Article

Diet as a risk factor for atopy and asthma

Department of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen Royal Infirmary, Foresterhill, Aberdeen AB25 2ZN, Scotland, UK.
Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (Impact Factor: 11.48). 07/2005; 115(6):1109-17; quiz 1118. DOI: 10.1016/j.jaci.2004.12.1139
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

It has been hypothesized that decreasing antioxidant (fruit and vegetables), increased n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA; (margarine, vegetable oil), and decreased n-3 PUFA (oily fish) intakes have contributed to the recent increases in asthma and atopic disease. Epidemiologic studies in adults and children have reported beneficial associations between dietary antioxidants and lipids and parameters of asthma and atopic disease. The associations with n-6 and n-3 PUFA appear to be very complex and might differ between asthma and atopic dermatitis. Dietary antioxidants are probably exerting antioxidant and nonantioxidant immunomodulatory effects. Dietary lipids exert numerous complex effects on proinflammatory and immunologic pathways. It has also been suggested that atopic dermatitis is associated with an enzyme defect in lipid metabolism. In spite of this, the results of interventional supplementation studies in established disease have been disappointing, and there is now increasing interest in the possibility that dietary antioxidant and lipid intakes might be important in determining expression of disease during pregnancy and early childhood and that dietary interventions should be targeted at these groups. It also seems likely that there is individual variation in the responses of individuals to lipid, and probably antioxidant, supplementation. Further research to determine whether dietary intervention can reduce the risk of asthma and atopic disease is justified.

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    • "Several studies have shown that food habits can influence to the development of allergic diseases. Devereux et al.[107]showed that low consumption of foods containing antioxidants such as fruits and vegetables may be associated with an increase in asthma and atopic diseases, while the ingestion of antioxidants and lipids during pregnancy and childhood can reduce the appearance of allergic diseases. A case-controlled, population-based study reported that the consumption of apples and red wine was negatively associated with the asthma prevalence or severity, possibly attributed to the beneficial effect of flavonoids[108]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds classified into flavonols, flavones, flavanones, isoflavones, catechins, anthocyanidins, and chalcones according to their chemical structures. They are abundantly found in Nature and over 8,000 flavonoids have from different sources, mainly plant materials, have been described. Recently reports have shown the valuable effects of flavonoids as antiviral, anti-allergic, antiplatelet, antitumor, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory agents and interest in these compounds has been increasing since they can be helpful to human health. Several mechanisms of action are involved in the biological properties of flavonoids such as free radical scavenging, transition metal ion chelation, activation of survival genes and signaling pathways, regulation of mitochondrial function and modulation of inflammatory responses. The anti-inflammatory effects of flavonoids have been described in a number of studies in the literature, but not frequently associated to respiratory disease. Thus, this review aims to discuss the effects of different flavonoids in the control of lung inflammation in some disorders such as asthma, lung emphysema and acute respiratory distress syndrome and the possible mechanisms of action, as well as establish some structure-activity relationships between this biological potential and chemical profile of these compounds.
    Preview · Article · Mar 2014 · Molecules
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    • "Vitamin A plays important roles during embryonic development, cell growth and differentiation, immune responses, et al. In respiratory system, Vitamin A is involved in lung morphogenesis [14], airway epithelium phenotype maintenance [15], airway autonomic nervous regulation [16] and immune responses [17]. Epidemiologic studies showed that serum Vitamin A was lower in children with asthma compared with controls, and Vitamin A deficiency might be associated with the development of asthma and allergic disorders [18]. "
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    ABSTRACT: All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is an active metabolite of Vitamin A, it shows protective effects on asthma, including maintains airway epithelial integrity, inhibits asthma effector cells differentiation, modulates immune response, et al. However, the promoting effect of ATRA on Th2 response has restricted the clinical application of ATRA in asthma treatment. ORMDL3 is a candidate gene of childhood onset asthma, and high-transcript of ORMDL3 is associated with the development of asthma. Here we show that ATRA increases ORMDL3 production in vitro via inducing PKA-dependent CREB phosphorylation which in turn binds to the CRE element in promoter region of ORMDL3 and initiates ORMDL3 transcription. This finding is in consistent with the previous reports that ATRA could regulate target genes without the presence of retinoic acid response element (RARE) in promoter region but through other signals such as PKA/CREB. Nevertheless, in the present study, the traditional signal pathway of ATRA, retinoic acid receptor (RAR) signal transduction pathway, indirectly modulated ORMDL3 expression. RAR-α agonist (Am-80) increased ORMDL3 production even though there was no RARE in ORMDL3 promoter, introns or 3'-downstream region. Besides, the signal of RAR might differ from that of ATRA since Am-80 failed to induce CREB activation. In conclusion, our data indicate that ATRA facilitates ORMDL3 production probable through PKA/CREB, and this may be a starting point for more detailed mechanism researches on ATRA and asthma.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2013 · PLoS ONE
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    • "There is increasing evidence suggesting that prenatal and early-life exposures influence the development of asthma and allergic diseases, with interest converging on the possible role of the diet during pregnancy and early life. It has been hypothesised that the maternal diet during pregnancy modulates the development of asthma and allergic disease by influencing foetal airway and/or immune development [10]. Birth cohort studies have reported associations between aspects of maternal diet during pregnancy and childhood asthma and allergic outcomes [11]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Over recent decades there has been a substantial increase in asthma and allergic disease especially in children. Given the high prevalence, and the associated high disease burden and costs, there is a need to identify effective strategies for the primary prevention of asthma and allergy. A recent systematic review of the literature found strong supportive epidemiological evidence for a protective role of the Mediterranean diet, which now needs to be confirmed through formal experimental studies. This pilot trial in pregnant women aims to establish recruitment, retention and acceptability of a dietary intervention, and to assess the likely impact of the intervention on adherence to a Mediterranean diet during pregnancy. Methods/Design This study was a pilot, two-arm, randomised controlled trial in a sample population of pregnant women at high risk of having a child who will develop asthma or allergic disease. Discussion The work ultimately aims to contribute to improving health outcomes through seeking to reduce the incidence of asthma and allergic problems. This pilot trial will prove invaluable in informing the subsequent planned large-scale, parallel group, randomised controlled trial. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01634516
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2013 · Trials
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