This review looks at the acute effects of magnetic stimulation on urodynamic parameters and reviews the data on its use in the management of urinary incontinence.
Reported cure rates for stress incontinence immediately after a course of perineal magnetic stimulation range from 12.5 to 52.9% with good improvement occurring in 32% to 41%. However the effect seems temporary and dependent on the number of sessions. Sacral and pelvic floor magnetic stimulation have also been shown to increase cystometric capacity, inhibit detrusor overactivity and resolve overactive bladder symptoms acutely. Persistence of this effect with symptomatic improvement one week after sacral magnetic stimulation has been demonstrated. How magnetic stimulation suppresses detrusor contraction is not known. Prospective trials with the Neocontrol chair (Neotonus Inc, Marietta, Georgia, USA) also showed symptomatic improvement in 71 to 87% in the short term. However, the longer term data appear mixed.
Overall, the data available vary too much in terms of treatment protocols, patient mix and symptom severity to determine which group of patients might benefit most and what the optimal stimulation parameters are for each condition. Mean reductions in leak parameters, although statistically significant, may not always be clinically satisfactory. The beneficial effects also appear to be temporary and continuous treatment will probably be required. Further trials are needed to determine the optimum stimulation protocols for different situations and to compare magnetic stimulation with other forms of conservative pelvic floor therapy.