Hessian fly resistance gene H13 is mapped to a distal cluster of resistance genes in chromosome 6DS of wheat. Theor Appl Genet

Department of Entomology and Plant Science and Entomology Research Unit, USDA-ARS, Kansas State University, Manhattan, 66506, USA.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics (Impact Factor: 3.79). 08/2005; 111(2):243-9. DOI: 10.1007/s00122-005-2009-5
Source: PubMed


H13 is inherited as a major dominant resistance gene in wheat. It was previously mapped to chromosome 6DL and expresses a high level of antibiosis against Hessian fly (Hf) [Mayetiola destructor (Say)] larvae. The objective of this study was to identify tightly linked molecular markers for marker-assisted selection in wheat breeding and as a starting point toward the map-based cloning of H13. Fifty-two chromosome 6D-specific microsatellite (simple sequence repeat) markers were tested for linkage to H13 using near-isogenic lines Molly (PI 562619) and Newton-207, and a segregating population consisting of 192 F2:3 families derived from the cross PI 372129 (Dn4) × Molly (H13). Marker Xcfd132 co-segregated with H13, and several other markers were tightly linked to H13 in the distal region of wheat chromosome 6DS. Deletion analysis assigned H13 to a small region closely proximal to the breakpoint of del6DS-6 (FL 0.99). Further evaluation and comparison of the H13-linked markers revealed that the same chromosome region may also contain H23 in KS89WGRC03, an unnamed H gene (H
) in KS89WGRC04, the wheat curl mite resistance gene Cmc4, and a defense response gene Ppo for polyphenol oxidase. Thus, these genes comprise a cluster of arthropod resistance genes. Marker analysis also revealed that a very small intercalary chromosomal segment carrying H13 was transferred from the H13 donor parent to the wheat line Molly.

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    • "Previous investigations indicated that the wheat R gene H13 has an Avr gene cognate that would be an excellent candidate for a map-based cloning effort [28], [29]. H13 itself is a simply inherited dominant R gene located in a cluster of genes encoding NB and LRR motifs on wheat chromosome 6DS [30], [31]. Its Avr cognate (vH13) was previously mapped between two molecular markers (124 and 134) on the short arm of HF chromosome X2 (Figure 1). "
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    ABSTRACT: Highly specialized obligate plant-parasites exist within several groups of arthropods (insects and mites). Many of these are important pests, but the molecular basis of their parasitism and its evolution are poorly understood. One hypothesis is that plant parasitic arthropods use effector proteins to defeat basal plant immunity and modulate plant growth. Because avirulence (Avr) gene discovery is a reliable method of effector identification, we tested this hypothesis using high-resolution molecular genetic mapping of an Avr gene (vH13) in the Hessian fly (HF, Mayetiola destructor), an important gall midge pest of wheat (Triticum spp.). Chromosome walking resolved the position of vH13, and revealed alleles that determine whether HF larvae are virulent (survive) or avirulent (die) on wheat seedlings carrying the wheat H13 resistance gene. Association mapping found three independent insertions in vH13 that appear to be responsible for H13-virulence in field populations. We observed vH13 transcription in H13-avirulent larvae and the salivary glands of H13-avirulent larvae, but not in H13-virulent larvae. RNA-interference-knockdown of vH13 transcripts allowed some H13-avirulent larvae to escape H13-directed resistance. vH13 is the first Avr gene identified in an arthropod. It encodes a small modular protein with no sequence similarities to other proteins in GenBank. These data clearly support the hypothesis that an effector-based strategy has evolved in multiple lineages of plant parasites, including arthropods.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · PLoS ONE
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    • "Parental lines and 154 F6:8 RILs were evaluated for phenotypic reaction to Hessian fly infestation in growth chambers at 18 ± 1°C with a 14 h:10 h (light: dark) photoperiod as described previously [20,34,69]. Briefly, seedling plants were infested with mated Hessian fly females. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor) is one of the most destructive pests of wheat. The genes encoding 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid reductase (OPR) and lipoxygenase (LOX) play critical roles in insect resistance pathways in higher plants, but little is known about genes controlling resistance to Hessian fly in wheat. Results In this study, 154 F6:8 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) generated from a cross between two cultivars, ‘Jagger’ and ‘2174’ of hexaploid wheat (2n = 6 × =42; AABBDD), were used to map genes associated with resistance to Hessian fly. Two QTLs were identified. The first one was a major QTL on chromosome 1A (QHf.osu-1A), which explained 70% of the total phenotypic variation. The resistant allele at this locus in cultivar 2174 could be orthologous to one or more of the previously mapped resistance genes (H9, H10, H11, H16, and H17) in tetraploid wheat. The second QTL was a minor QTL on chromosome 2A (QHf.osu-2A), which accounted for 18% of the total phenotypic variation. The resistant allele at this locus in 2174 is collinear to an Yr17-containing-fragment translocated from chromosome 2N of Triticum ventricosum (2n = 4 × =28; DDNN) in Jagger. Genetic mapping results showed that two OPR genes, TaOPR1-A and TaOPR2-A, were tightly associated with QHf.osu-1A and QHf.osu-2A, respectively. Another OPR gene and three LOX genes were mapped but not associated with Hessian fly resistance in the segregating population. Conclusions This study has located two major QTLs/genes in bread wheat that can be directly used in wheat breeding programs and has also provided insights for the genetic association and disassociation of Hessian fly resistance with OPR and LOX genes in wheat.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2013 · BMC Genomics
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    • "The plant becomes resistant only when it possesses a resistance gene able to mediate recognition of a specific biotype of Hessian fly (Williams et al., 2002); otherwise the plant is susceptible to attack. More than 32 unique resistance genes (H genes) have been discovered in wheat and its wild relatives, and ancestors (Berzonsky et al., 2003; Sardesai et al., 2005; Liu et al., 2005). "
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    ABSTRACT: The interaction between Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) involves a gene-for-gene resistance mechanism. The incompatible interaction leading to resistance involves up-regulation of several Hfr (Hessian fly responsive) genes encoding proteins with potential insecticidal activity. The encoded proteins HFR-1, HFR-2 and HFR-3 all possess lectin-like domains. HFR-1 and HFR-3 were produced as recombinant proteins using Escherichia coli and Pichia pastoris, respectively as expression hosts. Purified recombinant proteins were assayed for insecticidal effects towards cereal aphid (Sitobion avenae), an insect to which wheat shows only tolerance. Both HFR-1 and HFR-3 were found to be insecticidal towards S. avenae when fed in artificial diet. Although HFR-3 has sequence similarity and similar chitin-binding activity to wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), the latter protein was almost non-toxic to S. avenae. HFR-3 binds strongly to aphid midguts after ingestion, whereas WGA binds but does not persist over a feed-chase period. Quantitative PCR showed that Hfr-3 mRNA does not increase in level after cereal aphid infestation. The results suggest that the lack of effective resistance to cereal aphid in wheat is not due to an absence of genes encoding suitable insecticidal proteins, but results from a failure to up-regulate gene expression in response to aphid attack.
    Full-text · Article · May 2012 · Journal of insect physiology
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