Tardive Dyskinesia Predicts Prolactin Response to Buspirone Challenge in People With Schizophrenia

Department of Psychiatry, Inje University, Busan, Korea.
Journal of Neuropsychiatry (Impact Factor: 2.82). 02/2005; 17(2):221-6. DOI: 10.1176/appi.neuropsych.17.2.221
Source: PubMed


Prolactin response to buspirone was evaluated in patients with schizophrenia, with and without tardive dyskinesia (TD). Prolactin response in patients with schizophrenia without TD was significantly decreased, compared to healthy comparison subjects (F = 6.36, df = 5, p < 0.0001). Furthermore, prolactin levels after administration of buspirone were not significantly increased from baseline. In contrast, there was no prolactin response difference between patients with schizophrenia and TD and healthy subjects. This finding suggests that decreased dopamine (D(2)) receptor sensitivity may result in lower risk of developing TD and may lead to a fuller understanding of the variable expression of D(2)-receptor mediated side effects.

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    • "Because of the small sample sizes involved, the results of these studies must be interpreted with caution. They may indicate dopamine receptor supersensitivity [45] or GABA receptor dysfunction [46], but variables such as gender, duration of illness, the nature of medications used, and the study design (basal prolactin versus challenge tests) must also be taken into account. With the available evidence, the association between prolactin and TD seems slight at best. "
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    ABSTRACT: Secretion of the anterior pituitary hormone prolactin can be significantly increased by antipsychotic drugs, leading to a range of adverse effects in patients with schizophrenia. However, there is evidence from a variety of studies that prolactin may also be related to symptom profile and treatment response in these patients, and recent work has identified variations in prolactin secretion even in drug-free patients. In this paper, a selective review of all relevant studies pertaining to prolactin and schizophrenia, including challenge and provocation studies, is presented. The implications of this work are discussed critically. A tentative model, which synthesizes these findings and argues for a significant role for prolactin in the development of schizophrenia, is outlined.
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    • "Similarly, a recent report found high prolactin levels in a paranoid subgroup of never-medicated psychotic patients, suggestive of the existence of subtypes of psychotic illness associated with differences in dopaminergic tone (Segal et al, 2004). Another possible explanation may reside in differential D2 sensitivity in groups with and without TD (Shim et al, 2005). However, none of the above research findings provides a direct explanation for the association between PRSD and TD. "
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    ABSTRACT: Tardive dyskinesia (TD) may occur in never-medicated patients with psychotic illness, indicating the existence of non-medication, possibly disease-related, causes. We tested the hypothesis that, independent of the antipsychotic-induced rise in prolactin, the incidence of TD would be associated with the incidence of prolactin-related sexual disturbances (PRSD), which would be suggestive of a common pathology involving multiple dopamine tracts. Simple, global measures of TD and PRSD (loss of libido, amenorrhea, gynaecomastia, impotence, and galactorrhea) were rated in a prospective, observational European Health Outcomes Study (SOHO). New onset of TD and new onset of PRSD at 3, 6, and 12 months was analyzed in a risk set of 4263 patients using a Cox proportional hazard model yielding adjusted hazard ratios (aHR). Incidence of TD was significantly and linearly comorbid with the incidence of PRSD in both men and women. Compared to those with no PRSD, the risk for TD was 2.0 (95% CI: 1.1, 3.7) with one PRSD, 2.4 (95% CI: 1.3, 4.5) with two PRSD, and 3.6 (95% CI: 1.1, 11.8) with three PRSD. Associations were stronger in those who only had received prolactin-sparing medications (aHR per unit PRSD increase=2.0, 95% CI: 1.2, 3.3) than in those who only had received prolactin-raising medications (aHR=1.3, 95% CI: 0.9, 1.9). In people with schizophrenia, TD and PRSD show comorbidities that are independent of antipsychotic-induced alterations in plasma prolactin. This may suggest a shared, pandopaminergic pathological mechanism associated with schizophrenia itself, rather than only a medication effect.
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