Estradiol-Mediated Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Association With Heat Shock Protein 90 Requires Adenosine Monophosphate-Dependent Protein Kinase

Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts, United States
Circulation (Impact Factor: 14.43). 07/2005; 111(25):3473-80. DOI: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.105.546812
Source: PubMed


Estradiol activates endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) by mechanisms that involve estrogen receptor-alpha (ERalpha), protein kinase B/Akt, mitogen-activated protein kinases, and heat shock protein 90 (HSP90). Recently, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an enzyme that plays a crucial role in cellular adaptation to metabolic stress, has been implicated in physiological eNOS activation by the hormones adiponectin and insulin. We therefore investigated whether AMPK is activated by estradiol in endothelial cells and plays a role in estradiol-induced eNOS activation.
Porcine aortic endothelial cells exhibited time- and concentration-dependent AMPK activation as determined by phosphorylation of AMPK and its downstream target acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase in response to estradiol (1 nmol/L to 10 micromol/L, 1 to 30 minutes). AMPK activation by estradiol was independent of both AMP levels and ERalpha but required estradiol conversion to its catechol metabolites. Estradiol treatment increased eNOS catalytic activity, an effect that was largely reversed when endothelial cells were infected with an AMPK dominant-negative adenovirus. However, inhibition of AMPK did not alter estradiol-induced eNOS phosphorylation at serine 1177 or threonine 495 but decreased eNOS interaction with HSP90. Consistent with this observation, blood vessels from alpha1-AMPK-null mice exhibited defective eNOS-mediated NO production in response to estradiol.
Taken together, these data indicate that AMPK activity is essential for estradiol-induced eNOS activation via the promotion of eNOS interaction with HSP90. These data point to a novel role for AMPK in modulating endothelial cell NO bioactivity and HSP90 function.

Download full-text


Available from: Elad Anter
  • Source
    • "Because a close interplay between SIRT1 and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been described in the regulation of cellular metabolism and inflammation [18], and because 17β-estradiol regulates the functional expression of AMPK [19], we measured the total expression and phosphorylation level of AMPK. The pAMPK to AMPK ratio was significantly reduced in VSMCs from diabetic as compared with normoglycemic animals (Fig. 7), in agreement with previous studies [20]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Sirtuins enzymes are a conserved family of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent deacetylases and ADP-ribosyltransferases that mediate responses to oxidative stress, fasting and dietary restriction in mammals. Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) are involved in many mechanisms that regulate vascular biology in vivo but the role of SIRT1 has not been explored in much detail. Therefore, we investigated the regulation of SIRT1 in cultured VSMCs under various stress conditions including diabetes. Sprague-Dawley rats were made diabetic by injecting a single dose of streptozotocin (65 mg/Kg), and aortic VSMCs were isolated after 4 weeks. Immunocytochemistry showed that SIRT1 was localized predominantly in the nucleus, with lower staining in VSMCs from STZ-diabetic as compared with normoglycemic rats. Previous diabetes induction in vivo and high glucose concentrations in vitro significantly downregulated SIRT1 amounts as detected in Western blot assays, whereas TNF-α (30 ng/ml) stimulation failed to induce significant changes. Because estrogen signaling affects several pathways of oxidative stress control, we also investigated SIRT1 modulation by 17β-estradiol. Treatment with the hormone (10 nM) or a selective estrogen receptor-α agonist decreased SIRT1 levels in VSMCs from normoglycemic but not in those from STZ-diabetic animals. 17β-estradiol treatment also enhanced activation of AMP-dependent kinase, which partners with SIRT1 in a signaling axis. SIRT1 downregulation by 17β-estradiol could be observed as well in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, a cell type in which SIRT1 downregulation is associated with insulin resistance and subclinical atherosclerosis. These data suggest that SIRT1 protein levels are regulated by diverse cellular stressors to a variable extent in VSMCs from diabetic and normoglycemic rats, warranting further investigation on SIRT1 as a modulator of VSMC activity in settings of vascular inflammation.
    Preview · Article · May 2013 · PLoS ONE
  • Source
    • "These data revealed that WSC induced AMPK Thr 172 dephosphorylation, thereby inactivating the AMPK enzyme. Moreover, there is abundant data showing the critical role of AMPK in endothelium-dependent vasodilatory function through modulating endothelial cell nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activation and thus nitric oxide (NO) bioactivity (Schulz et al., 2005). AMPK and eNOS are essential mediators of NO-induced endothelial function and thus the effect of WSC on eNOS protein levels in HAEC cells was determined. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Aim: Despite its increasing popularity, little is known about the health effects of waterpipe smoking (WPS), particularly on the cardiovascular system. To investigate the role of WPS as a risk factor for vascular disease, we evaluated its effect on endothelial cell function, which is an early event in vascular disease pathogenesis. We assessed the changes in cell viability, ROS generation, inflammatory and vasodilatory markers and in vitro angiogenesis of human aortic endothelial cells in response to waterpipe smoke condensate exposure. Methods and results: Mainstream waterpipe smoke condensate (WSC) was generated using a standard laboratory machine protocol. Compared to control, WSC induced cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and oxidative stress in human primary endothelial cells. In addition, we assayed for impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation and induced inflammation by studying the effect of WPS on the content and activity of AMPK, eNOS proteins and NF-κB p65 ser536 phosphorylation, respectively. WSC inhibited AMPK/eNOS phosphorylation and induced phosphorylation of p65. Moreover, we evaluated endothelial cells repair mechanism related properties that include migration/invasion and in vitro tube formation upon treatment with WSC. WSC reduced the motility and inhibited angiogenic potential of HAEC cells. Conclusions: WPS induced endothelial cell dysfunction as evident by exerting oxidative stress, inflammation, and impaired endothelial vasodilatory function and repair mechanisms. All together these data provide evidence for the potential contribution of WPS to endothelial dysfunction and thus to vascular disease.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2013 · Toxicology Letters
  • Source
    • "AMPK has been shown to mediate angiogenic and anti-inflammatory effects, which are thought to be due to NO formation [17], [22], [23], [24]. AMPK is reported to phosphorylate endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) at Ser1177 or 1179 [17], [22] and enhance the interaction between eNOS and heat shock protein 90 [25]. Based on these reports, we hypothesized that the protective effects of EPA on the cardiovascular system may be due, in part, to the ability of EPA to stimulate AMPK-induced eNOS activation and consequently, NO production. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that the cardiovascular-protective effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) may be due, in part, to its ability to stimulate the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-induced endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activation. The role of AMPK in EPA-induced eNOS phosphorylation was investigated in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC), in mice deficient of either AMPKα1 or AMPKα2, in eNOS knockout (KO) mice, or in Apo-E/AMPKα1 dual KO mice. EPA-treatment of BAEC increased both AMPK-Thr172 phosphorylation and AMPK activity, which was accompanied by increased eNOS phosphorylation, NO release, and upregulation of mitochondrial uncoupling protein-2 (UCP-2). Pharmacologic or genetic inhibition of AMPK abolished EPA-enhanced NO release and eNOS phosphorylation in HUVEC. This effect of EPA was absent in the aortas isolated from either eNOS KO mice or AMPKα1 KO mice fed a high-fat, high-cholesterol (HFHC) diet. EPA via upregulation of UCP-2 activates AMPKα1 resulting in increased eNOS phosphorylation and consequent improvement of endothelial function in vivo.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2012 · PLoS ONE
Show more