In the current study we investigated the role of caveolin-1 (cav-1) in pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PC) cell migration and invasion; initial steps in metastasis. Cav-1 is the major structural protein in caveolae; small Omega-shaped invaginations within the plasma membrane. Caveolae are involved in signal transduction, wherein cav-1 acts as a scaffolding protein to organize multiple molecular complexes regulating a variety of cellular events. Recent evidence suggests a role for cav-1 in promoting cancer cell migration, invasion and metastasis; however, the molecular mechanisms have not been described. The small monomeric GTPases are among several molecules which associate with cav-1. Classically, the Rho GTPases control actin cytoskeletal reorganization during cell migration and invasion. RhoC GTPase is overexpressed in aggressive cancers that metastasize and is the predominant GTPase in PC. Like several GTPases, RhoC contains a putative cav-1 binding motif.
Analysis of 10 PC cell lines revealed high levels of cav-1 expression in lines derived from primary tumors and low expression in those derived from metastases. Comparison of the BxPC-3 (derived from a primary tumor) and HPAF-II (derived from a metastasis) demonstrates a reciprocal relationship between cav-1 expression and p42/p44 Erk activation with PC cell migration, invasion, RhoC GTPase and p38 MAPK activation. Furthermore, inhibition of RhoC or p38 activity in HPAF-II cells leads to partial restoration of cav-1 expression.
Cav-1 expression inhibits RhoC GTPase activation and subsequent activation of the p38 MAPK pathway in primary PC cells thus restricting migration and invasion. In contrast, loss of cav-1 expression leads to RhoC-mediated migration and invasion in metastatic PC cells.
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"Despite such high sequence homology, several reports indicate that RhoA and RhoC are not redundant678910111213. For instance, RhoA is often inhibitory while RhoC facilitates cancer cell invasion89101112. Moreover, while RhoA is able to transform mouse fibroblasts in culture and enhance tumor formation by these cells in mice, RhoC is unable to do so . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Resolving distinct biochemical interaction states when analyzing the trajectories of diffusing proteins in live cells on an individual basis remains challenging because of the limited statistics provided by the relatively short trajectories available experimentally. Here, we introduce a novel, machine-learning based classification methodology, which we call perturbation expectation-maximization (pEM), that simultaneously analyzes a population of protein trajectories to uncover the system of diffusive behaviors which collectively result from distinct biochemical interactions. We validate the performance of pEM in silico and demonstrate that pEM is capable of uncovering the proper number of underlying diffusive states with an accurate characterization of their diffusion properties. We then apply pEM to experimental protein trajectories of Rho GTPases, an integral regulator of cytoskeletal dynamics and cellular homeostasis, in vivo via single particle tracking photo-activated localization microcopy. Remarkably, pEM uncovers 6 distinct diffusive states conserved across various Rho GTPase family members. The variability across family members in the propensities for each diffusive state reveals non-redundant roles in the activation states of RhoA and RhoC. In a resting cell, our results support a model where RhoA is constantly cycling between activation states, with an imbalance of rates favoring an inactive state. RhoC, on the other hand, remains predominantly inactive.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · PLoS Computational Biology
"We previously demonstrated that beta-2 overexpression in weakly aggressive LNCaP cells conferred morphological changes which resulted in enhanced metastatic behavior in vitro and significantly reduced tumor volume in vivo  that could imply a separation between tumor formation and metastatic behavior. These results are similar to observations of RhoC GTPase in prostate, breast, and pancreatic cancer [76,84,85]. In the current study, we elucidated a link between beta-2 expression and PCa cell neurotropic behavior. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Prostate cancer (PCa) is believed to metastasize through the blood/lymphatics systems; however, PCa may utilize the extensive innervation of the prostate for glandular egress. The interaction of PCa and its nerve fibers is observed in 80% of PCa and is termed perineural invasion (PNI). PCa cells have been observed traveling through the endoneurium of nerves, although the underlying mechanisms have not been elucidated. Voltage sensitive sodium channels (VSSC) are multimeric transmembrane protein complexes comprised of a pore-forming α subunit and one or two auxiliary beta (β) subunits with inherent cell adhesion molecule (CAM) functions. The beta-2 isoform (gene SCN2B) interacts with several neural CAMs, while interacting putatively with other prominent neural CAMs. Furthermore, beta-2 exhibits elevated mRNA and protein levels in highly metastatic and castrate-resistant PCa. When overexpressed in weakly aggressive LNCaP cells (2BECFP), beta-2 alters LNCaP cell morphology and enhances LNCaP cell metastasis associated behavior in vitro. We hypothesize that PCa cells use beta-2 as a CAM during PNI and subsequent PCa metastasis. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of beta-2 expression on PCa cell neurotropic metastasis associated behavior. We overexpressed beta-2 as a fusion protein with enhanced cyan fluorescence protein (ECFP) in weakly aggressive LNCaP cells and observed neurotropic effects utilizing our novel ex vivo organotypic spinal cord co-culture model, and performed functional assays with neural matrices and atomic force microscopy. With increased beta-2 expression, PCa cells display a trend of enhanced association with nerve axons. On laminin, a neural CAM, overexpression of beta-2 enhances PCa cell migration, invasion, and growth. 2BECFP cells exhibit marked binding affinity to laminin relative to LNECFP controls, and recombinant beta-2 ectodomain elicits more binding events to laminin than BSA control. Functional overexpression of VSSC beta subunits in PCa may mediate PCa metastatic behavior through association with neural matrices.
"Hepatocyte growth factor leads to downregulation of E-cadherin, beta-catenin, and CAV1 disassembly of cell-cell contacts, and enhanced invasion and migration of human ovarian cancer cells.  Human  Consistent with this view, CAV1 distribution is polarized during the migration of some cells. In EC and MEFs migrating in 2D, CAV1 and caveolae are concentrated to the rear of cells114115116, while non-caveolar pY14CAV1 localizes to focal adhesions at the leading edge . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Caveolin-1 is a member of the caveolin family that has been ascribed a dual role in cancer. In early stages of disease the protein functions predominantly as a tumor suppressor, whereas at later stages, caveolin-1 expression is associated with tumor progression and metastasis. Here, some mechanisms associated with caveolin-1-dependent tumor suppression will be briefly discussed before focusing on the role of this protein and particularly phosphorylation of tyrosine-14 in promoting cell migration, invasion and metastasis. Models are provided summarizing possible explanations for these dramatic changes in function, as well as mechanisms by which this may be achieved.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · Current Molecular Medicine