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Daily cost of an intensive care unit day: The contribution of mechanical ventilation

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Daily cost of an intensive care unit day: The contribution of mechanical ventilation

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To quantify the mean daily cost of intensive care, identify key factors associated with increased cost, and determine the incremental cost of mechanical ventilation during a day in the intensive care unit. Retrospective cohort analysis using data from NDCHealth's Hospital Patient Level Database. A total of 253 geographically diverse U.S. hospitals. The study included 51,009 patients >/=18 yrs of age admitted to an intensive care unit between October 1, 2002, and December 31, 2002. None. Days of intensive care and mechanical ventilation were identified using billing data, and daily costs were calculated as the sum of daily charges multiplied by hospital-specific cost-to-charge ratios. Cost data are presented as mean (+/-sd). Incremental daily cost of mechanical ventilation was calculated using log-linear regression, adjusting for patient and hospital characteristics. Approximately 36% of identified patients were mechanically ventilated at some point during their intensive care unit stay. Mechanically ventilated patients were older (63.5 yrs vs. 61.7 yrs, p < .0001) and more likely to be male (56.1% vs. 51.8%, p < 0.0001), compared with patients who were not mechanically ventilated, and required mechanical ventilation for a mean duration of 5.6 days +/- 9.6. Mean intensive care unit cost and length of stay were 31,574 +/- 42,570 dollars and 14.4 days +/- 15.8 for patients requiring mechanical ventilation and 12,931 +/- 20,569 dollars and 8.5 days +/- 10.5 for those not requiring mechanical ventilation. Daily costs were greatest on intensive care unit day 1 (mechanical ventilation, 10,794 dollars; no mechanical ventilation, 6,667 dollars), decreased on day 2 (mechanical ventilation:, 4,796 dollars; no mechanical ventilation, 3,496 dollars), and became stable after day 3 (mechanical ventilation, 3,968 dollars; no mechanical ventilation, 3,184 dollars). Adjusting for patient and hospital characteristics, the mean incremental cost of mechanical ventilation in intensive care unit patients was 1,522 dollars per day (p < .001). Intensive care unit costs are highest during the first 2 days of admission, stabilizing at a lower level thereafter. Mechanical ventilation is associated with significantly higher daily costs for patients receiving treatment in the intensive care unit throughout their entire intensive care unit stay. Interventions that result in reduced intensive care unit length of stay and/or duration of mechanical ventilation could lead to substantial reductions in total inpatient cost.

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... N.B: Selection is not mutually 100% exclusive towards pattern in both groups which affect in increase number and percentage. P value was ˃0.05 Table 3: Demonstrates the frequency of conscious state of patients at the pre care assessment in group A and B. It shows that 50% of group A was semiconscious (9-12), 42.5%was unconscious (3-8) and 7.5% was conscious (13)(14)(15). While half of group B was semiconscious (9-12), 27.5% was unconscious (3-8) and 22.5% was conscious (13)(14)(15). ...
... P value was ˃0.05 Table 3: Demonstrates the frequency of conscious state of patients at the pre care assessment in group A and B. It shows that 50% of group A was semiconscious (9-12), 42.5%was unconscious (3-8) and 7.5% was conscious (13)(14)(15). While half of group B was semiconscious (9-12), 27.5% was unconscious (3-8) and 22.5% was conscious (13)(14)(15). ...
Article
Background : Mechanical ventilation is a life saving and support intervention but exposes patients to the risk of ventilator associated pneumonia. Chest physiotherapy is an accepted treatment method in the intensive care unit and common preventive strategy to prevent pulmonary complications as VAP. Aim:To assess the effect of using different modalities of chest physiotherapy on prevention of ventilator associated pneumonia.Subjects and Methods: A prospective randomized clinical trial was used to conduct this study on 80 patients, aged between 18-60 years of both sexes, newly admitted to intensive care unit of emergency hospital at Mansoura university hospital from September 2015 to April 2016, data were collected using two tools; the 1 st tool was multimodality CPT tool and have two parts; part one to assess socio-demographic data, part two CPT care sheet for both groups, the 2 nd tool is the follow up sheet. Results: The occurrence of VAP at the seventh day of care was observed in only 15% of patients in group B versus 37.5% of patients in group A. It means that there was positive association between using different modalities of CPT and prevention of VAP in both groups.Conclusion: Using different modalities of chest physiotherapy had significant positive effect in decreasing VAP by using five types of interventions of CPT. Recommendation: Raising the awareness of VAP and how to prevent other complications from mechanical ventilator, providing nurses with continuous educational programs with evidence based guidelines to improve their knowledge and practices regarding VAP and CPT, enhancing nurses practices regarding CPT.
... Compared to those who did not acquire an infection during their acute care hospitalization, individuals with infection had a 13-day increase in hospital LOS and a 7-day increase on mechanical ventilation (Table A3). With more days of mechanical ventilation come increased costs, as previous literature points to mechanical ventilation being the greatest independent predictor of high intensive care costs [87]. While the breakdown between ICU and ward LOSs was not recorded, the incremental daily cost of ICU care for mechanical ventilation is estimated to be between $3,000 and $5,000 per individual [87,88]; thus, seven additional days of mechanical ventilation would be expected to increase the cost of care by $21,000-$35,000 per patient. ...
... With more days of mechanical ventilation come increased costs, as previous literature points to mechanical ventilation being the greatest independent predictor of high intensive care costs [87]. While the breakdown between ICU and ward LOSs was not recorded, the incremental daily cost of ICU care for mechanical ventilation is estimated to be between $3,000 and $5,000 per individual [87,88]; thus, seven additional days of mechanical ventilation would be expected to increase the cost of care by $21,000-$35,000 per patient. Reid et al. estimated daily charges of US acute hospital stays for TBI to average $3,000 [89]. ...
Article
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Traumatic brain injury (TBI) induces immune dysfunction that can be captured clinically by an increase in the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR). However, few studies have characterized the temporal dynamics of NLR post-TBI and its relationship with hospital-acquired infections (HAI), resource utilization, or outcome. We assessed NLR and HAI over the first 21 days post-injury in adults with moderate-to-severe TBI (n = 196) using group-based trajectory (TRAJ), changepoint, and mixed-effects multivariable regression analysis to characterize temporal dynamics. We identified two groups with unique NLR profiles: a high (n = 67) versus a low (n = 129) TRAJ group. High NLR TRAJ had higher rates (76.12% vs. 55.04%, p = 0.004) and earlier time to infection (p = 0.003). In changepoint-derived day 0-5 and 6-20 epochs, low lymphocyte TRAJ, early in recovery, resulted in more frequent HAIs (p = 0.042), subsequently increasing later NLR levels (p ≤ 0.0001). Both high NLR TRAJ and HAIs increased hospital length of stay (LOS) and days on ventilation (p ≤ 0.05 all), while only high NLR TRAJ significantly increased odds of unfavorable six-month outcome as measured by the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) (p = 0.046) in multivariable regression. These findings provide insight into the temporal dynamics and interrelatedness of immune factors which collectively impact susceptibility to infection and greater hospital resource utilization, as well as influence recovery.
... Moreover, we found that the ICU costs of those who used mechanical ventilation were significantly higher than those that did not, similar to results by Khwannimit et al. (16). Many studies in high-income countries have suggested that mechanical ventilation increases the cost of critical care (12,13,40). This may be for several reasons: either it is an indicator of more severely ill patients likely to require more treatment for longer periods of time but also as it often requires a higher level of staff monitoring and facility costs such as oxygen (12,13,40). ...
... Many studies in high-income countries have suggested that mechanical ventilation increases the cost of critical care (12,13,40). This may be for several reasons: either it is an indicator of more severely ill patients likely to require more treatment for longer periods of time but also as it often requires a higher level of staff monitoring and facility costs such as oxygen (12,13,40). In addition, a study estimating costs across seven ICU departments in Germany, Italy, the Netherlands and United Kingdom found that the average direct cost per ICU day ranged from e1,168 to e2,025 (13). ...
Article
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Background Critically ill patients often require complex clinical care by highly trained staff within a specialized intensive care unit (ICU) with advanced equipment. There are currently limited data on the costs of critical care in low-and middle-income countries (LMICs). This study aims to investigate the direct-medical costs of key infectious disease (tetanus, sepsis, and dengue) patients admitted to ICU in a hospital in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam, and explores how the costs and cost drivers can vary between the different diseases. Methods We calculated the direct medical costs for patients requiring critical care for tetanus, dengue and sepsis. Costing data (stratified into different cost categories) were extracted from the bills of patients hospitalized to the adult ICU with a dengue, sepsis and tetanus diagnosis that were enrolled in three studies conducted at the Hospital for Tropical Diseases in HCMC from January 2017 to December 2019. The costs were considered from the health sector perspective. The total sample size in this study was 342 patients. Results ICU care was associated with significant direct medical costs. For patients that did not require mechanical ventilation, the median total ICU cost per patient varied between US$64.40 and US$675 for the different diseases. The costs were higher for patients that required mechanical ventilation, with the median total ICU cost per patient for the different diseases varying between US$2,590 and US$4,250. The main cost drivers varied according to disease and associated severity. Conclusion This study demonstrates the notable cost of ICU care in Vietnam and in similar LMIC settings. Future studies are needed to further evaluate the costs and economic burden incurred by ICU patients. The data also highlight the importance of evaluating novel critical care interventions that could reduce the costs of ICU care.
... Consequently, this reduces the time spent in the ICU or in the duration of the MV. 53 One of the interventions proposed by Heyland et al. 14 was the creation of the mNUTRIC score as a way of identifying a patient with a high nutritional risk, together with employing a more aggressive nutritional therapy. In other words, an adequacy of calories and proteins according to the recommendations will have greater benefits when compared to those patients with a low nutritional risk. ...
... Há altos custos de cuidados na UTI (de US$ 3.500 a US$ 8.000 por dia) e de ventilação mecânica (US$ 1.500 por dia). As intervenções que diminuem tempo de permanência na UTI ou reduzem o tempo de ventilação mecânica podem significativamente diminuir esses gastos 12 . Custos de permanência na UTI e ventilação mecânica são os principais fatores de alto custo, o que representa 98,5% de gastos 13 . ...
Article
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Introdução: Os custos relacionados a alta taxa de permanência de pacientes em leitos de UTI se tornaram um dos grandes problemas de saúde pública, e a intervenção com mobilização precoce pode causar redução importante desses gastos a partir de programas que visem redução da perda da força muscular e de ventilação mecânica prolongada. O declínio muscular proveniente do tempo de internação conduz a dependência funcional e leva a uma maior necessidade de cuidados após a alta, podendo causa aposentadoria por invalidez. Objetivo: Analisar e descrever as economias de escala provenientes do serviço de fisioterapia baseado em mobilização precoce nas unidades de terapia intensiva, assim como citar as melhorias nos indicadores de qualidade. Materiais e métodos: Pesquisa de caráter bibliográfico e de objetivo exploratório nas bases de dados eletrônicas Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE), Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO), Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS), Biblioteca Virtual da Saúde (BVS) e WHO Library Databasis (WHOLIS), por meio de artigos publicados entre 2000 e 2014. Discussão: A maioria dos trabalhos descreve altos custos relacionados ao excessivo uso de drogas e gases medicinais em terapia intensiva e grande benefício da mobilização precoce no que tange à redução do tempo de permanência e ao declínio funcional, o que também diminui a taxa de dependência e invalidez após a alta. Conclusão: Considera-se que a fisioterapia é indissociável nas unidades de tratamento intensivo e, quando realizada de maneira eficaz por meio da mobilização de pacientes, reduz os custos hospitalares e contribui para a redução do tempo de permanência, gerando maior oferta de leitos vagos para a população e reduzindo os efeitos deletérios da imobilidade prolongada. Palavras-chave: Mobilização precoce; fisioterapia; unidade de terapia intensiva.
... In the USA, the annual cost of trauma care is greater than $37 billion (14). In Canada, more than 200,000 admissions following trauma are recorded costing more than 11 billion US dollars (6). The estimated daily cost in the ICU varies based on the hospital day and the required interventions such as mechanical J o u r n a l P r e -p r o o f ventilation (15). For example, the average US dollar cost in day 1 in the ICU (without mechanical ventilation) is approximately $6600 and with mechanical ventilation is > $10000. ...
Article
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Background Providing timely care while keeping an efficient bed turnover rate is a challenge that hospitals usually face. Early prediction of prolonged hospital length of stay may help devise personalized plans of care that facilitate early discharge and ensure the timely availability of a bed for the next patient. Objectives This study aims to design an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) machine learning model to help early predict patients at risk for prolonged hospital length of stay (PLOS) following Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). Methods PLOS was defined as the 75th percentile of the in-hospital length of stay of the entire patient cohort (PLOS ≥23 days). The study targeted adult patients with TBI who were admitted to the trauma surgery between January 2014 and February 2019 with head abbreviated injury score (HAIS) ≥ 3.1417 eligible patients were included (PLOS = 350 and non-PLOS = 1067). Results ANN achieved good performance with an accuracy of 84.3%, area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) 91.5%, precision 69%, negative predictive value 89%, sensitivity 69%, specificity 89% and F-score 69%. Conclusion The study discusses the health economic aspects of PLOS and the potential benefits of utilizing machine learning models in enhancing hospital bed utilization.
... Additionally, sepsis patients had a longer median LOS (7 days) compared to patients who did not have sepsis during their ICU stay (4 days), emphasising the prolonged burden among sepsis patients in ICUs. Indeed, this analysis showed that sepsis patients strained ICU resources since they underwent endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation, which has been reported to contribute the most to the daily cost of ICU patients [16], almost 5 times that of the nonseptic patients. Moreover, the increased LOS combined with more frequent use of medical equipment in sepsis patients would eventually lead to increased hospital costs and extended stays in the ICU, in concurrence with other reports [6,17,18]. ...
Article
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Sepsis is a global health issue that is commonly encountered in the intensive care unit (ICU) and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Available data regarding sepsis in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) is lacking compared to higher income countries, especially using updated sepsis definitions. The lack of recent data on sepsis in Jordan prompted us to investigate the burden of sepsis among Jordanian ICU patients. We conducted a prospective cohort study at Jordan University Hospital, a tertiary teaching hospital in the capital, Amman. All adult patients admitted to the adult ICUs between June 2020 and January 2021 were included in the study. Patients’ clinical and demographic data, comorbidities, ICU length of stay (LOS), medical interventions, microbiological findings, and mortality rate were studied. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyse data from patients with and without sepsis. We observed 194 ICU patients during the study period; 45 patients (23.3%) were diagnosed with sepsis using the Sepsis-3 criteria. Mortality rate and median ICU LOS in patients who had sepsis were significantly higher than those in other ICU patients (mortality rate, 57.8% vs. 6.0%, p value < 0.001, resp., and LOS 7 days vs. 4 days, p value < 0.001, resp.). Additionally, sepsis patients had a higher combined number of comorbidities (2.27 ± 1.51 vs. 1.27 ± 1.09, p value < 0.001). The use of mechanical ventilation, endotracheal intubation, and blood transfusions were all significantly more common among sepsis patients. A causative organism was isolated in 68.4% of sepsis patients with a prevalence of Gram-negative bacteria in 77.1% of cases. While the occurrence of sepsis in the ICU in Jordan is comparable to other regions in the world, the mortality rate of sepsis patients in the ICU remains high. Further studies from LMIC are required to reveal the true burden of sepsis globally.
... One of the most important ICU active treatments is ventilatory support. 24,25 Mechanical ventilation is considered one of the main causes of ICU admission. 26 The majority of patients received mechanical ventilation on the first day of ICU admission; this may reflect that the need for mechanical ventilation was the main cause for their ICU admission. ...
Article
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Introduction: Resource allocation and increased cost of critical care services have been a global concern. Intensive care unit (ICU) admission is usually reserved for patients with reversible medical conditions who have a reasonable probability of substantial recovery. The admission process to ICU shows considerable variations, and it is difficult to assess the appropriateness of decision prospectively for ethical and legal reasons. However, data regarding ICU admission would help health managers to make decisions concerning healthcare facilities planning and administration. The study aim was to assess the appropriateness of admission to ICU. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in two general medical-surgical ICUs in university teaching hospital. Appropriateness of admission was approached through assessment of adherence to guidelines of ICU admission recommended by Society of Critical Care Medicine, severity of illness of admitted patients using Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, utilization of ICU specific treatment in the first 24 hours of admission, and mechanical ventilation during ICU stay. Results: Among 324 patients admitted in 2013–2014, almost all of them (99.4%) were adherent to diagnosis model of Society of Critical Care Medicine (SCCM) guidelines for ICU admission and approximately 75% were adherent to objective parameters model of SCCM guidelines. Mean Acute Physiology And Chronic Health Evaluation II score on admission was 13.84 point. About 18% of patients did not receive ICU specific interventions in the first 24 hours of admission to ICU. In addition, about 36% of sample patients did not receive mechanical ventilation during their ICU stay. ICU mortality reached 39.8% of the sample. Discussion: Guidelines recommended by SCCM are straightforward and easy to use and are used to make quick decisions regarding admission. Need for ICU specific interventions in the first 24 hours of admission is crucial in assessment of ICU admission. Mechanical ventilation is the most important ICU specific intervention; appropriateness can be assessed depending on the need for mechanical ventilation.
... High-cost users had a five-fold increase in total costs compared to non-high-cost users and despite only representing 10% of the cohort, accounted for more than onethird of total healthcare costs, which translated to $8.82 billion in total. LOS has been previously well-described to be a significant driver of increased costs in the ICU [24][25][26]. This is supported by our study, which shows both ICU and total hospital LOS is four-fold greater for high-cost users. ...
Article
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Background Healthcare expenditure within the intensive care unit (ICU) is costly. A cost reduction strategy may be to target patients accounting for a disproportionate amount of healthcare spending, or high-cost users. This study aims to describe high-cost users in the ICU, including health outcomes and cost patterns. Methods We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study of patients with ICU admissions in Ontario from 2011 to 2018. Patients with total healthcare costs in the year following ICU admission (including the admission itself) in the upper 10th percentile were defined as high-cost users. We compared characteristics and outcomes including length of stay, mortality, disposition, and costs between groups. Results Among 370,061 patients included, 37,006 were high-cost users. High-cost users were 64.2 years old, 58.3% male, and had more comorbidities (41.2% had ≥3) when likened to non-high cost users (66.1 years old, 57.2% male, 27.9% had ≥3 comorbidities). ICU length of stay was four times greater for high-cost users compared to non-high cost users (22.4 days, 95% confidence interval [CI] 22.0–22.7 days vs. 5.56 days, 95% CI 5.54–5.57 days). High-cost users had lower in-hospital mortality (10.0% vs.14.2%), but increased dispositioning outside of home (77.4% vs. 42.2%) compared to non-high-cost users. Total healthcare costs were five-fold higher for high-cost users ($238,231, 95% CI $237,020–$239,442) compared to non-high-cost users ($45,155, 95% CI $45,046–$45,264). High-cost users accounted for 37.0% of total healthcare costs. Conclusion High-cost users have increased length of stay, lower in-hospital mortality, and higher total healthcare costs when compared to non-high-cost users. Further studies into cost patterns and predictors of high-cost users are necessary to identify methods of decreasing healthcare expenditure.
... In spite of insufficient data regarding the efficacy of respiratory stimulants such as caffeine and doxapram (Giguère et al., 2008), researchers are still seeking for new strategies to reduce duration of intubation and treatment costs (Dasta et al., 2005). Available evidence indicates that muscarinic acetylcholine receptors have potent excitatory consequences on medullary respiratory neurons and motoneurones, and are likely to contribute to changes in central hemosensitive drive to the respiratory control system (Yamada and Ichinose, 2018). ...
Article
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Background: Medroxyprogesterone and donepezil could be used as respiratory stimulants in ventilated patients. However, no randomized placebo-controlled trial is available to confirm this approach and compare these drugs. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effects of donepezil or medroxyprogesterone compared to the placebo in improvement in respiratory status and weaning facilitation in critically ill adult patients receiving mechanical ventilation. Material and Methods: This randomized, triple-blind trial was conducted on 78 ventilated patients in intensive care units (ICU). Patients who were intubated due to pulmonary disorders were ruled out. Patients were randomized in a 1:1:1 ratio to receive 5 mg donepezil (n = 23) or 5 mg medroxyprogesterone (n = 26), or placebo (n = 24) twice a day until weaning (maximum 10 days). The primary endpoints were weaning duration, and duration of invasive mechanical ventilation. Secondary endpoints included rate of successful weaning, changes in arterial blood gas (ABG) parameters, GCS and sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score, hemoglobin (Hgb), ICU-mortality, and duration of ICU stay, were measured before and after the intervention and if successful weaning was recorded. Results: Of 78 studied patients who were randomized, 59 weaned successfully. 87% patients in donepezil and 88.5% patients in medroxyprogesterone groups were successfully weaned compared to 66.7% patients in the placebo group. However, this difference was not statistically significant (p-Value = 0.111). Changes in pH, mean duration of intubation, and weaning duration were statistically different in donepezil compared with the control group (p-Value < 0.05). No significant difference in ABG, Hgb, GCS and SOFA score, and duration of intubation were seen in the medroxyprogesterone group, but weaning duration was significantly reduced to 1.429 days compared with the control group (p-Value = 0.038). Conclusion: The results of this clinical trial have demonstrated that the administered dose of medroxyprogesterone and donepezil can expedite the weaning process by reducing the weaning duration compared to placebo. Furthermore, the total duration of invasive ventilation was significantly lower in the donepezil group compared to the control group. Future clinical trials with a larger sample size will determine the exact role of medroxyprogesterone and donepezil in mechanically ventilated patients.
... The difficulty of weaning was associated with two major parameters: the duration of the weaning and the level of support pressure (76)(77)(78). In concerned with latest study (65), patients in the 30-min PSV had a higher rate of weaning success and lower hospital mortality than patients in the 2h T-piece SBT. ...
Article
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Background/Objective: The aim of study is to assess the efficacy of each ventilator weaning method for ventilated patients in intensive care units (ICUs). Methods: A systematic search was conducted using PubMed, Embase, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure to identify randomized control studies on ventilated patients regarding extubation associated outcomes (weaning success or failure, proportion requiring re-intubation, or mortality) from inception until April 01, 2020. Commonly used ventilation modes involved pressure support ventilation, synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation, automatic tube compensation, continuous positive airway pressure, adaptive support ventilation, neurally adjusted ventilatory assist, proportional assisted ventilation, and SmartCare. Pooled estimates regarding extubation associated outcomes were calculated using network meta-analysis. Results: Thirty-nine randomized controlled trials including 5,953 patients met inclusion criteria. SmartCare and proportional assist ventilation were found to be effective methods in increasing weaning success (odds ratio, 2.72, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.33-5.58, P-score: 0.84; odds ratio, 2.56, 95% CI, 1.60-4.11, P-score: 0.83; respectively). Besides, proportional assist ventilation had superior in reducing proportion requiring re-intubation rate (odds ratio, 0.48, 95% CI, 0.25-0.92, P-score: 0.89) and mortality (odds ratio, 0.48, 95% CI, 0.26-0.92, P-score: 0.91) than others. Conclusion: In general consideration, our study provided evidence that weaning with proportional assist ventilation has a high probability of being the most effective ventilation mode for patients with mechanical ventilation regarding a higher rate of weaning success, a lower proportion requiring reintubation, and a lower mortality rate than other ventilation modes.
... Ranging from emergency medical care to advanced trauma life support and in-hospital rapid response teams, the patients' outcome is increasingly depending on early diagnostics and immediate medical treatment. By rising the immediate survival rates and continuously providing better ways to support and replace even multiple organ systems, modern intensive care units are not only further increasing their own demand but also healthcare costs by prolonging the patients' length of stay [3][4][5]. ...
Article
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The concept of intensive care units (ICU) has existed for almost 70 years, with outstanding development progress in the last decades. Multidisciplinary care of critically ill patients has become an integral part of every modern health care system, ensuing improved care and reduced mortality. Early recognition of severe medical and surgical illnesses, advanced prehospital care and organized immediate care in trauma centres led to a rise of ICU patients. Due to the underlying disease and its need for complex mechanical support for monitoring and treatment, it is often necessary to facilitate bed-side diagnostics. Immediate diagnostics are essential for a successful treatment of life threatening conditions, early recognition of complications and good quality of care. Management of ICU patients is incomprehensible without continuous and sophisticated monitoring, bedside ultrasonography, diverse radiologic diagnostics, blood gas analysis, coagulation and blood management, laboratory and other point-of-care (POC) diagnostic modalities. Moreover, in the time of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic, particular attention is given to the POC diagnostic techniques due to additional concerns related to the risk of infection transmission, patient and healthcare workers safety and potential adverse events due to patient relocation. This review summarizes the most actual information on possible diagnostic modalities in critical care, with a special focus on the importance of point-of-care approach in the laboratory monitoring and imaging procedures.
... 25,26 This could be due to the increased cases of mechanical ventilation and comorbidities in men compared to women. 27 This study reported that constipation did not increase mortality in critically ill patients, which is consistent with a previous report. 4 In critically ill patients with constipation, several comorbidities can increase mortality. ...
Article
Constipation can be a significant clinical challenge that can compromise management plans and prolong hospital stays. Our goal was to examine the effects of constipation on mechanically ventilated patients, with outcomes related to inpatient stays. We retrospectively analyzed critically ill patients hospitalized with constipation in the 2016 to 2019 National Inpatient Sample (NIS) database. Constipation was defined using Rome IV criteria. Critically ill patients were defined as mechanically ventilated from admission day 1. Our primary outcome was length of stay (LOS) and total hospital charge. Secondary outcomes included predictors of mortality in critically ill patients with constipation. The study included 2,351,119 weighted discharges of mechanically ventilated patients in the NIS database. Of these, 3.7% had constipation. The adjusted LOS was 3.4 days longer in patients with constipation vs those without it (P < 0.001). The adjusted inpatient hospital cost was $31,762 higher in patients with constipation (P < 0.001). Men had higher LOS and inpatient costs. Constipation was not associated with increased inpatient mortality (P < 0.001). Several conditions increased mortality in critically ill patients with constipation, including peritonitis, fecal impaction, and bowel obstruction.
... In particular, critical metrics, such as recruitment volume retained as pressures change, peak volume and pressures, lung elastances, and work of breathing. These metrics offer more accurate insight not previously available to optimise MV, where MV doubles the cost per day (Dasta et al., 2005). They are currently entering first clinical trials (Kim et al., 2020b), and have been tested in neonatal cohorts (Kim et al., 2019, Kim et al., 2020a. ...
Article
Healthcare and intensive care unit (ICU) medicine in particular, are facing a devastating tsunami of rising demand multiplied by increasing chronic disease and aging demographics, which is unmatched by society’s ability to pay. Digital technologies and automation have brought significant productivity gains to many industries, and manufacturing in particular, but not yet to medicine. In manufacturing, digital twins, model-based optimisation of manufacturing systems and equipment, are a rapidly growing means of further enhancing productivity and quality. This concept intersects well with the model-based decision support and control just beginning to emerge into clinical use, offering the opportunity to personalise care, and improve its quality and productivity. This article presents digital twins in a manufacturing concept and translates it into clinical practice, and then reviews the state of the art in key areas of ICU medicine.
... Another critical aspect associated with intensive care ventilation are costs. Recent years have been characterized by a significant increase of healthcare costs [17,18]. Expenses of the Intensive Care unit (ICU) usually cover up to 20% of the overall hospital costs [19] especially when considering those patients who require prolonged mechanical ventilation [20]. ...
Article
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This paper is aimed at addressing all the critical aspects linked to the implementation of intensive care ventilators in a pediatric setting, highlighting the most relevant technical features and describing the methodology to conduct health technology assessment (HTA) for supporting the decision-making process. Four ventilator models were included in the assessment process. A decision-making support tool (DoHTA method) was applied. Twenty-eight Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) were identified, defining the safety, clinical effectiveness, organizational, technical, and economic aspects. The Performance scores of each ventilator have been measured with respect to KPIs integrated with the total cost of ownership analysis, leading to a final rank of the four possible technological solutions. The final technologies’ performance scores reflected a deliver valued, contextualized, and shared outputs, detecting the most performant technological solution for the specific hospital context. HTA results had informed and supported the pediatric hospital decision-making process. This study, critically identifying the pros and cons of innovative features of ventilators and the evaluation criteria and aspects to be taken into account during HTA, can be considered as a valuable proof of evidence as well as a reliable and transferable method for conducting decision-making processes in a hospital context.
... Variations in interventions arise from differences in the type, number (single vs. multiple), and longitudinal connectivity (concurrent vs. sequential) of interventions used in healthcare. In critical care settings, effective analysis of variations of care could improve clinical outcomes and decrease the rising costs of critical care [2,3]. ...
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Our understanding of the impact of interventions in critical care is limited by the lack of techniques that represent and analyze complex intervention spaces applied across heterogeneous patient populations. Existing work has mainly focused on selecting a few interventions and representing them as binary variables, resulting in oversimplification of intervention representation. The goal of this study is to find effective representations of sequential interventions to support intervention effect analysis. To this end, we have developed Hi-RISE (Hierarchical Representation of Intervention Sequences), an approach that transforms and clusters sequential interventions into a latent space, with the resulting clusters used for heterogenous treatment effect analysis. We apply this approach to the MIMIC III dataset and identified intervention clusters and corresponding subpopulations with peculiar odds of 28-day mortality. Our approach may lead to a better understanding of the subgroup-level effects of sequential interventions and improve targeted intervention planning in critical care settings.
... Mechanical ventilation has a number of adverse effects such as ventilator-associated pneumonia [4], lung injuries [5,6], and a recently widely studied issue known as ventilator-induced diaphragmatic dysfunction (VIDD) [7,8]. The time required to wean patients from MV is directly proportional to ICU length of stay (LOS) which increases morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs [5,6,9]. Almost half of ventilated patients have difficult or prolonged weaning [10]. ...
Article
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Background Diaphragm atrophy and dysfunction is a major problem among critically ill patients on mechanical ventilation. Ventilator-induced diaphragmatic dysfunction is thought to play a major role, resulting in a failure of weaning. Stimulation of the phrenic nerves and resulting diaphragm contraction could potentially prevent or treat this atrophy. The subject of this study is to determine the effectiveness of diaphragm stimulation in preventing atrophy by measuring changes in its thickness. Methods A total of 12 patients in the intervention group and 10 patients in the control group were enrolled. Diaphragm thickness was measured by ultrasound in both groups at the beginning of study enrollment (hour 0), after 24 hours, and at study completion (hour 48). The obtained data were then statistically analyzed and both groups were compared. Results The results showed that the baseline diaphragm thickness in the interventional group was (1.98 ± 0.52) mm and after 48 hours of phrenic nerve stimulation increased to (2.20 ± 0.45) mm (p=0.001). The baseline diaphragm thickness of (2.00 ± 0.33) mm decreased in the control group after 48 hours of mechanical ventilation to (1.72 ± 0.20) mm (p<0.001). Conclusions Our study demonstrates that induced contraction of the diaphragm by pacing the phrenic nerve not only reduces the rate of its atrophy during mechanical ventilation but also leads to an increase in its thickness – the main determinant of the muscle strength required for spontaneous ventilation and successful ventilator weaning. Trial registration: The study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (18/06/2018, NCT03559933, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03559933).
... 20 The HR of 2.86 was applied to the predicted OS curve of the gilteritinib arm to derive the OS without HSCT input for the BSC comparator (Supplementary Table 1). 16 • Griffin et al, 7 Dasta et al, 60 Medeiros et al, 61 Shander et al, 5 45 For SC, the drug acquisition and administration costs were calculated as a weighted average of the regimen-specific costs, with weights based on ADMIRAL trial data. 16 BSC was assumed to incur zero drug acquisition or administration costs. ...
Article
BACKGROUND: Patients with relapsed or refractory (R/R) acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and confirmed feline McDonough sarcoma (FMS)-like tyrosine kinase 3 gene mutations (FLT3mut+) have a poor prognosis and limited effective treatment options. Gilteritinib is the first targeted therapy approved in the United States and Europe for R/R FLT3mut+ AML with significantly improved efficacy compared with existing treatments. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate gilteritinib against salvage chemotherapy (SC) and best supportive care (BSC) over a lifetime horizon among adult patients with R/R FLT3mut+ AML from a US third-party payer's perspective. METHODS: The model structure of this cost-effectiveness analysis included a decision tree to stratify patients based on their hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) status, followed by 2 separate 3-state partitioned survival models to predict the long-term health status conditional on HSCT status. The ADMIRAL trial data and literature were used to predict probabilities of patients being in different health states until a conservative cure point at year 3. Afterwards, living patients followed the survival outcomes of long-term survivors with AML. Model inputs for utilities, medical resource use, and costs were based on the ADMIRAL trial, published literature, and public sources. All costs were inflated to 2019 US dollars (USD). Total incremental costs (in 2019 USD), life-years (LYs), quality-adjusted LYs (QALYs), and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were calculated. Deterministic sensitivity analyses and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed. RESULTS: Over a lifetime horizon with a 3.0% annual discount rate, the base-case model estimated that gilteritinib led to an increase of 1.29 discounted QALYs at an additional cost of $148,106 vs SC, corresponding to an ICER of $115,192 per QALY; for BSC, results were an increase of 2.32 discounted QALYs, $249,674, and $107,435, respectively. The base-case findings were robust in sensitivity analyses. The estimated probabilities of gilteritinib being cost-effective vs SC and BSC were 90.5% and 99.8%, respectively, in the probabilistic sensitivity analyses, based on a willingness-to-pay threshold of $150,000 per QALY. CONCLUSIONS: Gilteritinib is a cost-effective novel treatment for patients with R/R FLT3mut+ AML in the United States. DISCLOSURES: This work was supported by Astellas Pharma, Inc., which was involved in all stages of the research and manuscript development. Garnham, Pandya, and Shah are employees of Astellas and hold stock/stock options. Zeidan consulted and received personal fees/honoraria and research funding from Astellas. Zeidan also has received research funding from Celgene/BMS, Abbvie, Astex, Pfizer, Medimmune/AstraZeneca, Boehringer-Ingelheim, Trovagene/Cardiff Oncology, Incyte, Takeda, Novartis, Amgen, Aprea, and ADC Therapeutics; has participated in advisory boards; has consulted with and/or received honoraria from AbbVie, Otsuka, Pfizer, Celgene/BMS, Jazz, Incyte, Agios, Boehringer-Ingelheim, Novartis, Acceleron, Daiichi Sankyo, Taiho, Seattle Genetics, BeyondSpring, Cardiff Oncology, Takeda, Ionis, Amgen, Janssen, Syndax, Gilead, Kura, Aprea, Lox Oncology, Genentech, Servier, Jasper, Tyme, and Epizyme; has served on clinical trial committees for Novartis, Abbvie, Geron, Gilead, Kura, Lox Oncology, BioCryst, and Celgene/BMS; and has received travel support for meetings from Pfizer, Novartis, and Cardiff Oncology. Qi and Yang are employees of Analysis Group, Inc., which received consulting fees from Astellas for work on this study. Part of this material was presented at the American Society of Hematology (ASH) Annual Meeting; December 7-10, 2019; Orlando, FL.
... Delayed disconnection from ventilator can be associated with numerous complications, such as ventilator-associated pneumonia, airway trauma, and multipleorgan failure (MOF) (1)(2)(3). The risk of complications and mortality may accrue with increasing duration of MV (4). Therefore, it is essential to timely and safely liberate patients from mechanical ventilator when they have restored the ability of spontaneous breathing (5)(6)(7)(8). ...
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Background: Spontaneous breathing trial (SBT) has been used to predict the optimal time of weaning from ventilator. However, it remains controversial which trial should be preferentially selected. We aimed to compare and rank four common SBT modes including automatic tube compensation (ATC), pressure support ventilation (PSV), continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), and T-piece among critically ill patients receiving mechanical ventilation (MV). Methods: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) to identify studies that investigated the comparative efficacy and safety of at least two SBT strategies among critically ill patients up to May 17, 2020. We estimated the surface under the cumulative ranking curve (SUCRA) to rank SBT techniques, and determined the certainty of evidence using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation method. Primary outcome was weaning success. Secondary outcomes were reintubation, SBT success, duration of acute care, and intensive care unit (ICU) mortality. Statistical analysis was conducted by using RevMan 5.4, Stata, and R software. Results: We enrolled 24 trials finally. Extubation success rate was significantly higher in ATC than that in T-piece (OR, 0.28; 95% CI, 0.13–0.64) or PSV (OR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.32–0.88). For SBT success, ATC was better than other SBT techniques, with a pooled OR ranging from 0.17 to 0.42. For reintubation rate, CPAP was worse than T-piece (OR, 2.76; 95% CI, 1.08 to 7.06). No significant difference was detected between SBT modes for the length of stay in ICU or long-term weaning unit (LWU). Similar result was also found for ICU mortality between PSV and T-piece. Majority direct results were confirmed by network meta-analysis. Besides, ATC ranks at the first, first, and fourth place with a SUCRA of 91.7, 99.7, and 39.9%, respectively in increasing weaning success and SBT success and in prolonging ICU or LWU length of stay among four SBT strategies. The confidences in evidences were rated as low for most comparisons. Conclusion: ATC seems to be the optimal choice of predicting successful weaning from ventilator among critically ill patients. However, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with high quality are needed to further establish these findings.
... By the alarming sound produced, it is easily noticed that the patient has irregular breathing and must be notified to the doctor. The main advantage of this proposed method is no care taker and physical attention is required [3] [9]; it implements the automatic monitoring procedure very easily and effectively [10][11] using hardwares. This project considers the performance metrics such as temperature of the body, pulse rate of heart, moisture in the air and baby's movement for evaluation [2] [13]. ...
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: This research work aims to create awareness and monitor the breath rate of a neonate using the air flow sensors and to reduce the number of infants' death. It is designed based on the Arduino which is open-source electronics platform for hardware and software use. This prototype is developed for reliable and efficient baby monitoring system and play as infant care and monitoring system.A cardio respiratory system is used to monitor the infant's heart rate, rhythm, breathing rate and other relevant and useful medical information using Electro Cardio Graph (ECG) and other IoT (Internet of Things) devices.This research work proved that the respiration monitoring system for infants can be implemented at low cost and also can prevent the respiration failure deaths.
... However, this is associated with a number of short-and long-term complications, such as ventilator-associated lung injury, laryngeal and tracheal injuries, nosocomial pneumonia, difficultly weaning, and prolonged ICU stay [144,145]. The large costs [146] and high risk of complications raises the need for the development of alternative therapies. ...
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Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive respiratory disorder that may lead to gas exchange abnormalities, including hypercapnia. Chronic hypercapnia is an independent risk factor of mortality in COPD, leading to epithelial dysfunction and impaired lung immunity. Moreover, chronic hypercapnia affects the cardiovascular physiology, increases the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and promotes muscle wasting and musculoskeletal abnormalities. Noninvasive ventilation is a widely used technique to remove carbon dioxide, and several studies have investigated its role in COPD. In the present review, we aim to summarize the causes and effects of chronic hypercapnia in COPD. Furthermore, we discuss the use of domiciliary noninvasive ventilation as a treatment option for hypercapnia while highlighting the controversies within the evidence. Finally, we provide some insightful clinical recommendations and draw attention to possible future research areas.
... The increased IMV duration that comes with extubation failure likely contributes hundreds of millions of dollars in healthcare costs each year (95,96). The air leak test is a fast, low-cost intervention using readily available equipment. ...
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Rationale: Pediatric specific ventilator liberation guidelines are lacking despite the many studies exploring elements of extubation readiness testing. The lack of clinical practice guidelines has led to significant and unnecessary variation in methods used to assess pediatric patients' readiness for extubation. Methods: Twenty-six international experts comprised a multi-professional panel to establish pediatric specific ventilator liberation clinical practice guidelines, focusing on acutely hospitalized children receiving invasive mechanical ventilation for more than 24 hours. Eleven key questions were identified and first prioritized using the Modified Convergence of Opinion on Recommendations and Evidence. Systematic review was conducted for questions which did not meet an a-priori threshold of ≥80% agreement, with Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation methodologies applied to develop the guidelines. The panel evaluated the evidence, drafted, and voted on the recommendations. Measurements and main results: Three questions related to systematic screening, using an extubation readiness testing bundle and use of a spontaneous breathing trial as part of the bundle met Modified Convergence of Opinion on Recommendations criteria of ≥80% agreement. For the remaining 8 questions, 5 systematic reviews yielded 12 recommendations related to the methods and duration of spontaneous breathing trials; measures of respiratory muscle strength; assessment of risk of post-extubation upper airway obstruction and its prevention; use of post-extubation non-invasive respiratory support; and sedation. Most recommendations were conditional and based on low to very low certainty of evidence. Conclusion: This clinical practice guideline provides a conceptual framework with evidence-based recommendations for best practices related to pediatric ventilator liberation. This article is open access and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives License 4.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
... Therefore, shortening the mechanical ventilation period and successful extubation are crucial steps for every ICU patient [18][19][20][21][22][23]. Patients benefit from a reduction in ventilator-and ICUrelated complications, as well as contributing to a reduction in healthcare costs accruing from a reduction in duration of ICU stay [24]. ...
Chapter
Fluid overload is a major factor in the morbidity and mortality of critically ill patients. Fluid responsiveness has been used not only to resuscitate patients but also to de-resuscitate patients following hemodynamic stabilization. As fluid overload has also been implicated in weaning failure, the parameters of fluid responsiveness could thus also be used to optimize patient status before initiating weaning trails and extubation in order to prevent re-intubation due to fluid overload. In this chapter, we will discuss the physiologic considerations of the possible clinical use of fluid responsiveness in the context of weaning.
... This is aggravated by the fact that patients receiving this treatment are inherently more vulnerable to infections [33][34][35] . Considering that 35% of the 20,000 ICU beds in the USA are occupied by mechanically ventilated patients, and that the cost of an extra day in ICU is $4000 [36][37][38][39] , the estimated global impact of biofilms in these patients is $920 m per year. ...
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The increasing awareness of the significance of microbial biofilms across different sectors is continuously revealing new areas of opportunity in the development of innovative technologies in translational research, which can address their detrimental effects, as well as exploit their benefits. Due to the extent of sectors affected by microbial biofilms, capturing their real financial impact has been difficult. This perspective highlights this impact globally, based on figures identified in a recent in-depth market analysis commissioned by the UK’s National Biofilms Innovation Centre (NBIC). The outputs from this analysis and the workshops organised by NBIC on its research strategic themes have revealed the breath of opportunities for translational research in microbial biofilms. However, there are still many outstanding scientific and technological challenges which must be addressed in order to catalyse these opportunities. This perspective discusses some of these challenges.
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Importance: Despite limited capacity and expensive cost, there are minimal objective data to guide postoperative allocation of intensive care unit (ICU) beds. The Surgical Risk Preoperative Assessment System (SURPAS) uses 8 preoperative variables to predict many common postoperative complications, but it has not yet been evaluated in predicting postoperative ICU admission. Objective: To determine if the SURPAS model could accurately predict postoperative ICU admission in a broad surgical population. Design, setting, and participants: This decision analytical model was a retrospective, observational analysis of prospectively collected patient data from the 2012 to 2018 American College of Surgeons (ACS) National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) database, which were merged with individual patients' electronic health record data to capture postoperative ICU use. Multivariable logistic regression modeling was used to determine how the 8 preoperative variables of the SURPAS model predicted ICU use compared with a model inputting all 28 preoperatively available NSQIP variables. Data included in the analysis were collected for the ACS NSQIP at 5 hospitals (1 tertiary academic center, 4 academic affiliated hospitals) within the University of Colorado Health System between January 1, 2012, and December 31, 2018. Included patients were those undergoing surgery in 9 surgical specialties during the 2012 to 2018 period. Data were analyzed from May 29 to July 30, 2021. Exposure: Surgery in 9 surgical specialties, including general, gynecology, orthopedic, otolaryngology, plastic, thoracic, urology, vascular, and neurosurgery. Main outcomes and measures: Use of ICU care up to 30 days after surgery. Results: A total of 34 568 patients were included in the analytical data set: 32 032 (92.7%) in the cohort without postoperative ICU use and 2545 (7.4%) in the cohort with postoperative ICU use (no ICU use: mean [SD] age, 54.9 [16.6] years; 18 188 women [56.8%]; ICU use: mean [SD] age, 60.3 [15.3] years; 1333 men [52.4%]). For the internal chronologic validation of the 7-variable SURPAS model, data from 2012 to 2016 were used as the training data set (n = 24 250, 70.2% of the total sample size of 34 568) and data from 2017 to 2018 were used as the test data set (n = 10 318, 29.8% of the total sample size of 34 568). The C statistic improved in the test data set compared with the training data set (0.933; 95% CI, 0.924-0.941 vs 0.922; 95% CI, 0.917-0.928), whereas the Brier score was slightly worse in the test data set compared with the training data set (0.045; 95% CI, 0.042-0.048 vs 0.045; 95% CI, 0.043-0.047). The SURPAS model compared favorably with the model inputting all 28 NSQIP variables, with both having good calibration between observed and expected outcomes in the Hosmer-Lemeshow graphs and similar Brier scores (model inputting all variables, 0.044; 95% CI, 0.043-0.048; SURPAS model, 0.045; 95% CI, 0.042-0.046) and C statistics (model inputting all variables, 0.929; 95% CI, 0.925-0.934; SURPAS model, 0.925; 95% CI, 0.921-0.930). Conclusions and relevance: Results of this decision analytical model study revealed that the SURPAS prediction model accurately predicted postoperative ICU use across a diverse surgical population. These results suggest that the SURPAS prediction model can be used to help with preoperative planning and resource allocation of limited ICU beds.
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Importance Prehospital plasma transfusion is lifesaving for trauma patients in hemorrhagic shock but is not commonly used owing to cost and feasibility concerns. Objective To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of prehospital thawed plasma transfusion in trauma patients with hemorrhagic shock during air medical transport. Design, Setting, and Participants A decision tree and Markov model were created to compare standard care and prehospital thawed plasma transfusion using published and unpublished patient-level data from the Prehospital Plasma in Air Medical Transport in Trauma Patients at Risk for Hemorrhagic Shock (PAMPer) trial conducted from May 2014 to October 2017, health care and trauma-specific databases, and the published literature. Prehospital transfusion, short-term inpatient care, and lifetime health care costs and quality of life outcomes were included. One-way, 2-way, and Monte Carlo probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed across clinically plausible ranges. Data were analyzed in December 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures Relative costs and health-related quality of life were evaluated by an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio at a standard willingness-to-pay threshold of $100 000 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY). Results The trial included 501 patients in the modified intention-to-treat cohort. Median (interquartile range) age for patients in the thawed plasma and standard care cohorts were 44 (31-59) and 46 (28-60) years, respectively. Overall, 364 patients (72.7%) were male. Thawed plasma transfusion was cost-effective with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $50 467.44 per QALY compared with standard care. The preference for thawed plasma was robust across all 1- and 2-way sensitivity analyses. When considering only patients injured by a blunt mechanism, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio decreased to $37 735.19 per QALY. Thawed plasma was preferred in 8140 of 10 000 iterations (81.4%) on probabilistic sensitivity analysis. A detailed analysis of incremental costs between strategies revealed most were attributable to the in-hospital and postdischarge lifetime care of critically ill patients surviving severe trauma. Conclusions and Relevance In this study, prehospital thawed plasma transfusion during air medical transport for trauma patients in hemorrhagic shock was lifesaving and cost-effective compared with standard care and should become commonplace.
Article
Background Axicabtagene ciloleucel (axi-cel) was found to have superior clinical outcomes compared to standard of care (SOC; salvage chemoimmunotherapy, followed by high-dose therapy with autologous stem cell rescue for responders) for second-line large B-cell lymphoma (2L LBCL) in the pivotal ZUMA-7 trial. Objective The aim of this analysis was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of using axi-cel compared to the current standard 2L LBCL therapy. Study Design A three-state partitioned-survival model estimated the cost-effectiveness and budget impact from a payer perspective in the United States. Clinical outcomes were extrapolated based on the pivotal trial. The model calculated expected quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), total costs (in United States dollars [USD], and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER), along with the budget impact. Sensitivity and scenario analyses were performed. Results The proportion alive at 10 years was estimated as 48% for axi-cel and 38% for SOC; median OS was estimated at 59 and 24 months for axi-cel and SOC, respectively. Over a lifetime horizon, the model estimated a total of 5.56 and 7.08 QALYs for SOC and axi-cel, respectively, of which 41% and 74% were in the event-free state, respectively. Incremental QALYs and costs were 1.51 and $100,366 USD, respectively, resulting in an ICER of $66,381 USD per QALY for axi-cel versus SOC. Conclusions Despite crossover to subsequent CAR T in the SOC arm, second-line CAR T was found to improve the quality and length of life compared to SOC. Cost offsets due to subsequent CAR T use lead to a limited incremental cost difference. Treatment with axi-cel is a cost-effective option that addresses an important unmet clinical need for patients with LBCL who relapse or are refractory to front-line therapy.
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Introduction: Patients with COVID-19 ARDS require significant amounts of sedation and analgesic medications which can lead to longer hospital/ICU length of stay, delirium, and has been associated with increased mortality. Tracheostomy has been shown to decrease the amount of sedative, anxiolytic and analgesic medications given to patients. The goal of this study was to assess whether tracheostomy decreased sedation and analgesic medication usage, improved markers of activity level and cognitive function, and clinical outcomes in patients with COVID-19 ARDS. Study design and methods: A retrospective registry of patients with COVID-19 ARDS who underwent tracheostomy creation at the University of Pennsylvania Health System or the Johns Hopkins Hospital from 3/2020 to 12/2020. Patients were grouped into the early (≤14 days, n = 31) or late (15 + days, n = 97) tracheostomy groups and outcome data collected. Results: 128 patients had tracheostomies performed at a mean of 19.4 days, with 66% performed percutaneously at bedside. Mean hourly dose of fentanyl, midazolam, and propofol were all significantly reduced 48-h after tracheostomy: fentanyl (48-h pre-tracheostomy: 94.0 mcg/h, 48-h post-tracheostomy: 64.9 mcg/h, P = .000), midazolam (1.9 mg/h pre vs. 1.2 mg/h post, P = .0012), and propofol (23.3 mcg/kg/h pre vs. 8.4 mcg/kg/h post, P = .0121). There was a significant improvement in mobility score and Glasgow Coma Scale in the 48-h pre- and post-tracheostomy. Comparing the early and late groups, the mean fentanyl dose in the 48-h pre-tracheostomy was significantly higher in the late group than the early group (116.1 mcg/h vs. 35.6 mcg/h, P = .03). ICU length of stay was also shorter in the early group (37.0 vs. 46.2 days, P = .012). Interpretation: This data supports a reduction in sedative and analgesic medications administered and improvement in cognitive and physical activity in the 48-h period post-tracheostomy in COVID-19 ARDS. Further, early tracheostomy may lead to significant reductions in intravenous opiate medication administration, and ICU LOS.
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The COVID-19 pandemic demonstrated the critical vulnerability of modern society to the risk of respiratory disasters – situations of mass destruction of people by biological, chemical or radioactive agents with the development of respiratory failure that requires mechanical ventilation. This is substantiated by extremely high cost of conventional mechanical ventilation technology, which currently has no alternative, and implies “anti-physiological” (dangerous to health) pressure-targeted ventilation. Due to high cost of such equipment, no country is currently able to provide substantial mobilization reserves of ventilators, which in case of respiratory disasters, entails high mortality rate among population. The solution of this problem, the authors see the “catching-up” development of inexpensive, easy to use, and relatively safe method of mechanical ventilation with negative pressure ( the so-called tank ventilator or “iron lungs”), which encloses most of a person's body, and varies the air pressure in the enclosed space, to stimulate breathing. Due to the lower price, safety and ease of use of this method, the authors consider it essential in the instance of mass victims with respiratory failure caused by infectious, chemical or radiation agents. The conclusion is made on the importance of advancement of the mechanical ventilation technology based on the method of negative pressure for ensuring mobilization readiness of the Russian Federation to respiratory disaster, as well as the current need of the healthcare system.
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Objectives: To estimate the minimum percent change in failed extubation to make a tool designed to reduce extubation failure (Extubation Advisor [EA]) economically viable. Methods: We conducted an early return on investment (ROI) analysis using data from intubated intensive care unit (ICU) patients at a large Canadian tertiary care hospital. We obtained input parameters from the hospital database and published literature. We ran generalized linear models to estimate the attributable length of stay, total hospital cost, and time to subsequent extubation attempt following failure. We developed a Markov model to estimate the expected ROI and performed probabilistic sensitivity analyses to assess the robustness of findings. Costs were presented in 2020 Canadian dollars (C$). Results: The model estimated a 1 percent reduction in failed extubation could save the hospital C$289 per intubated patient (95 percent CI: 197, 459). A large center seeing 2,500 intubated ICU patients per year could save C$723,124/year/percent reduction in failed extubation. At the current annual price of C$164,221, the EA tool must reduce extubation failure by at least 0.24 percent (95 percent CI: .14, .41) to make the tool cost-effective at our site. Conclusions: Clinical decision-support tools like the EA may play an important role in reducing healthcare costs by reducing the rate of extubation failure, a costly event in the ICU.
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Despite evidence to support the safety and efficacy of COVID-19 vaccination in pregnancy, and clear recommendations from professional organizations and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) for pregnant people to get vaccinated, COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy in pregnancy remains a significant public health problem. The emergence of the highly transmissible B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant among primarily unvaccinated people has exposed the cost of vaccine hesitancy. In this commentary, we explore factors contributing to COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy in pregnancy and potential solutions to overcome them. Key Points
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PhD thesis "Towards respiratory muscle-protective mechanical ventilation in the critically ill: technology to monitor and assist physiology"
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Background: Length-of-stay (LOS) can have a large impact on overall surgical costs. Several studies have demonstrated that a shortened LOS is safe and effective after microvascular breast reconstruction (MBR). The optimal LOS from a cost-utility perspective is not known. Methods: The authors used a decision tree model to evaluate the cost-utility, from the perspective of the hospital, of a variety of LOS strategies. Health state probabilities were estimated from an institutional chart review. Expected costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALY) were assess using Monte Carlo simulation and sensitivity analyses. Results: Over a ten-year period, our overall flap loss and take-back rates were 1.6% and 4.9%, respectively. After rollback, a 3-day LOS was identified as the most cost-effective strategy, with an expected cost of $41,680.19 and an expected health utility of 25.68 QALYs. Monte Carlo sensitivity analysis confirmed that discharge on POD3 was the most cost-effective strategy in the majority of simulations when the willingness-to-pay threshold varied from $50,000-$130,000/QALY gained. Conclusion: This cost-utility analysis suggests that a 3-day LOS is the most cost-effective strategy after MBR.
Article
PurposeSystematic review and network meta-analysis to investigate the efficacy of noninvasive respiratory strategies, including noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) and high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC), in reducing extubation failure among critically ill adults.Methods We searched databases from inception through October 2021 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating noninvasive respiratory support therapies (NIPPV, HFNC, conventional oxygen therapy, or a combination of these) following extubation in critically ill adults. Two reviewers performed screening, full text review, and extraction independently. The primary outcome of interest was reintubation. We used GRADE to rate the certainty of our findings.ResultsWe included 36 RCTs (6806 patients). Compared to conventional oxygen therapy, NIPPV (OR 0.65 [95% CI 0.52–0.82]) and HFNC (OR 0.63 [95% CI 0.45–0.87]) reduced reintubation (both moderate certainty). Sensitivity analyses showed that the magnitude of the effect was highest in patients with increased baseline risk of reintubation. As compared to HFNC, no difference in incidence of reintubation was seen with NIPPV (OR 1.04 [95% CI 0.78–1.38], low certainty). Compared to conventional oxygen therapy, neither NIPPV (OR 0.8 [95% CI 0.61–1.04], moderate certainty) or HFNC (OR 0.9 [95% CI 0.66–1.24], low certainty) reduced short-term mortality. Consistent findings were demonstrated across multiple subgroups, including high- and low-risk patients. These results were replicated when evaluating noninvasive strategies for prevention (prophylaxis), but not in rescue (application only after evidence of deterioration) situations.Conclusions Our findings suggest that both NIPPV and HFNC reduced reintubation in critically ill adults, compared to conventional oxygen therapy. NIPPV did not reduce incidence of reintubation when compared to HFNC. These findings support the preventative application of noninvasive respiratory support strategies to mitigate extubation failure in critically ill adults, but not in rescue conditions.
Article
Aims: To conduct a cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) on the use of andexanet alfa for the treatment of factor Xa inhibitor-related intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) from the United States (US) third-party payer and societal perspectives. Methods: CEA compared andexanet alfa to prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC) for the treatment of patients receiving factor Xa inhibitors admitted to hospital inpatient care with an ICH. The model comprised two linked phases. Phase 1 utilized a decision tree to model the acute treatment phase (admission of a patient with ICH into intensive care for the first 30 days). Phase 2 modeled long-term costs and outcomes using three linked Markov models comprising the six health states defined by the modified Rankin score. Results: The analysis showed that the strategy of using andexanet alfa for the treatment of factor Xa inhibitor-related ICH is cost-effective, with incremental cost-effectiveness per quality-adjusted life-year gained of $35,872 from a third-party payer perspective and $40,997 from a societal perspective over 20 years. Limitations: (1) Absence of head-to-head trials comparing therapies included in the economic model, (2) lack of comparative long-term data on treatment efficacy, and (3) bias resulting from the study designs of published literature. Conclusion: Given these results, the use of andexanet alfa for the reversal of anticoagulation in patients with factor Xa inhibitor-related ICH may improve quality of life and is likely to be cost-effective in a US context.
Article
Objective: Assess for continued improvements in patient outcomes after updating our institutional sedation and analgesia protocol to include recommendations from the 2013 Society of Critical Care Medicine (SCCM) Pain, Agitation, and Delirium (PAD) guidelines. Methods: Retrospective before-and-after study in a mixed medical/surgical intensive care unit (ICU) at an academic medical center. Mechanically ventilated adults admitted from September 1, 2011 through August 31, 2012 (pre-implementation) and October 1, 2012 through September 30, 2017 (post-implementation) were included. Measurements included number of mechanically ventilated patients, APACHE IV scores, age, type of patient (medical or surgical), admission diagnosis, ICU length of stay (LOS), hospital LOS, ventilator days, number of self-extubations, ICU mortality, ICU standardized mortality ratio, hospital mortality, hospital standardized mortality ratio, medication data including as needed (PRN) analgesic and sedative use, and analgesic and sedative infusions, and institutional savings. Results: Ventilator days (Pre-PAD = 4.0 vs. Year 5 post = 3.2, P < .0001), ICU LOS (Pre-PAD = 4.8 days vs. Year 5 post = 4.1 days, P = .0004) and hospital LOS (Pre-PAD = 14 days vs. Year 5 post = 12 days, P < .0001) decreased after protocol implementation. Hospital standardized mortality ratio (Pre-PAD = 0.69 vs. Year 5 post = 0.66) remained constant; while, APACHE IV scores (Pre-PAD = 77 vs. Year 5 post = 89, P < .0001) and number of intubated patients (Pre-PAD = 1146 vs. Year 5 post = 1468) increased over the study period. Using the decreased ICU and hospital LOS estimates, it is projected the institution saved $4.3 million over the 5 years since implementation. Conclusions: Implementation of an updated PAD protocol in a mixed medical/surgical ICU was associated with a significant decrease in ventilator time, ICU LOS, and hospital LOS without a change in the standardized mortality ratio over a five-year period. These favorable outcomes are associated with a significant cost savings for the institution.
Article
Aims: To compare the cost of cardiac stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) vs catheter ablation for treating ventricular tachycardia (VT). Background: Cardiac SBRT is a novel way of treating refractory VT that may be less costly than catheter ablation, owing to its non-invasive, outpatient nature. However, the true costs of either procedure are not well described, which could help inform a more appropriate reimbursement for cardiac SBRT than simply cross-indexing existing procedural rates. Methods: Process maps were derived for the full patient care cycle of both procedures using time-driven activity-based costing. Step-by-step timestamps were collected prospectively from a 10-patient SBRT cohort and retrospectively from a 59-patient catheter ablation cohort. Individual costs were estimated by multiplying timestamps with capacity cost rates (CCRs) for personnel, space, equipment, consumable, and indirect resources. These were summed into total cost, which for cardiac SBRT was compared with current catheter ablation and single-fraction lung SBRT reimbursements, both potential reference rates for cardiac SBRT. Results: The direct and total procedural costs of cardiac SBRT ($7,549 and $10,621) were 49% and 54% less than those of VT ablation ($14,707 and $23,225). These costs were significantly different from current reimbursement for catheter ablation ($22,692) and lung SBRT ($6,329). After including hospitalization expenses (≥$15,000), VT ablation cost at least $27,604 more to furnish than cardiac SBRT. Conclusions: TDABC can be a helpful tool for assessing healthcare costs, including novel treatment approaches. In addition to its clinical benefits, cardiac SBRT may provide significant cost reduction opportunities for treatment of VT. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Article
Severe aortic stenosis (AS) remains a life-threatening form of valvular heart disease. Missed diagnosis of severe AS can lead to a delay in treatment and poor outcomes, but there are limited tools available to help physicians minimize the risk of missed diagnoses. Here, a Diagnostic Precision Algorithm was developed from a de-identified dataset of 1,147,157 echocardiographic reports from 35 institutions to help physicians identify patients who may have incorrectly not received a severe AS diagnosis and prioritize these findings for secondary clinical review. Inclusion criteria required the presence of three standard Doppler indices (Aortic Valve Area [AVA], Maximal Jet Velocity [JV], and Mean Pressure Gradient [MPG]), with at least one in the severe AS range (per AHA/ACC criteria), and documented assessment of AS severity. Included reports were divided into training/validation (N = 18,040) and test (N = 4,533) datasets. Using a decision tree algorithm, a Severe AS Index that estimates the likelihood that a patient with similar values would have severe AS diagnosed was developed from the training/validation dataset using AVA, JV, and MPG measurements, as well as left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) when available. This was compared to the reported interpretation of the echocardiogram, which was extracted using a validated natural language processing algorithm that demonstrated 100% accuracy across a sample of 600 echocardiographic reports. When the prediction of the Severe AS Index and the report interpretation disagreed, the patient was flagged for secondary review. Across the test dataset, the Diagnostic Precision Algorithm successfully predicted the actual severe AS population proportion with an average error of 2.1% points when LVEF was available and 2.2% points when LVEF was not available. The Diagnostic Precision algorithm was highly accurate at identifying the likelihood of severe AS diagnosis and applying this information to prioritize physician follow-up for patients who may have undiagnosed severe disease.
Article
Objective Abdominal radical hysterectomy in early-stage cervical cancer has higher rates of disease-free and overall survival compared with minimally invasive radical hysterectomy. Abdominal radical hysterectomy may be technically challenging at higher body mass index levels resulting in poorer surgical outcomes. This study sought to examine the influence of body mass index on outcomes and cost effectiveness between different treatments for early-stage cervical cancer. Methods A Markov decision-analytic model was designed using TreeAge Pro software to compare the outcomes and costs of primary chemoradiation versus surgery in women with early-stage cervical cancer. The study used a theoretical cohort of 6000 women who were treated with abdominal radical hysterectomy, minimally invasive radical hysterectomy, or primary chemoradiation therapy. We compared the results for three body mass index groups: less than 30 kg/m ² , 30–39.9 kg/m ² , and 40 kg/m ² or higher. Model inputs were derived from the literature. Outcomes included complications, recurrence, death, costs, and quality-adjusted life years. An incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of less than $100 000 per quality-adjusted life year was used as our willingness-to-pay threshold. Sensitivity analyses were performed broadly to determine the robustness of the results. Results Comparing abdominal radical hysterectomy with minimally invasive radical hysterectomy, abdominal radical hysterectomy was associated with 526 fewer recurrences and 382 fewer deaths compared with minimally invasive radical hysterectomy; however, abdominal radical hysterectomy resulted in more complications for each body mass index category. When the body mass index was 40 kg/m ² or higher, abdominal radical hysterectomy became the dominant strategy because it led to better outcomes with lower costs than minimally invasive radical hysterectomy. Comparing abdominal radical hysterectomy with primary chemoradiation therapy, recurrence rates were similar, with more deaths associated with surgery across each body mass index category. Chemoradiation therapy became cost effective when the body mass index was 40 kg/m ² or higher. Conclusion When the body mass index is 40 kg/m ² or higher, abdominal radical hysterectomy is cost saving compared with minimally invasive radical hysterectomy and primary chemoradiation is cost effective compared with abdominal radical hysterectomy. Primary chemoradiation may be the optimal management strategy at higher body mass indexes.
Article
Objective: To estimate costs and benefits associated with measurement of intra-abdominal pressure (IAP). Methods: We built a cost-benefit analysis from the hospital facility perspective and time horizon limited to hospitalization for patients undergoing major abdominal surgery for the intervention of urinary catheter monitoring of IAP. We used real-world data estimating the likelihood of intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH), abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS), and acute kidney injury (AKI) requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT). Costs included catheter costs (estimated $200), costs of additional intensive care unit (ICU) days from IAH and ACS, and costs of CRRT. We took the preventability of IAH/ACS given early detection from a trial of non-surgical interventions in IAH. We evaluated uncertainty through probabilistic sensitivity analysis and the effect of individual model parameters on the primary outcome of cost savings through one-way sensitivity analysis. Results: In the base case, urinary catheter monitoring of IAP in the perioperative period of major abdominal surgery had 81% fewer cases of IAH of any grade, 64% fewer cases of AKI, and 96% fewer cases of ACS. Patients had 1.5 fewer ICU days attributable to IAH (intervention 1.6 days vs. control of 3.1 days) and a total average cost reduction of $10,468 (intervention $10,809, controls $21,277). In Monte Carlo simulation, 86% of 1000 replications were cost-saving, for a mean cost savings of $10,349 (95% UCI $8,978, $11,720) attributable to real-time urinary catheter monitoring of intra-abdominal pressure. One-way factor analysis showed the pre-test probability of IAH had the largest effect on cost savings and the intervention was cost-neutral at a prevention rate as low as 2%. Conclusions: In a cost-benefit model using real-world data, the potential average in-hospital cost savings for urinary catheter monitoring of IAP for early detection and prevention of IAH, ACS, and AKI far exceed the cost of the catheter.
Article
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Approximately one in 30 patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF) undergoes an inter-ICU transfer. Our objectives are to describe inter-ICU transfer patterns and evaluate the impact of timing of transfer on patient-centered outcomes. Design: Retrospective, quasi-experimental study. Setting: We used the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project State Inpatient Databases in five states (Florida, Maryland, Mississippi, New York, and Washington) during 2015-2017. Participants: We selected patients with International Classification of Diseases, 9th and 10th Revision codes of respiratory failure and mechanical ventilation who underwent an inter-ICU transfer (n = 6,718), grouping as early (≤ 2 d) and later transfers (3+ d). To control for potential selection bias, we propensity score matched patients (1:1) to model propensity for early transfer using a priori defined patient demographic, clinical, and hospital variables. Main outcomes: Inhospital mortality, hospital length of stay (HLOS), and cumulative charges related to inter-ICU transfer. Results: Six-thousand seven-hundred eighteen patients with ARF underwent inter-ICU transfer, 68% of whom (n = 4,552) were transferred early (≤ 2 d). Propensity score matching yielded 3,774 well-matched patients for this study. Unadjusted outcomes were all superior in the early versus later transfer cohort: inhospital mortality (24.4% vs 36.1%; p < 0.0001), length of stay (8 vs 22 d; p < 0.0001), and cumulative charges ($118,686 vs $308,977; p < 0.0001). Through doubly robust multivariable modeling with random effects at the state level, we found patients who were transferred early had a 55.8% reduction in risk of inhospital mortality than those whose transfer was later (relative risk, 0.442; 95% CI, 0.403-0.497). Additionally, the early transfer cohort had lower HLOS (20.7 fewer days [13.0 vs 33.7; p < 0.0001]), and lower cumulative charges ($66,201 less [$192,182 vs $258,383; p < 0.0001]). Conclusions and relevance: Our study is the first to use a large, multistate sample to evaluate the practice of inter-ICU transfers in ARF and also define early and later transfers. Our findings of favorable outcomes with early transfer are vital in designing future prospective studies evaluating evidence-based transfer procedures and policies.
Article
Background : Follicular lymphoma (FL) is generally considered an indolent disease, although patients with relapsing FL experience progressively shorter durations of response to second or later lines of therapy. The ongoing ELARA trial in adult patients with relapsed/refractory (r/r) FL treated with tisagenlecleucel demonstrated an overall response rate of 86.2% and a complete response rate of 69.1%, with no treatment-related deaths. Tisagenlecleucel was administered in the outpatient setting in 18% of patients in ELARA; however, there is limited knowledge concerning the impact of inpatient vs outpatient tisagenlecleucel administration on healthcare resource utilization (HCRU) among patients with r/r FL. Objectives : Here, we present the first HCRU analysis among patients with r/r FL who received tisagenlecleucel in the Phase II, single-arm, multicenter ELARA trial. Study design : HCRU was characterized using hospitalization data from Day 1 to Month 2 post tisagenlecleucel infusion. Information on length of stay, facility use, and discharge was assessed in patients who received tisagenlecleucel in the outpatient or inpatient setting. All costs were inflated to 2020 US dollars. Results : As of August 3, 2021 (20-month median follow-up), 17/97 (18%) r/r FL patients were infused in an outpatient setting. Patients infused in the outpatient setting generally had favorable Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status and Follicular Lymphoma International Prognostic Index scores, and less bulky disease at baseline. However, the outpatients had higher proportions of patients with grade 3A FL, primary refractory disease, and >5 lines of prior therapy compared with inpatients. Forty-one percent of patients treated in the outpatient setting did not require hospitalization within 30 days postinfusion and outpatients who did require hospitalization had a shorter average length of stay compared with inpatients (5 vs 13 days). No outpatients required intensive care unit (ICU) admission, whereas 9% of inpatients were admitted to the ICU. The mean postinfusion hospitalization costs were $7,477 and $40,054 in the outpatient and inpatient settings, respectively. Efficacy between both groups was similar. Conclusions : Tisagenlecleucel can be safely administered to some patients in the outpatient setting, which may reduce HCRU for patients with r/r FL.
Article
Objective: The primary objective of this systematic review was to determine the effect of vasopressor agents on the development of pressure ulcers (PUs) among critically ill patients in intensive care units (ICUs). The secondary outcome of interest was length of stay in the ICU. Method: A systematic review was undertaken using the databases searched: Medline, Embase, CINAHL and The Cochrane Library. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines were used to formulate the review. Data were extracted using a predesigned data extraction table and analysed as appropriate using RevMan. Quality appraisal was undertaken using the EBL Critical Appraisal Tool. Results: The inclusion criteria were met by 13 studies. Two studies provided sufficient data to compare the number of patients who developed a PU with and without the use of vasopressors. Consistently, within these two studies, being treated with a vasopressor increased the likelihood of PU development. RevMan analysis identified that shorter duration of administration of vasopressors was associated with less PU development (mean difference (MD) 65.97 hours, 95% confidence interval (CI): 43.47-88.47; p=0.0001). Further, a lower dose of vasopressors was also associated with less PU development (MD: 8.76μg/min, 95% CI: 6.06-11.46; p<0.00001). Mean length of stay increased by 11.46 days for those with a PU compared to those without a PU (MD: 11.46 days; 95% CI: 7.10-15.82; p<0.00001). The overall validities of the studies varied between 45-90%, meaning that there is potential for bias within all the included studies. Conclusion: Vasopressor agents can contribute to the development of PUs in critically ill patients in ICUs. Prolonged ICU stay was also associated with pressure ulcers in this specific patient group. Given the risk of bias within the included studies, further studies are needed to validate the findings of this review paper.
Article
Background Timing for renal replacement therapy (RRT) initiation for cardiac-surgery associated acute kidney surgery (CSA-AKI) is subject to debate. Evidence suggests earlier initiation leads to shorter length of stay (LoS). We investigated differences in healthcare costs associated with timing of RRT initiation in CSA-AKI. Methods A cost-consequences model compared costs of Early (<24 h) vs. Delayed (>24 h) RRT initiation. Data were from the ELAIN trial in Germany, and the HiDenIC database, a US multi-hospital database. Resource utilization was determined by RRT duration, ICU, and hospital LoS. All resources were costed from a US healthcare perspective. Extensive sensitivity analyses (SA) were conducted, notably regarding the proportion of patients not initiated on RRT with the Delayed strategy. Results Early RRT initiation exhibited cost savings compared to Delayed RRT initiation. With ELAIN data, savings reached -$122,188 (ranging from -$157,707 to -$74,763 in the SA). Findings were confirmed with HiDenIC data; Early RRT initiation showed savings of -$77,303 (ranging from -$108,971 to -$47,012 in the SA). Conclusions Our costing model indicates that Early RRT initiation for CSA-AKI may result in appreciable cost savings. Delaying RRT, in the setting of CSA-AKI, may lead to longer LoS and increased healthcare costs.
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Rationale: Diaphragm dysfunction is frequently observed in critically ill patients with difficult weaning from mechanical ventilation. Objectives: To evaluate the effects of temporary transvenous diaphragm neurostimulation on weaning outcome and maximal inspiratory pressure. Methods: Multicentre, open-label, randomised, controlled study. Patients aged ≥18 years on invasive mechanical ventilation for ≥4 days and having failed ≥2 weaning attempts received temporary transvenous diaphragm neurostimulation using a multi-electrode stimulating central venous catheter (bilateral phrenic stimulation) and standard of care (treatment) (N=57) or standard of care (control) (N=55). In 7 patients, the catheter could not be inserted and in 7 pacing therapy could not be delivered, consequently data were available for 43 patients. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients successfully weaned. Other endpoints were mechanical ventilation duration, 30-day survival, maximal inspiratory pressure, diaphragm thickening fraction, adverse events, and stimulation-related pain. Measurements and main results: The incidence of successful weaning was 82% (treatment) and 74% (control) (absolute difference [95% CI]: 7% [-10,25], P=0.59). Mechanical ventilation duration (mean±standard deviation) was 12.7±9.9 days and 14.1±10.8 days (P=0.50); maximal inspiratory pressure increased by 16.6 cmH2O and 4.8 cmH2O (difference [95% CI] 11.8 [5, 19] P=0.001); right hemidiaphragm thickening fraction during unassisted spontaneous breathing was +17% and -14% (P=0.006), without correlation with changes in maximal inspiratory pressure. Serious adverse event frequency was similar in both groups. Median stimulation-related pain in the treatment group was 0 (no pain). Conclusions: Temporary transvenous diaphragm neurostimulation did not increase the proportion of successful weaning from mechanical ventilation. It was associated with a significant increase in maximal inspiratory pressure suggesting reversal of the course of diaphragm dysfunction. Clinical trial registration available at www.clinicaltrials.gov, ID: NCT03096639.
Article
There has been a significant interest in the last decade in the use of viscoelastic tests (VETs) to determine the hemostatic competence of bleeding patients. Previously, common coagulation tests (CCTs) such as the prothrombin time (PT) and partial thromboplastin time (PTT) were used to assist in the guidance of blood component and hemostatic adjunctive therapy for these patients. However, the experience of decades of VET use in liver failure with transplantation, cardiac surgery, and trauma has now spread to obstetrical hemorrhage and congenital and acquired coagulopathies. Since CCTs measure only 5 to 10% of the lifespan of a clot, these assays have been found to be of limited use for acute surgical and medical conditions, whereby rapid results are required. However, there are medical indications for the PT/PTT that cannot be supplanted by VETs. Therefore, the choice of whether to use a CCT or a VET to guide blood component therapy or hemostatic adjunctive therapy may often require consideration of both methodologies. In this review, we provide examples of the relative indications for CCTs and VETs in monitoring hemostatic competence of bleeding patients.
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The objective of this study was to refine the APACHE (Acute Physiology, Age, Chronic Health Evaluation) methodology in order to more accurately predict hospital mortality risk for critically ill hospitalized adults. We prospectively collected data on 17,440 unselected adult medical/surgical intensive care unit (ICU) admissions at 40 US hospitals (14 volunteer tertiary-care institutions and 26 hospitals randomly chosen to represent intensive care services nationwide). We analyzed the relationship between the patient's likelihood of surviving to hospital discharge and the following predictive variables: major medical and surgical disease categories, acute physiologic abnormalities, age, preexisting functional limitations, major comorbidities, and treatment location immediately prior to ICU admission. The APACHE III prognostic system consists of two options: (1) an APACHE III score, which can provide initial risk stratification for severely ill hospitalized patients within independently defined patient groups; and (2) an APACHE III predictive equation, which uses APACHE III score and reference data on major disease categories and treatment location immediately prior to ICU admission to provide risk estimates for hospital mortality for individual ICU patients. A five-point increase in APACHE III score (range, 0 to 299) is independently associated with a statistically significant increase in the relative risk of hospital death (odds ratio, 1.10 to 1.78) within each of 78 major medical and surgical disease categories. The overall predictive accuracy of the first-day APACHE III equation was such that, within 24 h of ICU admission, 95 percent of ICU admissions could be given a risk estimate for hospital death that was within 3 percent of that actually observed (r2 = 0.41; receiver operating characteristic = 0.90). Recording changes in the APACHE III score on each subsequent day of ICU therapy provided daily updates in these risk estimates. When applied across the individual ICUs, the first-day APACHE III equation accounted for the majority of variation in observed death rates (r2 = 0.90, p less than 0.0001).
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This study evaluates the accuracy of costs derived from the ratio of costs to charges (RCCs), using costs based on relative value units (RVUs) as the "gold standard." We found that RCC-calculated costs were not a good basis for determining the costs of individual patients. However, when examining average costs per diagnosis-related group (DRG), RCCs performed better. For almost 70% of the DRGs, average RCC-calculated costs were within 10% of average RVU-calculated costs. RCCs were even more reliable for comparing the relative cost of patients in a DRG in one hospital to the average cost of patients in that DRG in a group of hospitals. Charges, or an overall hospital RCC (as opposed to the departmental RCCs we used in most of our analyses), were not a good basis for determining relative hospital costs.
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The outcome of patients receiving mechanical ventilation for particular indications has been studied, but the outcome in a large number of unselected, heterogeneous patients has not been reported. To determine the survival of patients receiving mechanical ventilation and the relative importance of factors influencing survival. Prospective cohort of consecutive adult patients admitted to 361 intensive care units who received mechanical ventilation for more than 12 hours between March 1, 1998, and March 31, 1998. Data were collected on each patient at initiation of mechanical ventilation and daily throughout the course of mechanical ventilation for up to 28 days. All-cause mortality during intensive care unit stay. Of the 15 757 patients admitted, a total of 5183 (33%) received mechanical ventilation for a mean (SD) duration of 5.9 (7.2) days. The mean (SD) length of stay in the intensive care unit was 11.2 (13.7) days. Overall mortality rate in the intensive care unit was 30.7% (1590 patients) for the entire population, 52% (120) in patients who received ventilation because of acute respiratory distress syndrome, and 22% (115) in patients who received ventilation for an exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Survival of unselected patients receiving mechanical ventilation for more than 12 hours was 69%. The main conditions independently associated with increased mortality were (1) factors present at the start of mechanical ventilation (odds ratio [OR], 2.98; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.44-3.63; P<.001 for coma), (2) factors related to patient management (OR, 3.67; 95% CI, 2.02-6.66; P<.001 for plateau airway pressure >35 cm H(2)O), and (3) developments occurring over the course of mechanical ventilation (OR, 8.71; 95% CI, 5.44-13.94; P<.001 for ratio of PaO(2) to fraction of inspired oxygen <100). Survival among mechanically ventilated patients depends not only on the factors present at the start of mechanical ventilation, but also on the development of complications and patient management in the intensive care unit.
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We forecast a slowdown in national health spending growth in 2002 and 2003, reflecting slower projected Medicare and private personal health spending growth. These factors outweigh higher projected Medicaid spending growth, caused by weak labor markets, and an expectation of continued high private health insurance premium inflation related to the underwriting cycle. Over the entire projection period, national health spending growth is still expected to outpace economic growth. The result is that the health share of gross domestic product is projected to increase from 14.1 percent in 2001 to 17.7 percent in 2012.
Article
Critical care resources in the United States are being rationed, that is, not all critical care expected to be beneficial is being provided to all patients who desire it. Although the extent of rationing is uncertain, it is an everyday occurrence in some hospitals and is likely to occur at least some of the time in many hospitals. Substantial evidence suggests that current rationing practices are highly subjective and perhaps inequitable. Critical care is widely believed to be beneficial to many patients, despite a striking dearth of supportive data. Since this type of care is being inequitably denied to some patients, hospitals should either adopt formal rationing guidelines or, alternatively, they should take clear steps to avoid rationing by altering the supply of or the demand for critical care. Reasonable arguments are presented in support of both approaches, as are suggestions for their implementation.(JAMA. 1989;261:2389-2395)
Article
The smearing estimate is proposed as a nonparametric estimate of the expected response on the untransformed scale after fitting a linear regression model on a transformed scale. The estimate is consistent under mild regularity conditions, and usually attains high efficiency relative to parametric estimates. It can be viewed as a low-premium insurance policy against departures from parametric distributional assumptions. A real-world example of predicting medical expenditures shows that the smearing estimate can outperform parametric estimates even when the parametric assumption is nearly satisfied.
Article
To estimate the incidence of acute respiratory failure (ARF) in the United States and to analyze 31-day hospital mortality among a cohort of patients with ARF. Design and setting: Retrospective cohort drawn from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample of 6. 4 million discharges from 904 representative nonfederal hospitals during 1994. All 61,223 patients in the sample whose discharge records indicated all of the following: acute respiratory distress or failure, mechanical ventilation, > or = 24 h of hospitalization, and age > or = 5 years. An estimated 329,766 patients discharged from nonfederal hospitals nationwide in 1994 met study criteria for ARF. The incidence of ARF was 137.1 hospitalizations per 100,000 US residents age > or = 5 years. Incidence increased nearly exponentially each decade until age 85 years. Overall, 35.9% of patients with ARF did not survive to hospital discharge. At 31 days, hospital mortality was 31.4%. According to the proportional hazards model, significant mortality hazards included age (> or = 80 years and > or = 30 years), multiorgan system failure (MOSF), HIV, chronic liver disease, and cancer. Hospital admission for coronary artery bypass, drug overdose, or trauma other than head injury or burns was associated with a reduced mortality hazard. Interaction was present between age and MOSF, trauma, and cancer. A point system derived from the hazard model classified patients into seven groups with distinct 31-day survival probabilities ranging from 24 to 99%. The incidence of ARF increases markedly with age and is especially high among persons > or = 65 years of age. Nonpulmonary hazards explain short-term (31-day) survival.
Article
Objective. —To determine the prevalence of intensive care unit (ICU)—acquired infections and the risk factors for these infections, identify the predominant infecting organisms, and evaluate the relationship between ICU-acquired infection and mortality.
Article
: Critical care services consume a large share of health-care resources, many of which are devoted to the care of ventilator-dependent patients who often require prolonged support. The precise determination of costs of mechanical ventilation is quite complex and may even be elusive. This results from several factors, including the difficulty inherent in separating the "technology" of mechanical ventilation from the reason for its use, variable cost accounting methodologies used by different institutions, and the overlap between direct and indirect costs that accrue. Furthermore, cost determinations of ventilator dependency must be distinguished from cost effectiveness, the latter linking clinical outcome and utility to the amount of resources expended. In view of the heightened concern for cost containment, impending health care reform, and changes in health care reimbursement, the pulmonary and critical care physician must become familiar with the economics of mechanical ventilation. Doing so will facilitate financial savings without sacrificing clinical quality. (C) Williams & Wilkins 1994. All Rights Reserved.
Article
Critical care resources in the United States are being rationed, that is, not all critical care expected to be beneficial is being provided to all patients who desire it. Although the extent of rationing is uncertain, it is an everyday occurrence in some hospitals and is likely to occur at least some of the time in many hospitals. Substantial evidence suggests that current rationing practices are highly subjective and perhaps inequitable. Critical care is widely believed to be beneficial to many patients, despite a striking dearth of supportive data. Since this type of care is being inequitably denied to some patients, hospitals should either adopt formal rationing guidelines or, alternatively, they should take clear steps to avoid rationing by altering the supply of or the demand for critical care. Reasonable arguments are presented in support of both approaches, as are suggestions for their implementation. KIE Considerable evidence supports the contention that U.S. hospitals ration critical care resources in an informal, often irrational and unfair manner. The value, efficacy, and cost of intensive care units are discussed and two options are proposed to tackle the problem of rationing. Hospitals should either establish formal, specific, and equitable rationing guidelines or, alternatively, develop plans to avoid rationing by increasing the supply of resources or by decreasing the demand for them. It is suggested that demand be decreased by more aggressive discharge or by a system of graded care rather than by denying admission. Arguments in favor of and against rationing are presented. It is concluded that, whichever option is chosen, plans should be developed openly, approved by appropriate supervisory bodies, and brought to the attention of hospital staff and patients.
Article
To determine the prevalence of intensive care unit (ICU)-acquired infections and the risk factors for these infections, identify the predominant infecting organisms, and evaluate the relationship between ICU-acquired infection and mortality. A 1-day point-prevalence study. Intensive care units in 17 countries in Western Europe, excluding coronary care units and pediatric and special care infant units. All patients (> 10 years of age) occupying an ICU bed over a 24-hour period. A total of 1417 ICUs provided 10 038 patient case reports. Rates of ICU-acquired infection, prescription of antimicrobials, resistance patterns of microbiological isolates, and potential risk factors for ICU-acquired infection and death. A total of 4501 patients (44.8%) were infected, and 2064 (20.6%) had ICU-acquired infection. Pneumonia (46.9%), lower respiratory tract infection (17.8%), urinary tract infection (17.6%), and bloodstream infection (12%) were the most frequent types of ICU infection reported. Most frequently reported micro-organisms were Enterobacteriaceae (34.4%), Staphylococcus aureus (30.1%;[60% resistant to methicillin], Pseudomonas aeruginosa (28.7%), coagulase-negative staphylococci (19.1%), and fungi (17.1%). Seven risk factors for ICU-acquired infection were identified: increasing length of ICU stay (> 48 hours), mechanical ventilation, diagnosis of trauma, central venous, pulmonary artery, and urinary catheterization, and stress ulcer prophylaxis. ICU-acquired pneumonia (odds ratio [OR], 1.91; 95% confidence interval[Cl], 1.6 to 2.29), clinical sepsis (OR, 3.50; 95% Cl, 1.71 to 7.18), and bloodstream infection (OR, 1.73; 95% Cl, 1.25 to 2.41) increased the risk of ICU death. ICU-acquired infection is common and often associated with microbiological isolates of resistant organisms. The potential effects on outcome emphasize the importance of specific measures for infection control in critically ill patients.
Article
To study methods for costing hospital services, specifically in relation to multi-unit studies of activity, case mix, severity of illness, outcome, and resource use in adult intensive care units (ICUs). Twenty published cost studies of adult ICUs. The studies are all published in English and are both European and American. Cost studies of adult ICUs published in international journals (English language). Literature survey, where the articles were obtained through MEDLINE and other database searches. Cost of intensive care therapy was compared across the 20 studies. However, as stressed in the article, to compare costs of intensive care therapy across units is not possible for a number of reasons. One of the reasons for this limitation is that the studies employed different approaches to costing and thereby introduced a methodologic bias. In addition, the costing methodology applied in the majority of the studies was wrongly specified in relation to the purpose and viewpoint of the studies. The methodologies for costing ICU therapy are flawed and fail to provide correct answers. In most studies, the study question is not adequately specified and the cost concept used in the studies is not tailored to the purposes of the study. Standardizing the cost model would lead to better, faster, and more reliable costing. This standardized cost model should not be rigid, but adaptable to different decision situations. A decision tree or taxonomy is proposed as a way toward better costing of ICU activity.
Article
Cleveland Health Quality Choice (CHQC) is a unique community-based program designed to provide more efficient delivery of healthcare services through routine collection and dissemination of selected patient interventions and outcomes. This effort, coordinated by a consortium of business, hospital, and medical leaders, provides comparative public data on hospital performance. In the ICU, this effort involves collection of Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) III, as well as severity and prognostic data. To date, results suggest that a higher percentage of patients admitted to the ICU are at low risk of death or adverse outcome when compared with a national benchmark using APACHE III. Risk-adjusted mortality rates are lower and length of stay is shorter than predicted. CHQC demonstrates that cooperative public efforts, undertaken by groups with often divergent interests and using objective risk estimates, can provide useful data for hospital quality improvement activities and market-based health reform efforts.
Article
In many ICUs, admission and discharge hinge on the need for intubation and ventilatory support. As few as 5% to 10% of ICU patients require prolonged mechanical ventilation, and this patient group consumes > or = 50% of ICU patient days and ICU resources. Prolonged ventilatory support and chronic ventilator dependency, both in the ICU and non-ICU settings, have a significant and growing impact on healthcare economics. In the United States, the need for prolonged mechanical ventilation is increasingly recognized as separate and distinct from the initial diagnosis and/or procedure that leads to hospitalization. This distinction has led to improved reimbursement under the prospective diagnosis-related group (DRG) system, and demands more precise accounting from healthcare providers responsible for these patients. Using both published and theoretical examples, mechanical ventilation in the United States is discussed, with a focus on cost containment. Included in the discussion are ventilator teams, standards of care, management protocols, stepdown units, rehabilitation units, and home care. The expanding role of total quality management (TQM) is also presented.
This paper explains practical approaches for collecting inpatient cost data for cost-of-illness and cost-effectiveness analyses. The economic definition of cost of an item is the value of the resources that are consumed in its production. Cost analysis should collect the resources hypothesized to be affected by the illness or intervention. The dollar value of these resources can also be estimated. Diagnosis-related group (DRG) reimbursements are not helpful when all study patients have the same DRG or when no DRG exists (e.g., nosocomial infection). Hospital charges are not a good surrogate for costs. Hence, data needed include resources used, charges, and cost-to-charge ratios, so that cost can be estimated. Resources used can be obtained from hospital information systems. For some resource use (e.g., physician services, pharmacy, and intravenous fluids), charges or cost-to-charge ratios may not be available, and an external standard may be needed to estimate the dollar value. For many types of resources, hospital financial systems provide both charges and cost-to-charge ratios. This yields an estimate of average cost (total cost divided by patient days) when marginal cost (change in variable cost per day of patient stay) is a better estimate of the value of the resources consumed. However, cost-to-charge ratios remain the only practical way of estimating cost in many circumstances and are commonly used in economic studies. Cost-of-illness estimates vary among the various nonrandomized study designs used. "Real-world" randomized trials are potentially useful to obtain advantages of randomization but avoid the protocol-induced biases of traditional double-blind controlled trials.
Article
Correcting the decrease in oxygen delivery from anemia using allogeneic RBC transfusions has been hypothesized to help with increased oxygen demands during weaning from mechanical ventilation. However, it is also possible that transfusions hinder the process because RBCs may not be able to adequately increase oxygen delivery. In this study, we determined whether a liberal RBC transfusion strategy improved outcomes related to mechanical ventilation. Seven hundred thirteen patients receiving mechanical ventilation, representing a subgroup of patients from a larger trial, were randomized to either a restrictive transfusion strategy, receiving allogeneic RBC transfusions at a hemoglobin concentration of 7.0 g/dL (and maintained between 7.0 g/dL and to 9.0 g/dL), or to a liberal transfusion strategy, receiving RBCs at 10.0 g/dL (and maintained between 10.0 g/dL and 12.0 g/dL). The larger trial was designed to evaluate transfusion practice rather than weaning per se. Baseline characteristics in the restrictive-strategy group (n = 357) and the liberal-strategy group (n = 356) were comparable. The average durations of mechanical ventilation were 8.3 +/- 8.1 days and 8.3 +/- 8.1 days (95% confidence interval [CI] around difference, - 0.79 to 1.68; p = 0.48), while ventilator-free days were 17.5 +/- 10.9 days and 16.1 +/- 11.4 days (95% CI around difference, - 3.07 to 0.21; p = 0.09) in the restrictive-strategy group vs the liberal-strategy group, respectively. Eighty-two percent of the patients in the restrictive-strategy group were considered successfully weaned and extubated for at least 24 h, compared to 78% for the liberal-strategy group (p = 0.19). The relative risk (RR) of extubation success in the restrictive-strategy group compared to the liberal-strategy group, adjusted for the confounding effects of age, APACHE (acute physiology and chronic health evaluation) II score, and comorbid illness, was 1.07 (95% CI, 0.96 to 1.26; p = 0.43). The adjusted RR of extubation success associated with restrictive transfusion in the 219 patients who received mechanical ventilation for > 7 days was 1.1 (95% CI, 0.84 to 1.45; p = 0.47). In this study, there was no evidence that a liberal RBC transfusion strategy decreased the duration of mechanical ventilation in a heterogeneous population of critically ill patients.
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Intensive care patients require therapy that can vary considerably in type, duration and cost, so making it extremely difficult to predict patient resource use. Few studies measure actual costs; usually average daily costs are calculated and these do not reflect the variation in resource use between individual patients. The aim of this study was to analyse a data set of 193 critically ill adult patients to look for associations between routinely collected descriptive data and patient-specific costs. Regression analysis was used to explore any relationships between average daily patient-specific costs and the following variables: duration of intensive care unit stay, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II scores in the first 24 h, gender, age, mechanical ventilation at any point during the stay, postoperative status, emergency admission and mortality. Overall, this analysis explained 33.6% of the variation in average daily costs. The additional costs of an extra day of care, mechanical ventilation, an extra point on the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, and survival were obtained.
Article
In patients undergoing open-heart surgery, allogeneic blood transfusion (ABT) may be related to an enhanced inflammatory response and impaired pulmonary function, resulting in a need for prolonged mechanical ventilation. Transfused red blood cell (RBC) supernatant, platelet supernatant or plasma components, may exercise varying effects on pulmonary function, because these fluids differ in their content of soluble biological-response modifiers. The records of 416 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft operations at the Massachusetts General Hospital were reviewed. Possible predictors and the number of days of postoperative ventilation, as well as the number of all transfused blood components, were recorded. The association between mechanical ventilation past the day of operation and the volume of transfused RBC supernatant, platelet supernatant, or plasma components, was calculated by logistic regression analyses. The volume of each transfused fluid differed (P < 0.0001) among patients ventilated for 0, 1, 2, 3, or > or = 4 days after the day of the operation. After adjusting for the effects of confounding factors, the volume of administered RBC supernatant was associated (P = 0.0312) with the likelihood of postoperative ventilation past the day of operation, but the volume of platelet supernatant, plasma components, or total transfused fluid was not (P = 0.1528, P = 0.1847, and P = 0.0504, respectively). These results are congruent with the hypotheses that ABT may impair postoperative pulmonary function and that any such adverse effect of ABT is probably mediated by the supernatant fluid of stored RBCs. Both hypotheses should be examined further, in future studies of the outcomes of ABT.
Article
Critical care providers are under increasing pressure to be attentive to cost concerns. The ICU consumes a significant amount of resources and, as such, is a frequently identified target of efforts to limit escalating healthcare costs. Attempts to reduce costs need not progress in a haphazard fashion. Rather, they can proceed in a logical, systematic manner with the assistance of formal economic studies. Cost-effectiveness analysis is one tool for these projects-it allows physicians to compare the financial consequences of different approaches to resource allocation. ICU physicians, therefore, must become familiar with the basic concepts that underlie cost-effectiveness analysis. Cost-effectiveness analyses that address many different aspects of critical care delivery are now commonly found in the critical care literature. With a framework for evaluating these studies, clinicians can better apply their findings to their own institutions.
Article
Length of stay data are increasingly used to monitor ICU economic performance. How such material is presented greatly affects its utility. To develop a weighted length of stay index and to estimate expected length of stay. To assess alternative ways to summarize weighted length of stay to evaluate ICU economic performance. Retrospective database study. Data for 751 ICU patients in 1998 at two hospitals used to develop weighted length of stay index. Data on 42,237 patients from 72 ICUs used as the basis of economic performance evaluation. Difference between actual and expected weighted length of stay, where expected weighted length of stay is based on patient clinical characteristics. Length of stay statistically explains approximately 85 to 90% of interpatient variation in hospital costs. The first ICU day is approximately four times as expensive, and other ICU days approximately 2.5 times as expensive, as non-ICU hospital days. In a regression model for weighted length of stay, patient clinical characteristics explain 26% of variation. ICU economic performance can be measured by excess weighted length of stay of a "typical" patient or by occurrence of long excess weighted lengths of stay. Although different summary measures of performance are highly correlated, choice of measure affects relative ranking of some ICUs' performance. Providers of statistical data on ICU economic performance should adjust length of stay for patient characteristics and provide multiple summary measures of the statistical distribution, including measures that address both the typical patient and outliers.
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To determine the attributable cost of ventilator-associated pneumonia from a hospital-based cost perspective, after adjusting for potential confounders. Patients admitted between January 19, 1998, and December 31, 1999, were followed prospectively for the occurrence of ventilator-associated pneumonia. Hospital costs were defined by using the hospital cost accounting database. The medical and surgical intensive care units at a suburban, tertiary care hospital. Patients requiring >24 hrs of mechanical ventilation. None. We measured occurrence of ventilator-associated pneumonia, in-hospital mortality rate, total intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital lengths of stay (LOS), and total hospital cost per patient. Ventilator-associated pneumonia occurred in 127 of 819 patients (15.5%). Compared with uninfected, ventilated patients, patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia had a higher Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score on admission (p <.001) and were more likely to require multiple intubations (p <.001), hemodialysis (p <.001), tracheostomy (p <.001), central venous catheters (p <.001), and corticosteroids (p <.001). Patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia were more likely to be bacteremic during their ICU stay (36 [28%] vs. 22 [3%]; p <.001). Patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia had significantly higher unadjusted ICU LOS (26 vs. 4 days; p <.001), hospital LOS (38 vs. 13 days; p <.001), mortality rate (64 [50%] vs. 237 [34%]; p <.001), and hospital costs (70,568 dollars vs. 21,620 dollars, p <.001). Multiple linear regression, controlling for other factors that may affect costs, estimated the attributable cost of ventilator-associated pneumonia to be 11,897 dollars (95% confidence interval = 5,265 dollars-26,214 dollars; p <.001). Patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia had significantly longer ICU and hospital LOS, with higher crude hospital cost and mortality rate compared with uninfected patients. After we adjusted for underlying severity of illness, the attributable cost of ventilator-associated pneumonia was approximately 11,897 dollars.
Article
A life-threatening attack of asthma that leads to intensive care unit (ICU) admission, intubation, or both identifies patients at high risk of subsequent morbidity and mortality and represents a major cost burden. To assess the rates, characteristics, and costs of ICU admissions and intubations among asthma-related hospitalizations. This analysis was performed using a database of 215 hospitals representing more than 3 million annual inpatient visits. Asthma-related hospital admissions were identified by a primary diagnosis code for asthma during 2000. Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) for predictors of ICU admission, intubation, and in-hospital mortality. Ordinary least squares regression was used to estimate adjusted mean costs and length of stay. Of 29,430 admissions with a primary diagnosis of asthma, 10.1% were admitted to the ICU and 2.1% were intubated. The risk of in-hospital death was significantly greater in patients who were intubated but not admitted to the ICU (OR, 96.20; 95% confidence interval [CI], 50.24-184.20), those who were admitted to the ICU and intubated (OR, 62.69; 95% CI, 38.17-102.96), and patients with more severe comorbidities (OR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.38-1.70). On average, intubated patients stayed in the hospital 4.5 days longer and incurred more than $11,000 in additional costs; patients admitted to the ICU stayed 1 day longer and accounted for $3,000 in additional costs vs standard admissions. The inpatient mortality, morbidity, and cost burden of life-threatening asthma in the United States is considerable. This study characterizes patients with asthma at risk of ICU admissions and intubations. Appropriate recognition and treatment are needed to prevent these severe and potentially life-threatening events.
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