NPY-induced feeding: Pharmacological characterization using selective opioid antagonists and antisense probes in rats
Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York, United States Peptides
(Impact Factor: 2.62).
08/2005; 26(7):1167-75. DOI: 10.1016/j.peptides.2005.01.017
The ability of neuropeptide Y to potently stimulate food intake is dependent in part upon the functioning of mu and kappa opioid receptors. The combined use of selective opioid antagonists directed against mu, delta or kappa receptors and antisense probes directed against specific exons of the MOR-1, DOR-1, KOR-1 and KOR-3/ORL-1 opioid receptor genes has been successful in characterizing the precise receptor subpopulations mediating feeding elicited by opioid peptides and agonists as well as homeostatic challenges. The present study examined the dose-dependent (5-80 nmol) cerebroventricular actions of general and selective mu, delta, and kappa1 opioid receptor antagonists together with antisense probes directed against each of the four exons of the MOR-1 opioid receptor gene and each of the three exons of the DOR-1, KOR-1, and KOR-3/ORL-1 opioid receptor genes upon feeding elicited by cerebroventricular NPY (0.47 nmol, 2 ug). NPY-induced feeding was dose-dependently decreased and sometimes eliminated following pretreatment with general, mu, delta, and kappa1 opioid receptor antagonists. Moreover, NPY-induced feeding was significantly and markedly reduced by antisense probes directed against exons 1, 2, and 3 of the MOR-1 gene, exons 1 and 2 of the DOR-1 gene, exons 1, 2, and 3 of the KOR-1 gene, and exon 3 of the KOR-3/ORL-1 gene. Thus, whereas the opioid peptides, beta-endorphin and dynorphin A(1-17) elicit feeding responses that are respectively more dependent upon mu and kappa opioid receptors and their genes, the opioid mediation of NPY-induced feeding appears to involve all three major opioid receptor subtypes in a manner similar to that observed for feeding responses following glucoprivation or lipoprivation.
Available from: Xuezhi Kang
- "Interestingly, the reductions in kidney/body weight ratio appeared earlier in the DOR-treated kidneys when compared to controls. Since opioid agents may affect feeding and appetite , , it is likely that UFP-512 influences the animal’s feeding through a DOR signaling pathway. "
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ABSTRACT: Hypoxic/ischemic injury to kidney is a frequently encountered clinical problem with limited therapeutic options. Since microRNAs are differentially involved in hypoxic/ischemic events and δ-opioid receptor (DOR) activation is known to protect against hypoxic/ischemic injury, we speculated on the involvement of DOR activation in altering the microRNA (miRNA) expression in kidney under hypoxic condition. We selected 31 miRNAs based on microarray data for quantitative PCR analysis. Among them, 14 miRNAs were significantly altered after prolonged hypoxia, DOR activation or a combination of both. We found that 1) DOR activation alters miRNA expression profiles in normoxic conditions; 2) hypoxia differentially alters miRNA expression depending on the duration of hypoxia; and 3) DOR activation can modify hypoxia-induced changes in miRNA expression. For example, 10-day hypoxia reduced the level of miR-212 by over 70%, while DOR activation could mimic such reduction even in normoxic kidney. In contrast, the same stress increased miR-29a by >100%, which was reversed following DOR activation. These first data suggest that hypoxia comprehensively modifies the miRNA profile within the kidney, which can be mimicked or modified by DOR activation. Ascertaining the targeted pathways that regulate the diverse cellular and molecular functions of miRNA may provide new insights into potential therapies for hypoxic/ischemic injury of the kidney.
Available from: Stefano Fiorucci
- "A mismatched antisense was used as control (Table 1). All antisense olygodeoxynucleotides were administered i.c.v. in dose of 10 μg in 10 μl volume saline [50,52,53]. Treatment with antisenses was performed on day 1, 3 and 5 and the behavioral test was performed at day 6  (Additional file 3). "
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ABSTRACT: Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) is a gaseous neuro-mediator that exerts analgesic effects in rodent models of visceral pain by activating KATP channels. A body of evidence support the notion that KATP channels interact with endogenous opioids. Whether H2S-induced analgesia involves opioid receptors is unknown.
The perception of painful sensation induced by colorectal distension (CRD) in conscious rats was measured by assessing the abdominal withdrawal reflex. The contribution of opioid receptors to H2S-induced analgesia was investigated by administering rats with selective mu, kappa and delta opioid receptor antagonists and antisenses. To investigate whether H2S causes mu opioid receptor (MOR) transactivation, the neuronal like cells SKNMCs were challenged with H2S in the presence of MOR agonist (DAMGO) or antagonist (CTAP). MOR activation and phosphorylation, its association to beta arrestin and internalization were measured.
H2S exerted a potent analgesic effects on CRD-induced pain. H2S-induced analgesia required the activation of the opioid system. By pharmacological and molecular analyses, a robust inhibition of H2S-induced analgesia was observed in response to central administration of CTAP and MOR antisense, while kappa and delta receptors were less involved. H2S caused MOR transactivation and internalization in SKNMCs by a mechanism that required AKT phosphorylation. MOR transactivation was inhibited by LY294002, a PI3K inhibitor, and glibenclamide, a KATP channels blocker.
This study provides pharmacological and molecular evidence that antinociception exerted by H2S in a rodent model of visceral pain is modulated by the transactivation of MOR. This observation provides support for development of new pharmacological approaches to visceral pain.
Available from: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
- "In support of this, it has recently been demonstrated that NPY release from rat hypothalamic explants in vitro is stimulated by the cannabinoid agonist, anandamide, and inhibited by the antagonist AM 251 (Gamber et al. 2005). Furthermore, NPY-induced feeding can be strongly decreased with pre-treatment of rats with different (mu, kappa and delta) opioid receptor antagonists (Israel et al. 2005). Finally, the NPY system interacts with a number of other orexigenic systems (reviewed in Beck 2005). "
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ABSTRACT: Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is one the most potent orexigenic peptides found in the brain. It stimulates food intake with a preferential effect on carbohydrate intake. It decreases latency to eat, increases motivation to eat and delays satiety by augmenting meal size. The effects on feeding are mediated through at least two receptors, the Y1 and Y5 receptors. The NPY system for feeding regulation is mostly located in the hypothalamus. It is formed of the arcuate nucleus (ARC), where the peptide is synthesized, and the paraventricular (PVN), dorsomedial (DMN) and ventromedial (VMN) nuclei and perifornical area where it is active. This activity is modulated by the hindbrain and limbic structures. It is dependent on energy availability, e.g. upregulation with food deprivation or restriction, and return to baseline with refeeding. It is also sensitive to diet composition with variable effects of carbohydrates and fats. Leptin signalling and glucose sensing which are directly linked to diet type are the most important factors involved in its regulation. Absence of leptin signalling in obesity models due to gene mutation either at the receptor level, as in the Zucker rat, the Koletsky rat or the db/db mouse, or at the peptide level, as in ob/ob mouse, is associated with increased mRNA abundance, peptide content and/or release in the ARC or PVN. Other genetic obesity models, such as the Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rat, the agouti mouse or the tubby mouse, are characterized by a diminution in NPY expression in the ARC nucleus and by a significant increase in the DMN. Further studies are necessary to determine the exact role of NPY in these latter models. Long-term exposure to high-fat or high-energy palatable diets leads to the development of adiposity and is associated with a decrease in hypothalamic NPY content or expression, consistent with the existence of a counter-regulatory mechanism to diminish energy intake and limit obesity development. On the other hand, an overactive NPY system (increased mRNA expression in the ARC associated with an upregulation of the receptors) is characteristic of rats or rodent strains sensitive to dietary-induced obesity. Finally, NPY appears to play an important role in body weight and feeding regulation, and while it does not constitute the only target for drug treatment of obesity, it may nevertheless provide a useful target in conjunction with others.
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