAFs for freshwater taxonomic groups were compared with their marine counterparts and showed overlapping values. The dynamic bioaccumulation model with species-specific bioaccumulation parameters fitted well to the experimental data and showed that bioaccumulation parameters were depended on species traits. Enclosure-based battery tests and mechanistic BSAF models are expected to improve the quality of the exposure assessment in whole sediment toxicity tests.