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A Patient with TP53 Germline Mutation Developed Bowen’s Disease and Myelodysplastic Syndrome with Myelofibrosis after Chemotherapy against Ovarian Cancer

4th Department of Internal Medicine, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, Japan.
Internal Medicine (Impact Factor: 0.9). 06/2005; 44(5):490-5. DOI: 10.2169/internalmedicine.44.490
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Here we report a case of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) with myelofibrosis associated with Bowen's disease. A female patient had undergone an operation and chemotherapy for ovarian cancer when she was 65 years old, and she developed MDS at the age of 70 years old. PCR-single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells, a Bowen's disease lesion, and normal skin showed an abnormal peak in TP53 exon5. Direct sequencing revealed that they all had missense mutation in codon 175 (G to A) of arginine switched to histidine, suggesting a germline mutation of TP53. It was speculated that p53 function was lost by TP53 germline mutation with the loss of a wild type allele induced by the chemotherapy against ovarian cancer, leading to the development of MDS. No therapeutic effects of low dose melphalan or cyclosporine A on MDS were observed, however one month of 30 mg/day prednisolone administration induced a hematological response.

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    • "hat TP53 germline mutations confer an increased risk of therapy - related neoplasms . Subsequent reports described the occurrence of t - MNs in singular cases with deleterious TP53 germ - line mutations but no consistent asso - ciation has been reported to date ( Dockhorn - Dworniczak et al . , 1996 ; Felix et al . , 1996 ; Hisada et al . , 1998 ; Kuribayashi et al . , 2005 ; Talwalkar et al . , 2010 ) . NF1 , Costello - , LEOPARD - and Noonan syndrome are developmental disorders with increased cancer and leu - kaemia risk that are associated with germline mutations in genes of the RAS - MAPK pathway ( Lauchle et al . , 2006 ; Zebisch et al . , 2007 ; Denayer et al . , 2008 ) . Single patients with NF1 who"
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    ABSTRACT: Therapy-related myeloid neoplasms (t-MNs) are serious long-term consequences of cytotoxic treatments for an antecedent disorder. t-MNs are observed after ionizing radiation as well as conventional chemotherapy including alkylating agents, topoisomerase-II-inhibitors and antimetabolites. In addition, adjuvant use of recombinant human granulocyte-colony stimulating factor may also increase the risk of t-MNs. There is clinical and biological overlap between t-MNs and high-risk de novo myelodysplastic syndromes and acute myeloid leukaemia suggesting similar mechanisms of leukaemogenesis. Human studies and animal models point to a prominent role of genetic susceptibilty in the pathogenesis of t-MNs. Common genetic variants have been identified that modulate t-MN risk, and t-MNs have been observed in some cancer predisposition syndromes. In either case, establishing a leukaemic phenotype requires acquisition of somatic mutations - most likely induced by the cytotoxic treatment. Knowledge of the specific nature of the initiating exposure has allowed the identification of crucial pathogenetic mechanisms and for these to be modelled in vitro and in vivo. Prognosis of patients with t-MNs is dismal and at present, the only curative approach for the majority of these individuals is haematopoietic stem cell transplantation, which is characterized by high transplant-related mortality rates. Novel transplantation strategies using reduced intensity conditioning regimens as well as novel drugs - demethylating agents and targeted therapies - await clinical testing and may improve outcome. Ultimately, individual assessment of genetic risk factors may translate into tailored therapies and establish a strategy for reducing t-MN incidences without jeopardizing therapeutic success rates for the primary disorders.
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    ABSTRACT: Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS), characterized by predisposition to early onset of a variety of malignancies, is usually associated with germline mutation of the tumor-suppressor gene, TP53. Mutation carriers are at increased risk of multiple primary tumors, many of which arise in previous radiation-therapy sites. In patients with LFS, acute myeloid leukemia is uncommon and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is rare. To evaluate the morphologic, cytogenetic, and molecular diagnostic findings of 3 unique cases of MDS arising in patients with germline TP53 mutation, 2 with classic LFS. We searched the Li-Fraumeni Syndrome Registry in the Department of Genetics at the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center (Houston, Texas) and identified 3 patients with documented germline TP53 mutations or LFS who had developed MDS during a period of 6 years (2000-2005). The clinical, cytogenetic, and molecular diagnostic data and bone marrow aspirate smears and biopsies on all patients were reviewed. Immunohistochemical staining with antibody to p53 was also performed. Two patients met the criteria for classic LFS; one had no history of malignancy in first-degree relatives. The MDS followed chemotherapy and radiation therapy and progressed to acute myeloid leukemia in 2 patients. Cytogenetic analysis demonstrated chromosome 5 abnormalities in a complex karyotype in all cases. Two patients died, one of acute myeloid leukemia and one with glioblastoma multiforme, MDS, and persistent pancytopenia. Patients with LFS may develop MDS, which is most likely therapy-related and is associated with cytogenetic markers of poor prognosis.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2010 · Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
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