Tumor antigen immunization of sibling stem cell transplant donors in multiple myeloma

University of Arkansas at Little Rock, Little Rock, Arkansas, United States
Bone Marrow Transplantation (Impact Factor: 3.57). 09/2005; 36(4):315-23. DOI: 10.1038/sj.bmt.1705057
Source: PubMed


The unique antigenic determinants (idiotype (Id)) of the immunoglobulin secreted by myeloma tumor can serve as a tumor-specific antigen for active immunotherapy. Our objective was to induce tumor-specific T-cell immunity in bone marrow transplant (BMT) donors to enhance antitumor effects of allografts. We vaccinated five HLA-matched sibling donors with myeloma Id proteins isolated from recipient plasma before bone marrow harvest. Recipients were administered booster Id immunizations following transplantation. Vaccination induced donor Id and carrier-specific cellular and/or humoral immune responses. Two recipients died within 30 days of BMT from transplant-related complications. Id and carrier-specific T-cell responses were detected in all three remaining patients post-, but not pre-BMT and persisted for 18 months. All three surviving patients converted from partial to complete responses following BMT. Two of the three patients remain disease-free 7 years and 8 years after BMT, and the third died of renal failure after 5.5 years while in complete remission from myeloma. Our results suggest that myeloma Id vaccination induces specific T-cell immunity in healthy donors which may be transferable by BMT, is associated with prolonged disease-free survival of recipients, and may represent a general strategy to enhance graft-versus-tumor effect in other malignancies for which defined tumor-specific antigens exist.

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