Factors associated with obesity in Chinese-American children
University of California, San Francisco Department of Family Health Care Nursing, San Francisco, CA, USA. Pediatric nursing
A cross-sectional study design was utilized to examine factors associated with obesity in Chinese-American children.
Chinese-American children (8 to 10 years old) and their mothers (N = 68) in California participated in the study.
Mothers completed demographic information, the Family Assessment Device, Attitudes Toward Child Rearing Scale, and Suinn-Lew Asian Self-identity Acculturation Scale. Children's body mass index was measured, and children completed a self-administered physical activity checklist, Food Frequency Questionnaire, and the Schoolagers' Coping Strategies Inventory.
Results indicated three variables that predicted children's body mass index: older age, a more democratic parenting style, and poor communication (R2=.263, F=8.727, p = .0001). Children whose mothers had a low level of acculturation were also more likely to be overweight than were children whose mothers were highly acculturated.
This study revealed that children's ages, a democratic parenting style, and poor family communication contribute to increased body mass index in Chinese-American children. Other factors related to children's BMI and dietary intake include acculturation level of the mother and family affective responses. Future studies should examine the change in BMI over time and in different age groups and why parenting and family communication impact children's body weight.
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- "Evidence from a study using a sample of school-age children is also relevant. Using a small sample of sixty-eight 8-to 10- year-old Chinese American children living in California, Chen and Kennedy (2005) found that children whose mothers had low acculturation scores (as measured on the Suinn-Lew Asian Self-Identity Acculturation scale) were more likely to be overweight compared with those whose mothers had high acculturation scores. Taken together, prior research using small samples of Hispanic or Mexican immigrants shows that parental acculturation was associated with lower BMI scores or not associated with BMI scores in younger children or kindergarteners. "
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- "Other studies have identified the permissive-indulgent feeding style as significantly related to higher child BMI z-scores (Hughes, Shewchuk, Baskin, Nicklas, & Qu, 2008; Hughes et al., 2005; Tovar et al., 2012). In research on general parenting styles, four studies have identified a significant relation between maternal parenting style and child weight status (Chen & Kennedy, 2005; Humenikova & Gates, 2008; Olvera & Power, 2010; Rhee, Lumeng, Appugliese, Kaciroti, & Bradley, 2006), whereas five have not (Agras, Hammer, McNicholas, & Kraemer , 2004; Blissett & Haycraft, 2008; Brann & Skinner, 2005; Gable & Lutz, 2000; Taylor, Wilson, Slater, & Mohr, 2011). One investigation (Wake, Nicholson, Hardy, & Smith, 2007) found significant relations between parenting style and weight status for fathers but not for mothers; another found a relation between parenting style and weight status for children of depressed mothers (Topham et al., 2010). "
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the direct and interacting relations of parenting styles, feeding styles, and feeding practices to child overweight and obesity. Participants were 144 mothers and children under 6 years of age. Mothers completed questionnaires about parenting and feeding styles and feeding practices. Researchers weighed and measured mothers and children or obtained measurements from a recent health report. Feeding practices were not directly related to child weight status. Compared to the uninvolved feeding style, authoritative and authoritarian feeding style categories were linked to lower odds of overweight. Feeding practices interacted with authoritative and authoritarian parenting styles to predict obesity: (1) healthful modeling was associated with 61% (OR=0.39) reduced odds of obesity in children of authoritative mothers but with 55% (OR=1.55) increased odds in children of non-authoritative mothers and (2) covert control was linked to 156% (OR=2.56) increased odds of obesity in children of authoritarian mothers but with 51% (OR=0.49) decreased odds in children of non-authoritarian mothers. Healthful modeling interacted with feeding style demandingness to predict overweight and with responsiveness to predict obesity. Findings suggest the need for research and interventions on mechanisms mediating between feeding practices and obesity in families characterized by non-authoritative parenting styles.
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- "However, it is not known which parental feeding practices and feeding styles are used by the primary caretakers in Chinese American families. Furthermore , these parenting practices and feeding styles may differ by degree of acculturation into mainstream American society (Chen & Kennedy, 2005). The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between parental perceptions, feeding practices, feeding styles, and level of parental acculturation of Chinese Americans and their schoolage child's weight status. "
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