Nanostructures can be patterned with focused electron or ion beams in thin, stable, conformal films of water ice grown on silicon. We use these patterns to reliably fabricate sub-20 nm wide metal lines and exceptionally well-defined, sub-10 nanometer beam-induced chemical surface transformations. We argue more generally that solid-phase condensed gases of low sublimation energy are ideal materials for nanoscale patterning, and water, quite remarkably, may be among the most useful.
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"Though metal halides offer extremely high resolution, the film is found to be degraded by humidity after long (several weeks) exposure to air. More recently, ice and frozen carbon dioxide were shown to behave as an electron beam resist without the need of a development step [15-18]. However, they both require significant modification of the EBL system to maintain a low temperature, which greatly limits their application. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Due to the lack of feedback, conventional electron beam lithography (EBL) is a 'blind' open-loop process where the exposed pattern is examined only after ex situ resist development, which is too late for any improvement. Here, we report that self-developing nitrocellulose resist, for which the pattern shows up right after exposure without ex situ development, can be used as in situ feedback on the e-beam distortion and enlargement. We first exposed identical test pattern in nitrocellulose at different locations within the writing field; then, we examined in situ at high magnification the exposed patterns and adjusted the beam (notably working distance) accordingly. The process was repeated until we achieved a relatively uniform shape/size distribution of the exposed pattern across the entire writing field. Once the beam was optimized using nitrocellulose resist, under the same optimal condition, we exposed the common resist PMMA. We achieved approximately 80-nm resolution across the entire writing field of 1 mm x 1 mm, as compared to 210 nm without the beam optimization process.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · Nanoscale Research Letters
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A write, read, and erase nanolithographic method, combining in situ electrodeposition of metal nanostructures with atomic force microscopy (AFM) nanoshaving of a 1-hexadecanethiol (HDT) self-assembled monolayer (SAM) on Au(111) in an aqueous solution, is reported. The AFM tip defines the local positioning of nanotemplates via the irreversible removal of HDT molecules. Nanotemplates with lateral dimensions as narrow as 25 nm are created. The electroactive nanotemplates determine the size, shape, and position of the metal nanostructures. The potential applied to the substrate controls the amount of metal deposited and the kinetics of the deposition. Metal nanostructures can be reversibly and repeatedly electrodeposited and stripped out of the nanotemplates by applying appropriate potentials.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Micropatterning of functional polymer materials by micromolding in capillaries (MIMIC) with ice mold is reported in this paper. Ice mold was selected due to its thaw or sublimation. Thus, the mold can be easily removed. Furthermore, the polymer solution did not react with, swell, or adhere to the ice mold, so the method is suitable for many kinds of materials (such as P3HT, PMMA Alq3/PVK, PEDOT: PSS, PS, P2VP, etc.). Freestanding polymer microstructures, binary polymer pattern, and microchannels have been fabricated by the use of ice mold freely.
No preview · Article · Oct 2006 · Applied Surface Science