Edghill-Smith, Y. et al. Smallpox vaccine-induced antibodies are necessary and sufficient for protection against monkeypox virus. Nat. Med. 11, 740-747

Animal Models & Retroviral Vaccines Section, National Cancer Institute, 41/D804, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.
Nature Medicine (Impact Factor: 27.36). 08/2005; 11(7):740-7. DOI: 10.1038/nm1261
Source: PubMed


Vaccination with live vaccinia virus affords long-lasting protection against variola virus, the agent of smallpox. Its mode of protection in humans, however, has not been clearly defined. Here we report that vaccinia-specific B-cell responses are essential for protection of macaques from monkeypox virus, a variola virus ortholog. Antibody-mediated depletion of B cells, but not CD4+ or CD8+ T cells, abrogated vaccine-induced protection from a lethal intravenous challenge with monkeypox virus. In addition, passive transfer of human vaccinia-neutralizing antibodies protected nonimmunized macaques from severe disease. Thus, vaccines able to induce long-lasting protective antibody responses may constitute realistic alternatives to the currently available smallpox vaccine (Dryvax).

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Available from: Chris Whitehouse, Sep 29, 2014
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    • "In particular, the L1 and A27 proteins on MVs and the A33 and B5 proteins on EVs are involved in the attachment, fusion and penetration of the virus into target cells [20,21]. Combined DNA-based vaccines expressing these four proteins are more protective than vaccines carrying individual immunogens [22,23], possibly because of the induction of synergistic antibodies that can act at the different infection phases, both at the initial exposure, and during viral dissemination [24,25]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background The traditional smallpox vaccine, administered by scarification, was discontinued in the general population from 1980, because of the absence of new smallpox cases. However, the development of an effective prophylactic vaccine against smallpox is still necessary, to protect from the threat of deliberate release of the variola virus for bioterrorism and from new zoonotic infections, and to improve the safety of the traditional vaccine. Preventive vaccination still remains the most effective control and new vectors have been developed to generate recombinant vaccines against smallpox that induce the same immunogenicity as the traditional one. As protective antibodies are mainly directed against the surface proteins of the two infectious forms of vaccinia, the intracellular mature virions and the extracellular virions, combined proteins from these viral forms can be used to better elicit a complete and protective immunity. Methods Four novel viral recombinants were constructed based on the fowlpox genetic background, which independently express the vaccinia virus L1 and A27 proteins present on the mature virions, and the A33 and B5 proteins present on the extracellular virions. The correct expression of the transgenes was determined by RT-PCR, Western blotting, and immunofluorescence. Results and conclusions Using immunoprecipitation and Western blotting, the ability of the proteins expressed by the four novel FPL1R, FPA27L, FPA33R and FPB5R recombinants to be recognized by VV-specific hyperimmune mouse sera was demonstrated. By neutralisation assays, recombinant virus particles released by infected chick embryo fibroblasts were shown not be recognised by hyperimmune sera. This thus demonstrates that the L1R, A27L, A33R and B5R gene products are not inserted into the new viral progeny. Fowlpox virus replicates only in avian species, but it is permissive for entry and transgene expression in mammalian cells, while being immunologically non–cross-reactive with vaccinia virus. These recombinants might therefore represent safer and more promising immunogens that can circumvent neutralisation by vector-generated immunity in smallpox-vaccine-experienced humans.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2013 · Journal of Translational Medicine
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    • "Licensed VIG has demonstrated efficacy by in vitro neutralization of VACV and in vivo treatment of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice infected with VACV [2], [21], [22], [23], [24], [25]. In rhesus macaque monkeypox studies, it was demonstrated that smallpox vaccine-elicited neutralizing antibodies were necessary for protection [26]. Furthermore, it was shown that neutralizing antibodies were sufficient for protection against a lethal monkeypox challenge, as administration of VIG to unvaccinated macaques prior to monkeypox challenge provided protection [26]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Smallpox (variola virus) is a bioweapon concern. Monkeypox is a growing zoonotic poxvirus threat. These problems have resulted in extensive efforts to develop potential therapeutics that can prevent or treat potentially lethal poxvirus infections in humans. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against smallpox are a conservative approach to this problem, as the licensed human smallpox vaccine (vaccinia virus, VACV) primarily works on the basis of protective antibody responses against smallpox. Fully human mAbs (hmAbs) against vaccinia H3 (H3L) and B5 (B5R), targeting both the mature virion (MV) and extracellular enveloped virion (EV) forms, have been developed as potential therapeutics for use in humans. Post-exposure prophylaxis was assessed in both murine and rabbit animal models. Therapeutic efficacy of the mAbs was assessed in three good laboratory practices (GLP) studies examining severe combined immunodeficiency mice (SCID) given a lethal VACV infection. Pre-exposure combination hmAb therapy provided significantly better protection against disease and death than either single hmAb or vaccinia immune globulin (VIG). Post-exposure combination mAb therapy provided significant protection against disease and death, and appeared to fully cure the VACV infection in ≥50% of SCID mice. Therapeutic efficacy was then assessed in two rabbit studies examining post-exposure hmAb prophylaxis against rabbitpox (RPXV). In the first study, rabbits were infected with RPVX and then provided hmAbs at 48 hrs post-infection, or 1 hr and 72 hrs post-infection. Rabbits in both groups receiving hmAbs were 100% protected from death. In the second rabbitpox study, 100% of animal treated with combination hmAb therapy and 100% of animals treated with anti-B5 hmAb were protected. These findings suggest that combination hmAb treatment may be effective at controlling smallpox disease in immunocompetent or immunodeficient humans.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2012 · PLoS ONE
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    • "The route of VTT vaccination determines the level of long-lasting antivaccinia Nabs induced. It has been demonstrated that Nabs induced by vaccinia vaccine play an essential role in providing sterile immunity against smallpox infections [25, 26]. Here we show that VTT displays an advantage for inducing higher levels of antivaccinia Nabs through the noninvasive mucosal route of vaccination. "
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    ABSTRACT: The possible bioterrorism threat using the variola virus, the causative agent of smallpox, has promoted us to further investigate the immunogenicity profiles of existing vaccines. Here, we study for the first time the immunogenicity profile of a replication-competent smallpox vaccine (vaccinia Tiantan, VTT strain) for inducing neutralizing antibodies (Nabs) through mucosal vaccination, which is noninvasive and has a critical implication for massive vaccination programs. Four different routes of vaccination were tested in parallel including intramuscular (i.m.), intranasal (i.n.), oral (i.o.), and subcutaneous (s.c.) inoculations in mice. We found that one time vaccination with an optimal dose of VTT was able to induce anti-VTT Nabs via each of the four routes. Higher levels of antiviral Nabs, however, were induced via the i.n. and i.o. inoculations when compared with the i.m. and s.c. routes. Moreover, the i.n. and i.o. vaccinations also induced higher sustained levels of Nabs overtime, which conferred better protections against homologous or alternating mucosal routes of viral challenges six months post vaccination. The VTT-induced immunity via all four routes, however, was partially effective against the intramuscular viral challenge. Our data have implications for understanding the potential application of mucosal smallpox vaccination and for developing VTT-based vaccines to overcome preexisting antivaccinia immunity.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2011 · BioMed Research International
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