Nanometer Patterning with Ice

Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
Nano Letters (Impact Factor: 13.59). 07/2005; 5(6):1157-60. DOI: 10.1021/nl050405n
Source: PubMed


Nanostructures can be patterned with focused electron or ion beams in thin, stable, conformal films of water ice grown on silicon. We use these patterns to reliably fabricate sub-20 nm wide metal lines and exceptionally well-defined, sub-10 nanometer beam-induced chemical surface transformations. We argue more generally that solid-phase condensed gases of low sublimation energy are ideal materials for nanoscale patterning, and water, quite remarkably, may be among the most useful.

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