Regulation of urokinase expression by phosphoglycerate kinase is independent of its catalytic activity
Posttranscriptional regulation of urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) mRNA involves the interaction of a uPAR mRNA coding region sequence with phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK), a 50-kDa uPAR mRNA binding protein. PGK catalyzes a reversible transfer of a phosphoryl group from 1,3-biphosphoglycerate to ADP in the glycolytic pathway. Our previous studies showed that overexpression of PGK in uPAR-overproducing H157 lung carcinoma cells results in decreased cytoplasmic uPAR mRNA and cell surface uPAR protein expression through destabilization of the mRNA. In order to determine the role of PGK enzymatic activity on uPAR mRNA stability we mutated PGK by changing amino acid P204H and amino acid D219A. The mutant proteins were expressed in Epicurian coli BL21 cells, and the purified proteins were analyzed for PGK activity. We found that mutation of amino acid P204H and D219A reduced PGK activity by 99 and 83%, respectively. By gel mobility shift and Northwestern assay, we found that the mutant proteins were able to bind to uPAR mRNA as effectively as wild-type PGK. Overexpression of mutant, inactive PGK in H157 cells reduced cell surface uPAR protein as well as uPAR mRNA expression. Run-on transcription analysis indicated that overexpression of mutant PGKs fails to alter the rate of synthesis of uPAR mRNA, whereas transcription chase experiments demonstrated that both mutants and wild-type PGK reduce the stability of the uPAR mRNA transcripts to a similar extent. Overexpression of mutant PGK also inhibited the rate of DNA synthesis and the invasion-migration ratio. These results demonstrate that uPAR mRNA binding activity as well as PGK-mediated regulation of uPAR mRNA are independent of PGK enzymatic activity.
Available from: Kuang-Hui Sun
- "After penetration into living cells, anti-dsDNA may react with two mRNA binding proteins, hnRNP A2  and PGK-1 (this study). In normal T cells, hnRNP A2 and PGK-1 may specifically interact with the reiterated AUUUA sequences in the 3V-UTR of labile mRNAs   and enhance the stability of interleukin-2  mRNA. However, the binding of anti-dsDNA with hnRNP A2 might reduce the stability of IL-2 mRNA and inhibit IL-2 production but promote IL-10 production. "
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ABSTRACT: Anti-double strand DNA antibodies (anti-dsDNA) involve in lupus nephritis. However, their role in tissue damage mechanism remains unclear. In this study, a 45-kDa cognate antigen of anti-dsDNA monoclonal antibodies 9D7 was identified by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and determined to be human phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK-1) by MALDI-TOF analysis. The binding of 9D7 to PGK-1 was not affected by DNase I but was inhibited by thymus dsDNA. Human SLE sera with high anti-dsDNA titers had a high affinity with PGK. In activated Jurkat T cells, 9D7 decreased the PGK-1 mRNA production and IL-2 promoter activity. Reduction in IL-2 gene expression and protein production were observed in the 9D7-treated cells. Because PGK-1 deficiency may cause mental tardy and hemolytic anemia, interaction between anti-dsDNA and PGK-1 may be important in lupus pathogenesis. Moreover, reduction in IL-2 production by anti-dsDNA suggests their role in increasing infection rate and decreasing proper generation of activation-induced cell death.
Available from: Jason C Huang
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ABSTRACT: Internalization of autoantibodies against double-stranded DNA (anti-dsDNA) is crucial to the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus. Anti-dsDNA may bind to cell-surface targets in order to facilitate the subsequent cell penetration of the anti-dsDNA. In this study, we observed that the 9D7 monoclonal anti-dsDNA autoantibody (9D7 mAb) penetrates into Jurkat cells via a novel alternative pathway. Endocytosis inhibitors or a lipid-raft inhibitor did not significantly change the penetration of 9D7 mAb into the Jurkat cells. However, heparin sulfate, chondroitin sulfate B, decaarginine and chondroitinase ABC significantly suppressed the internalization and the 9D7 mAb inhibited the internalization of Tat-GFP. Moreover, the penetration of the 9D7 mAb was significantly reduced in proteoglycan-deficient cells (pgs A-745). Positively charged amino acids including arginine are commonly found in the CDR of the 9D7 mAb. Point mutations to the arginine residues in the CDR of the H chain of the recombinant 9D7 mAb significantly attenuated its DNA-binding and cell-penetration abilities. These findings indicate that cell penetration of anti-dsDNA is due to the electrostatic interactions of arginine residues in the CDR with the negatively charged sulfated polysaccharides on the cell surface.
Available from: Winnie Yang
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ABSTRACT: In addition to the known function in the glycolytic pathway, phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK-1) promotes reduction of plasmin disulfide bonds leading to angiostatin formation and inhibition of tumor angiogenesis. In this study, the effects of PGK-1 on anti- tumor immunity against lung cancer were evaluated using the Tet-Off control of PGK-1 expression in the Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC-1). There was no significant difference in cell proliferation between parental LLC-1 and LLC-1 transduced with PGK-1 (PGK-LLC-1). However, expression of PGK-1 was found to limit tumor growth in mice subcutaneously injected with the cell lines and tumor growth was restored after doxycycline treatment. In addition, the cell invasion ability of PGK-LLC-1 became weaker than that of LLC-1. Expressions of COX-2, TGF-beta1 and PGE2 were all found to be down-regulated in PGK-LLC-1. PGK-LLC-1 cells treated with doxycycline recovered their COX-2 protein expression. In the presence of conditioned medium from PGK-LLC-1, the endothelial cell migration was reduced. Moreover, PGK-LLC-1 also stimulated T lymphocytes to express higher levels of Th1 cytokine (IFN-gamma) and lower levels of IL-10 in comparison with parental LLC-1. PGK-LLC-1 cells restored the growth rate in immunodeficient mice when compared with the growth rate in normal mice. In the tissue sections, reduced COX-2 expressions and marked infiltrated CD3 T lymphocytes were observed in the PGK-LLC-1 injected group. These findings indicate that overexpression of PGK-1 in LLC-1 reduces the COX-2 expression, and, in turn, affect PGE2, cell invasion, angiogenesis, and the immune functions, and finally inhibit the tumor progression.
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