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Social anxiety and posttraumatic stress in combat veterans: Relations to well-being and character strengths

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There are few studies examining the relationship between psychopathology and positive experiences and traits. Although initial studies suggest persons with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are at increased risk for excessive social anxiety, there have been no studies to date evaluating how these conditions might interact to affect positive experiences and traits. Using self-report scales, informant ratings, and experience-sampling methodologies, we examined the association of social anxiety with well-being and character strengths in veterans with and without PTSD. Controlling for PTSD and trait negative affect, social anxiety was negatively related to global ratings of well-being and character strengths. Social anxiety also accounted for incremental variance in day-to-day well-being (i.e., daily affect balance, percentage of pleasant days, positive social activity, self-esteem, gratitude) over a 14-day assessment period. Although veterans with PTSD reported lower levels of global and daily well-being and character strengths than veterans without PTSD, a diagnosis of PTSD failed to exhibit unique relationships with these constructs. Building on a growing body of work, these data suggest that social anxiety is uniquely associated with disturbances in positive experiences, events, and traits. Our findings support the value of directly addressing social anxiety in the study and treatment of PTSD.

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... Survivors of intimate partner violence with comorbidity such as depression or PTSD report poor or fair selfrated mental health more often than other survivors (Kastello et al., 2015). Veterans with PTSD report impaired global well-being compared to veterans without PTSD (Kashdan, Julian, Merritt, & Uswatte, 2006). ...
... Changes in health over time are equally relevant to investigate as the presence of symptoms (Kashdan et al., 2006). Therefore, we wanted to explore how the use of self-management apps and specific strategies contributed to variability in health among trauma-exposed adults in their everyday life within the context of our randomized controlled trial (RCT) of the Swedish adaptation of PTSD Coach (Clinical Trials, 2019). ...
... Dornbach-Bender et al., 2020;Van Voorhees et al., 2018). Few studies have investigated health, rather than symptoms, but related topics such as self-esteem and well-being have been explored (Kashdan, Breen, & Julian, 2010;Kashdan et al., 2006). To the best of our knowledge, previous EMA studies have not explored how trauma-exposed adults cope or utilize strategies in relation to SRH. ...
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Background: The process whereby trauma-exposed people benefit from self-management apps to increase health is poorly understood. Objective: We investigated whether access to a self-management smartphone app for posttraumatic stress (PTSD Coach) improved momentary self-rated health (SRH) and if use of a self-management app or specific strategies related to SRH. Method: Participants were 179 adults in Sweden with trauma exposure in the past 2 years who were enrolled in a randomized trial of PTSD Coach versus waitlist. Ecological momentary assessments (EMA) were collected twice daily during 21 consecutive days from participants in both groups, with questions about momentary SRH as well as self-management app use and use of strategies (social support, distress management, monitoring of discomfort and seeking information) in the preceding 12 hours. Results: Overall, neither access to PTSD Coach nor reported use of an app in the preceding hours was related to SRH. Even so, people with access to PTSD Coach reported using more social support over time. Socializing and use of social support predicted greater SRH. Use of other strategies was associated with worse short-term SRH. Conclusions: Momentarily improved health relates to utilization of social support. However, the directionality of the day-to-day associations is unclear; uncertainty remains around the timing for assessing these relationships.
... The experience of positive emotions may also confer greater psychological flexibility, especially in response to adversity and/or stressful situations (Reich et al. 2015;Tugade et al. 2004). Deficits in each of these areas have been implicated in PTSD, suggesting several possible mechanisms underlying the inverse associations of happiness with PTSD and other associated psychological health conditions (Bryan et al. 2015(Bryan et al. , 2018Nezu and Carnevale 1987;Jordan et al. 1992;Kashdan et al. 2006a;Koenen et al. 2008;Tugade et al. 2004). These benefits are believed to be accumulative, such that positive emotions offset the cognitive bias and avoidant response tendencies associated with PTSD, thereby leading to further increases in positive affect (Fredrickson and Joiner 2002). ...
... In a separate study, Vietnam veterans diagnosed with PTSD were nearly six times more likely than Vietnam veterans without PTSD to report being "very unhappy" and five times less likely to report being "very happy" (Jordan et al. 1992). Lower levels of happiness have also been reported in other samples of veterans with PTSD (Kashdan et al. 2006a). More recent findings among Iraq-and Afghanistan-era military personnel have similarly found that PTSD symptomatology is negatively correlated with happiness (Bryan et al. 2018) and morale (Whitesell and Owens 2012). ...
... Consistent with expectations, participants reporting higher levels of happiness and meaning in life also tended to report less severe PTSD symptoms. The inverse association of PTSD symptoms with happiness and meaning in life converges with the findings of earlier studies (Blackburn and Owens 2015;Bryan et al. 2013Bryan et al. , 2018Currier et al. 2015;Grossman et al. 1999;Jordan et al. 1992;Koenen et al. 2008;Kashdan et al. 2006a;Owens et al. 2009;Zhang et al. 2015;Whitesell and Owens 2012). In addition, we found that happiness at both the participant and unit levels significantly moderated the association of trauma exposure with PTSD symptom severity, such that the association of trauma exposure with PTSD symptom severity depended in part on each participants' level of happiness and the overall happiness of the other service members in their unit. ...
Article
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Protective factors associated with reductions in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have received much less empirical attention than risk factors for PTSD. Happiness and meaning in life are two protective factors that are inversely correlated with PTSD symptom severity, but research to date has primarily considered associations at the participant level, ignoring group-level effects. As a result, little is known about how various characteristics of military units may impact military personnel exposed to traumatic and/or stressful life experiences. In a sample of 997 National Guard personnel assigned to 40 units, we examined associations among happiness, meaning in life, and PTSD symptoms at both the participant and unit level using multilevel modeling. Higher levels of happiness at both the participant and unit level significantly moderated the effect of lifetime trauma exposure with PTSD symptom severity. Meaning in life at both the participant and the unit levels were inversely correlated with PTSD symptom severity. Results suggest that service members tend to report less severe PTSD symptoms if they experience positive emotions more frequently, have a stronger sense of purpose, and are assigned to units with higher levels of happiness and meaning in life. This protective effect may be due to the “transfer” of positive cognitive–affective states from one unit member to another.
... Positive psychotherapy is used in the treatment of psychiatric disorders [2], PTSD [3], addiction [4], bipolar disorder [5], neurological disorders and diseases [6], anxiety disorders [7], combat stress syndrome [8]. ...
... Psychoterapia pozytywna ma zastosowanie w terapii zaburzeń psychicznych. Dotychczasowe badania pokazują, że ten typ oddziaływań może być skuteczny w pracy z takimi problemami klinicznymi jak: depresja [1,2], zespól stresu pourazowego (PTSD) [3], uzależnienia [4], choroba afektywna dwubiegunowa [5], zaburzenia i choroby neurologiczne [6], zaburzenia lękowe [7]. ...
Article
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Positive psychology directs its research interests primarily to healthy people. The most important goal is to build a positive attitude towards yourself and the surrounding world. Recently, positive psychology has set a new area of research interest, which is clinical psychology. In recent years, several positive psychotherapy programs have been developed for people with schizophrenia experience. The article presents the latest trends in positive psychotherapy for people with schizophrenia. They involve taking into account the individual differences of each patient and the specificity of his / her psychopathology. As far as the therapeutic goals are concerned, there are interventions focused on strategies for enhancing positive emotions and wellbeing or the method of activating the strengths of character. Taking into account the methods of therapeutic work, they can be divided into training methods or those of the behavioral-cognitive psychotherapy as well as those that take into account the various aspects of meditation. The article presents the distribution of therapeutic programs in terms of the range of therapeutic goals in which the most important are: intensification of positive experiences, building of strengths of character and well-being. Therapeutic programs have been shown to focus not only on breaking down negative attitudes towards one's own illness and life, but also on those that try to deal with the unsolved schizophrenia problem - negative symptoms.
... Those who stay experience devastating loneliness and feelings of disconnect and neglect (Beks, 2016). Kashdan, Julian, Merritt, and Uswatte (2006) stated that the social anxiety experienced by veterans with PTSD has effects on well-being based on the need for fulfilling social interactions for psychological health. Those with anxiety in social situations will avoid social activities, and if this is not possible, will be hypervigilant, ruminate about potential threats, and utilize self-protective behaviors such as restricting emotional expression, limited movement, minimal engagement in conversations, and careful consideration of responses to others to prevent rejection. ...
... Those with anxiety in social situations will avoid social activities, and if this is not possible, will be hypervigilant, ruminate about potential threats, and utilize self-protective behaviors such as restricting emotional expression, limited movement, minimal engagement in conversations, and careful consideration of responses to others to prevent rejection. While veterans may want to have better relationships, their symptoms are such that they feel less anxious and emotional when they isolate (Kashdan et al., 2006). ...
Article
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The impact of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on our combat veterans and their families is extensive. Without support, negative outlook, lack of trust in others, negative perception of self, and lack of trust in one’s judgment persist. The support of loved ones is essential to treatment adherence and rehabilitation (Meis, Barry, Kehle, Erbes, & Polusny, 2010). The Veterans Administration (VA) has been using canines to assist combat veterans in reintegrating into civilian life, and most currently as a part of psychological therapy (Rubenstein, 2012). This research examined the impact of receiving and training a service dog on combat veterans with PTSD using Stake’s collective case study model. Interviews were conducted with fifteen combat veterans diagnosed with PTSD participating in a 14-week program for receiving and training their own service dog. Anger symptom severity decreases were reported, which had the residual effects of improved relationships and socialization.
... De um modo geral, diferentes estudos têm demonstrado a existência de uma relação entre ansiedade e bem-estar, pois a ansiedade afeta negativamente o indivíduo a vários níveis do seu funcionamento e no seu bem-estar percebido (Stein & Heimberg, 2004), surgindo níveis elevados de ansiedade associados a níveis baixos de bem-estar (Kashdan et al., 2006;Malone & Wachholtz, 2018). Contudo, salienta-se que esta ansiedade não é a referente à COVID-19, e que são escassos os estudos que analisam a relação entre o bem-estar e a ansiedade pandémica. ...
... Mais propensos a experienciar níveis mais elevados de bem-estar estavam os profissionais que percecionavam como mais adequadas as medidas de segurança, que reportaram níveis mais baixos de receio/medo, bem como profissionais que não foram alvo de estigma ou discriminação e que não mudaram de residência. Além disso e como constatado por outros estudos (Kashdan et al., 2006;Malone & Wachholtz, 2018), os profissionais com níveis mais elevados de bemestar, energia e bem-estar geral apresentaram níveis mais baixos de mal-estar e os profissionais com níveis mais elevados de ansiedade COVID-19 apresentaram níveis mais elevados de mal-estar e mais baixos de bem-estar, energia e bem-estar geral. Níveis mais elevados de bem-estar, energia e bem-estar geral correlacionaram-se positivamente entre si. ...
Article
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With the COVID-19 pandemic, pre-hospital medical emergency professionals, a group at risk for psychological illness, are even more exposed to stressful critical incidents at work. However, scientific literature focused on the psychological impact and on gender differences is still scarce. This study aimed to analyse the levels of well-being and COVID-19 anxiety of pre-hospital medical emergency professionals, as well as to characterize the COVID-19 experience and to explore the predictors of COVID-19 anxiety, while exploring gender differences. A sociodemographic/professional questionnaire, the Well-Being Questionnaire, the Coronavirus Anxiety Scale and COVID-19 related questions, were applied to 194 professionals (67% males). Low COVID-19 anxiety and moderate well-being were found, which shows a good adjustment to this pandemic. It was also found few gender differences related to the COVID-19 experience, as well as COVID-19 anxiety being associated with less well-being. However, for women COVID-19 anxiety was associated with higher negative well-being and COVID-19 related fear, while for men COVID-19 anxiety was associated with higher negative well-being and COVID-19 workplace security measures. This research adds to the study of COVID-19 impact on frontline professionals and to the study of gender differences on first responders at pre-hospital settings.
... For example, the positive and negative affect schedule (PANAS) is the most widely used measure of AWB (Diener et al., 2010;Kashdan et al., 2006). It was developed by Watson et al. (1988), but after criticism was levied that PANAS fails to measure low activation terms, and other essential affect components, it was updated to include a wider breadth of terms (Feldman Barrett and Russell, 1998;Larsen and Diener, 1992;Van Katwyk et al., 2000). ...
... A construct validity analysis of the 10-item D-FAW, using momentary focal instructions, was performed with the 20-item PANAS (Watson et al., 1988). The PANAS was chosen as the comparison measure for the validity study because of its widespread popularity (Diener et al., 2010;Kashdan et al., 2006). However, it is acknowledged that the 20-item PANAS is not an occupationally specific measure, lacks coverage of low activation items (Diener et al., 2010;Tellegen et al., 1999) and has low representation of anger/aggression terms (Daniels, 2000) and fatigue (Watson and Clark, 1997). ...
Article
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Measuring affective well-being in organizational studies has become increasingly widespread, given its association with key work-performance and other markers of organizational functioning. As such, researchers and policy-makers need to be confident that well-being measures are valid, reliable and robust. To reduce the burden on participants in applied settings, short-form measures of affective well-being are proving popular. However, these scales are seldom validated as standalone, comprehensive measures in their own right. In this article, we used a short-form measure of affective well-being with 10 items: the Daniels five-factor measure of affective well-being (D-FAW). In Study 1, across six applied sample groups (N = 2624), we found that the factor structure of the short-form D-FAW is robust when issued as a standalone measure, and that it should be scored differently depending on the participant instruction used. When participant instructions focus on now or today, then affect is best represented by five discrete emotion factors. When participant instructions focus on the past week, then affect is best represented by two or three mood-based factors. In Study 2 (N = 39), we found good construct convergent validity of short-form D-FAW with another widely used scale (PANAS). Implications for the measurement and structure of affect are discussed.
... In the context of adversity, the limited character strength research has primarily looked at how experiencing adversity impairs character strengths via the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (e.g., Duan, Guo, & Gan, 2015;Kashdan, Julian, Merritt, & Uswatte, 2006). However, there is a burgeoning stream of literature which suggests the opposite-that sometimes, experiences of adversity can actually lead to more character strengths later in life. ...
Article
The limited organizational scholarship on past adversity has characterized it as something to cope with, positing that how past adversity is perceived is key to employees’ coping effectiveness (Nurmohamed et al., 2021; Stephens et al., 2015; Vogel & Bolino, 2020). Conversely, lay theory suggests that “what does not kill you makes you stronger.” Through this dissertation, I aim to provide empirical evidence for this claim in an organizational setting. To do so, I draw on positive identity growth theorizing (Maitlis, 2009; 2020) to empirically examine the organizational benefits of identity growth after experiences of overcoming adversity. In doing so, I introduce a new concept to the organizational behavior literature, an “overcoming adversity identity,” which is when an experience of hardship, whether singular or continuous, has been redeemed in the eyes of the person with that experience, thereby becoming a positive part of that person’s identity. Through two longitudinal studies and one randomized experimental intervention, I find promising evidence that having a stronger overcoming adversity identity is associated with interpersonal, intrapersonal, and intellectual character enrichment (the tripartite model of character; Park et al., 2017). I also find some evidence that suggests that this character enrichment, in turn, is positively related to extra-role performance and in-role performance, and negatively related to burnout. Implications and future directions are discussed. In conclusion, this dissertation provides preliminary empirical evidence to suggest that indeed, what does not kill you can make you stronger.
... Multiple items in the DSES Spirituality scale used in this study measured the connectedness of the participants with God, other people, and creation (Underwood & Teresi, 2002). Kashdan et al. (2006) found that anxiety contributed to lower wellbeing, optimism, hope, forgiveness, gratitude, and belongingness above and beyond the effects of post-traumatic stress disorder. Other research suggests that lower belongingness is linked with depression and anxiety (Cockshaw & Shochet, 2010;Hagerty et al., 1993). ...
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Burlaka, V., Kim, Y. J., Lee, N. Y., Kral, M., & Hong, J. S. (in press). Suicidal behaviors among college students at a Bible belt university: The role of childhood trauma, spirituality, anxiety and depression. Best Practices in Mental Health. Abstract Background Many child abuse survivors report lower spirituality as adults. However, for others, the use of spiritual coping is linked with improved mental health and lower suicide risk. Objective This study examined the relationship between childhood trauma (i.e., emotional and physical abuse, and witnessing mother’s abuse), spirituality, anxiety/depression, and suicidal behaviors. Participants and Settings Participants were 185 college students, aged 19 to 56 years (M = 26.19, SD = 8.69), who participated in social work (88%), health promotion, and counseling programs in the U.S. South. Method We tested a structural equation model to predict suicidal behaviors. Results Results showed significant direct paths from childhood trauma to adult spirituality (b = -.20, p < 0.05), from spirituality to anxiety/depression (b = -.31, p < 0.001) and from anxiety/depression to suicidal behaviors (b = .38, p < 0.001). Additionally, there was a significant indirect path from spirituality to suicidal behaviors, which was mediated by anxiety/depression (b = -.12, p < 0.01). The model provided a good fit for the data: χ2 (43, N = 177) = 64.13, p < 0.05, CFI = 0.98, TLI = 0.97, RMSEA = 0.05, SRMR = 0.05. Conclusions The findings suggest that childhood trauma may be a distal risk factor that undermines the ability to engage in spiritual coping as a way to alleviate mental health problems and reduce suicidality.
... Although there is limited research examining the complete state model of mental health in relation to anxiety disorders, research has consistently found that anxiety disorders are associated with significant deficits in different components of well-being. For example, symptoms of social anxiety are negatively associated with both global ratings of well-being and the daily experience of well-being (Kashdan, Julian, Merritt, & Uswatte, 2006). Similarly, in a study examining the link between well-being and mental illness in a nationally representative sample of American adults, symptoms of depression, generalized anxiety, and panic attacks were all negatively correlated with subjective, psychological, and social well-being, but only at small-to-moderate magnitudes (Keyes, 2005a). ...
Article
Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has been found to be very effective in reducing many forms of mental illness, but much less is known about whether CBT also promotes mental health or well-being. The goals of the present study were to (a) quantify the magnitude and timing of changes in overall well-being and specific facets of well-being during different CBTs for anxiety disorders, (b) determine whether these effects vary across transdiagnostic and disorder-specific CBT, and (c) examine how changes in well-being during treatment relate to changes in anxiety. A total of 223 adults (55.6% female, Mage = 31.1 years) were randomized to 1 of 5 CBT protocols for anxiety disorders at an outpatient clinic. Analyses included standardized mean gain effect sizes (ESsg) and latent growth curve modeling. Moderate-to-large increases in overall well-being and the 3 components of subjective, psychological, and social well-being were observed, mainly during the second half of CBT, and these increases were maintained at a 6-month follow-up. The magnitude of effects was comparable for transdiagnostic and disorder-specific CBT protocols and greater than in the waitlist condition. Parallel process latent growth curve models indicated that trajectories of change in well-being across treatment were strongly correlated with trajectories of change in clinician-rated and self-reported anxiety. Together, these findings suggest that different CBT protocols for anxiety consistently produce robust and lasting changes in well-being, and these changes are strongly linked to changes in anxiety during treatment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).
... Diminished PE differentiates SAD from other anxiety disorders (Kashdan, 2007;Kashdan & Steger, 2006;Naragon-Gainey, Watson, & Markon, 2009;Watson & Naragon-Gainey, 2010). Decreased self-reported PEs in SAD are also evident in everyday life (Kashdan & Collins, 2010;Kashdan, Julian, Merritt, & Uswatte, 2006;Kashdan & Steger, 2006), during social situations (e.g., Kashdan et al., 2013) and when alone (e.g., Brown, Silvia, Myin-Germeys, & Kwapil, 2007;Kashdan & Collins, 2010). In response to positive social feedback (e.g., encouraging comments, warm tone), people with SAD report decreased PE, including self-reported feelings of warmth, interest, and likeability (Alden & Wallace, 1995). ...
Article
The prevailing view on positive emotions is that they correlate with and confer psychological health benefits for the individual, including improved social, physical and cognitive functioning. Yet an emerging wave of scientific work suggests that positive emotions are also related to a range of suboptimal psychological health outcomes, especially when the intensity, duration, or context do not optimize the individual's goals or meet current environmental demands. This paper provides an overview of the “other side” of positive emotion, by describing and reviewing evidence supporting the emerging field of positive emotion disturbance (PED). We review relevant emotion processes and key themes of PED and apply this framework to example emotional disorders, and discuss implications for psychological change and future research agendas.
... Veterans with SAD are often likely to have PTSD, with the combination negatively affecting their social functioning and subsequently limiting social support (Frueh, Turner, Beidel, & Cahill, 2001;Gros et al., 2016;McMillan & Asmundson, 2016;McMillan, Asmundson, & Sareen, 2017). Social anxiety/ avoidance has a unique negative effect on the experience of positive life events (e.g., positive social activity, gratitude, and self-esteem), not seen in other PTSD core features impacting day-to-day well-being (Kashdan, Julian, Merrit, & Uswatte, 2006). Social anxiety/avoidance in veterans may result from social isolation and withdrawal rather than fear of negative evaluation (Hofmann, Litz, & Weathers, 2003). ...
Article
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Eight-to-ten percent of returning combat veterans report symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), of which 7–13% also report symptoms of Social Anxiety Disorder. Both disorders are characterized by maladaptive patterns of social functioning, which can have significant effects on the lives of returning combat veterans and increase suicidal risk. The objective of the present study was to identify elements of the lived experience of college student veterans experiencing social anxiety and avoidance. Twelve student veterans with post-9/11 active duty service were interviewed about their lived experiences with social anxiety/avoidance within the framework of phenomenological theory. Data was analyzed using multilevel coding and theme analysis. Analysis of interview themes (n = 12) clarified university campus environments that induce social anxiety/avoidance and the impact on personal and professional relationships, learning, and navigation of physical space. Implications of this study include addressing student veterans’ needs through clinical intervention and further representative research on prevalence rates of these risk factors in various university and community college settings.
... Research has also shown that gratitude not only enhances wellbeing but also decrease the impact of negative life experiences. For example, Kashdan, Julian, Merritt and Uswatte (2006) found that war veterans without post-traumatic stress disorder exhibited significantly higher dispositional gratitude than those with PTSD. Lin (2017) also reported that high level of gratitude made a significant unique contribution to psychological well-being of university students. ...
Research
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z. Bu çalışma, lisans öğrencileri üzerinde paralel çoklu aracılık modeli ile güvenli bağlanma, şükran duyma, umut, psikolojik sağlamlık ve mental iyi oluş arasındaki ilişkileri incelemek üzere tasarlanmıştır. Araştırmanın katılımcıları, Türkiye'nin güneyindeki bir devlet üniversitesinden seçilen 18-23 yaşları arasındaki 214 kadın ve 145 erkek, toplam 359 lisans öğrencisinden (% 60 kadın ve % 40 erkek) oluşmaktadır. Verilerin toplanmasında, İlişki Ölçekleri Anketi, Şükran Ölçeği, Sürekli Umut Ölçeği, Ego Sağlamlığı Ölçeği ve Warwick-Edinburgh Mental İyi Oluş Ölçeği kullanılmıştır. Araştırmanın bulguları, güvenli bağlanma, şükran duyma, umut, psikolojik sağlamlık ve mental iyi oluş arasında pozitif yönde anlamlı ilişkiler olduğunu göstermiştir. Aracılık analizinden elde edilen bulgular, önerilen modelde şükran duyma, umut ve psikolojik sağlamlığın paralel çoklu aracılığının istatistiksel olarak anlamlı olduğunu ve tüm değişkenlerin mental iyi oluştaki varyansın yaklaşık % 57'sini açıkladığını ortaya koymaktadır. Anahtar Kelimeler. Güvenli bağlanma, şükran duyma, umut, psikolojik sağlamlık, mental iyi oluş Abstract. This research study was designed to examine the relationships among secure attachment, gratitude, hope, ego-resiliency, and mental well-being in undergraduates by proposing a parallel multiple mediation model. The participants of this study were comprised 214 females and 145 males, a total of 359 undergraduates (60% female and 40% male) between 18 to 23 years old who were recruited from a state university in south of Turkey. To collect data, Relationship Scales Questionnaire, Gratitude Scale, Dispositional Hope Scale, Ego-Resiliency Scale, and Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-Being Scale were applied. The results showed that secure attachment, gratitude, hope, ego-resiliency, and mental well-being were positively correlated. The findings from the mediational analyses also indicated that the parallel multiple mediation of gratitude, hope and ego-resiliency in the hypothetical model was statistically significant and explained approximately 57% of the variance in mental well-being.
... Second, spotting others' strengths can help us more effectively ask others for help (e.g., Skeffington et al., 2016). Third, knowing and using one's strengths can increase social competence in the context of the improved quality of social relationships, enhanced feelings of competence, increased altruistic behaviour, and more meaningful leisure activity (Fruel et al., 2001;Kashdan et al., 2006). Though social support is an important contributor to being able to cope with challenges (Prati & Pietrantoni, 2010), we need to keep in mind that the value of social supports should be viewed within a larger socio-economic and cultural milieu. ...
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COVID-19 is truly an unprecedented event, forcing nearly four billion people into isolation, social distancing, and requiring people to rigorously follow public health measures such as frequent hand washing and indoor face-covering. People around the world have spent months staying home-bound, enduring significant financial, social, and emotional costs. They have been feeling anxious, irritable, afraid, and ambivalent in the wake of an invisible, pervasive, and potent pandemic. A strength focus can help us mitigate unwarranted or excessive negative emotions engendered by maintaining social distancing. This paper posits that by using our strengths, we can enhance our psychological immunity through pragmatic actions to enhance our daily wellbeing. More importantly, we can reframe and reappraise challenges to build perspective in dealing with global crises such as pandemics and disasters. Strengths expressed through pragmatic actions can boost our coping skills as well as enhance our wellbeing. Consistent with the zeitgeist of our times-equity, social justice, digital connections, the paper offers easily implemented, concrete actions using character strengths in adaptive ways to reduce the likelihood that social distancing will result in overwhelming anxiety, lack of structure or stimulation, and demoralization.
... The first questionnaire used in this study was daily well-being survey and daily psychological needs satisfaction, which were arranged based on six different constructs, each construct measured by two items: (a) satisfaction with the day spent (adapted from Satisfacton with Life Scale / SWLS): "Today is a very satisfying day for me" and "Today is an ideal day for me"; (b) positive affect (two-item adaptation of PANAS-X; Watson and Clark, 1994): "I experience a lot of fun today" and "Today is a pleasant day"; (c) negative affect (adaptation of two items from PANAS-X): "Today is a day that frustrates me" and "I am very worried today"; (d) autonomy (adapted from the Basic Need Satisfaction in Life Scale [BNSNLS]): "I managed to get what I needed today" and "I made progress to achieve my goals today"; (e) competencies (adapted from BNSLS, Kashdan et al., 2006): "Today I get new knowledge" and "What I do today improves my skills"; (f) relatedness (adapted from BNSLS): "I can be closer to my friend today" and "Today I am closer to my family". The questionnaire above is used to measure the quality of meeting psychological needs. ...
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Abstract This study aimed at studying the path analysis of Buddhism psychology: trait mindfulness and nonattachment. The mindfulness was expected to predict nonattachment and indirectly predicted the psychological needs satisfaction and well-being. The total sample of 229 participants (68.6% female, 31.4% male; mean age M=18.917, SD=.699; 63.3% meditation practitioners and 36.7% non-practitioners) completed the Nonattachment scale, Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS), basic psychological need satisfaction and well-being. Results confirmed adequate measurement model (composite reliability and convergence validity), as well as significant path within the structural model test. Trait mindfulness predicted nonattachment significantly; nonattachment predicted the psychological need satisfaction; and psychological need satisfaction influence the well-being. Specific indirect effects were also found: nonattachment mediated the path of trait mindfulness and psychological need satisfaction; nonattachment predicted well-being through psychological need satisfaction; and nonattachment and psychological need satisfaction mediated the relationship between trait mindfulness and well-being. Meditation experiences significantly differentiate the prediction of trait mindfulness toward nonattachment. Keywords: trait mindfulness, nonattachment, psychological need satisfaction, well-being.
... Further, although rates of PTSD and adjustment disorders are higher for deployed personnel, rates of mood disorders are significantly higher in non-deployed personnel [2]. The challenges faced by these individuals are extensive and diverse, with recovery often being associated with a sense of helplessness and loss of self-identity [6,7] less satisfaction with life [8], reduced psychological need satisfaction [9,10], increased aggression [11] and difficulties with post-deployment social functioning and transitioning into civilian living [12,13]. Consequently, the after care of Service personnel is of great interest and importance to the Armed Forces, Mental Health Services and Service Charities because personnel who leave the Armed Forces symptomatic generally remain symptomatic and are at greater risk of social exclusion and hardship [14]. ...
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Background: The Battle Back Centre offers a bespoke, Self Determination Theory-oriented adapted sport and adventurous training programme centred on experiential learning and reflection to support the recovery of military personnel. Aim: To identify the short-term impact of participation in the programme on positive mental health and psychological need satisfaction. Method: Participants were 978 wounded, injured and sick (WIS) personnel classified as: Wounded (battle casualties), Injured (non-battle casualties) and Sick (mental/physical illness). Participants completed the Basic Need Satisfaction in General Scale (Gagné, 2003) and Warwick and Edinburgh Mental Well Being Scale (Tennant et al. 2006) on arrival and course completion. Results: All measures of positive mental health and psychological need satisfaction showed statistically significant increases, with a large effect size, from baseline to course completion (mean ± SD change in positive mental health, competence, autonomy and relatedness were 7.19 ± 9.61, 0.46 ± 0.9, 0.27 ± 0.84, 0.26 ± 0.86, respectively, p < 0.05). While the average magnitude of the intervention effect for positive mental health (16%) is comparable or greater than other reported interventions, changes were achieved in a shorter time. Conclusion: Findings highlight the positive short-term effect adapted sport and adventurous activities have for WIS personnel. Declaration of interest: Work supported by The Royal British Legion.
... A number of studies have measured basic psychological needs in specific contexts, including work and relationships, whereas others have examined the general satisfaction of psychological needs. [114][115][116][117] The Basic Needs Satisfaction in General Scale (BNSG-S) consists of 21 items that assess the general satisfaction of basic psychological needs for autonomy (e.g., "I feel like I am free to decide for myself how I live my life," "I generally feel free to express my ideas and opinions"), competence (e.g., "People I know tell me I am good at what I do," "Most days I feel a sense of accomplishment from what I do"), and relatedness (e.g., "People in my life care about me," "I really like the people I interact with"). Items are rated on a seven-point Likert scale from "not at all true" to "very true." ...
... Character strengths and psychopathology have been examined together in other studies providing additional groundwork for the reappraisal function. These include character strengths and gelotophobia (the fear of being laughed at, Proyer et al. 2014a, b), character strengths and veterans with and without PTSD (Kashdan et al. 2006), curiosity and social anxiety disorder (Kashdan and Roberts 2004), and strengths-based approaches for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (Climie and Mastoras 2015). The explanation of psychological disorders as Bdisorders of character strengths^was proposed by Peterson (2006) noting, in which an example is to consider the Bdisorders of courage^which would contain the exaggeration, absence, and opposite of each strength. ...
Article
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Life is a collection of moments, some light and pleasant, some dark and unpleasant, some neutral. Character strengths contribute to the full range of human experiences, influencing and creating positive opportunities while also helping us to endure the mundane and embrace and navigate the struggles. Some researchers have argued that thriving, which casts a wider net on the human experience than constructs such as flourishing or resilience, constitutes strong well-being and performance at times of both adversity and opportunity (Brown et al. 2017). With this and the many findings in the science of character in mind, six character strengths functions are theorized and then applied across time orientations, making the case for the integral role of character strengths in these matters of thriving. Three opportunity functions are offered, including priming in which character strengths prompt and prepare for strengths awareness and use; mindfulness in which character strengths serve in synergy with mindful awareness of the present reality; and appreciation in which character strengths use expresses value for what has occurred. The three adversity functions include: buffering – character strengths use prevents problems; reappraisal – character strengths explain or reinterpret problems; and resilience – character strengths support the bounce-back from life setbacks. Several applications of these six functions for vocational and educational settings are explored.
... Gagné (2003) and Thorgersen-Ntoumani, Ntoumanis, Cumming, and Chatzisarantis (2011) used and validated this scale as well. Constructs validity were also reported by Gagné (2003) and Kashdan, Julian, Merritt, and Uswatte (2006). ...
Thesis
Online higher education courses are often designed using a one-size-fits-all model that treats students as instructional users rather than participants who contribute according to their learning needs and interests. Although many scholars have discussed personalized learning as a means to customize instruction over the past three decades, few have investigated the impact of personalized learning interventions. In particular, there is a gap in the literature on interventions using customized instructional content in online courses to provide individuals with opportunities to address their own learning needs and choices. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of this instructional approach on students’ self-determination, intrinsic motivation, learning engagement, and online learning experiences. The researcher applied a convergent parallel mixed-methods design to collect, analyze, and merge quantitative and qualitative data simultaneously. Qualitative findings have converged with and diverged from the quantitative data. Quantitative results revealed that personalized learning has a statistically significant effect on students’ perceived feelings of autonomy and their online learning experiences. The approach also showed a significant effect on students’ perceptions toward their instructors. The findings showed that the majority of learners perceived personalized learning to be an effective instructional approach. According to the qualitative findings, this approach showed a positive effect on students’ self-determination (autonomy and competence), intrinsic motivation, engagement, and online learning experiences. However, the intervention did not show a positive effect on students’ feelings of relatedness. This study may contribute to the understanding of effective and influential teaching and learning approaches, especially in online learning environments. The final findings might inform educators, instructional designers, and instructors about the personalized learning potential of tailoring online courses to students’ needs and interests, which may increase student motivation and engagement.
... The validating measures provide evidence of criterion validity and included a shortened version (seven items, ␣ ϭ .88) of the Schedule of Racist Events (Landrine & Klonoff, 1996), the relatedness and competence subscales of the Basic Needs Satisfaction Scale (Gagné, 2003;Kashdan, Julian, Merritt, & Uswatte, 2006; eight items, ␣ ϭ .79 and six items, ␣ ϭ .79), and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (10 items, ␣ ϭ .91). ...
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Objectives: The current study presents a comprehensive framework of campus racial climate and tests the validity and reliability of a new measure, the School Climate for Diversity Scale-College, in three independent samples. The scale measures 10 dimensions of campus racial climate in the two domains of intergroup interactions (frequency of interaction, quality of interaction, equal status, support for positive interaction, and stereotyping) and campus racial socialization (cultural socialization, mainstream socialization, promotion of cultural competence, colorblind socialization, and critical consciousness socialization). Method: Participants were college students drawn from an online task system and a public university on the West Coast. Results and conclusions: Study 1 provided evidence of reliability and validity with existing measures of college climate, whereas Study 2 provided evidence of factor stability through exploratory factor analysis as well as additional evidence of discriminant and concurrent validity. Finally, Study 3 replicated the factor structure of Study 2 and provided further evidence of validity. (PsycINFO Database Record
... SAD is also closely linked with problematic cannabis use (e.g., Buckner, Ecker, & Dean, 2016;Buckner, Schmidt, Bobadilla, & Taylor, 2006;Buckner & Zvolensky, 2014). Our findings indicate future research on ADHD symptoms, social anxiety, and cannabis use is warranted, particularly among veterans (Kashdan, Julian, Merritt, & Uswatte, 2006), with treatment targets related to effective coping in social situations being potentially useful for improving ADHD symptoms and reducing cannabis use. ...
Article
Objective: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is linked prospectively to cannabis; however, no study has examined mechanisms underlying this comorbidity. We examined 5 cannabis motives (i.e., coping with negative affect, sleep, social anxiety, perceived low risk of cannabis, and altered perception) as mediators of the prospective ADHD-cannabis relation. Method: Veterans reporting lifetime cannabis use (N = 361; 93% male; 80% White) completed three semiannual assessments. Prospective mediation models using structural equation modeling analyzed the indirect effects of baseline ADHD symptoms on 12-month cannabis use and problems via each motive at 6 months. Zero-inflated negative binomial models were employed for both manifest outcomes and ADHD symptoms and motives were each modeled as 1-factor latent variables. Results: Sleep motives was a robust mediator for cannabis use frequency in single mediator models and was marginally significant when examined simultaneously with other motives after accounting for baseline cannabis use, demographics, other substance use, and other psychopathology. Coping with negative affect was the only significant mediator of ADHD symptoms and subsequent cannabis problem severity. Conclusion: Among veterans with ADHD symptoms, sleep disturbance is a salient motive for cannabis use, whereas coping with negative affect is a proximal predictor of cannabis problems. Findings support addressing sleep disturbance in adults with ADHD symptoms and converge with extant literature demonstrating robust associations between coping motives and substance use problems. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).
... People and the social functions of a society all depend on the health of individuals in different contexts. The complexities of the modern world and the growing problems have caused people's mental health to be more threatened (Kashdan et al., 2006). According to the world health organization (WHO), health means enough ability to do physical, mental and social activities. ...
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Today, turning to the quality of life and the use of spiritual and health attitudes have become one of the communities’ concerns. This study aimed to determine a structural model of urban quality of life (UQL) based on socioeconomic status (SES), religious attitude, and mental health status among Iranian Muslims. The sample included 383 individuals (256 females and 179 males) from Yazd selected by multi-stage cluster sampling method. The subjects responded to the demographic form, Urban Quality of Life Scale-47 (UQLS-47), the Religion Assessment Questionnaire-26 (RAQ-26), and the General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28). The results showed that SES and religious attitude were negatively associated with mental health and positively associated with UQL. Also, mental health negatively associated with UQL and has the role of a mediating variable. This means that three variables (SES, religious attitude and mental health) can predict a 0.45 variance of UQL. The findings are in line with similar studies. So, Iranian Muslims have better mental health and SES in society and a more positive attitude toward religion and spirituality; they will have better UQL.
... Frueh et al. (2001) found that veterans who experienced war exhibited significantly less altruism than a normative comparison group. Moreover, Kashdan et al. (2006) noted that veterans who had endured significant hardship displayed lower levels of gratitude. Many studies have also shown that hardship adversely affects social relationships (Cook et al., 2004;Jordan et al., 1992;Riggs et al., 1998): traumatic experiences might spark anger against society and trigger hostility towards others. ...
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We theorize that CEOs who endure traumatic experiences stemming from man-made disasters practice less corporate social responsibility. We exploit a natural experiment-the Great Chinese Famine-to empirically test this hypothesis. We find that (i) firms with CEOs who experienced the Great Chinese Famine score lower in corporate social responsibility ratings than a comparison group; (ii) this relationship is mainly driven by prosocial practices tied to employee relations, environmental protection, supplier relations, and community contributions; and (iii) this negative relationship is more pronounced in firms whose CEOs were younger when they experienced the famine. These results are robust in the face of several sources of endogeneity. Our study contributes to ongoing research regarding how top executives' early experiences affect their managerial decisions. It also enriches work surrounding corporate social responsibility and the plausibly exogenous determinants of prosocial preferences.
... In a study, psychological well-being was found to be negatively related to disorders, such as depression, anxiety, and temper [12]. Also, the relationship between the concept of psychological wellbeing and social anxiety has been studied, and it has been reported that social anxiety impairs functionality in social relationships, causes difficulties in interpersonal relationships, and thus leads to a decrease in psychological well-being [13]. Individuals with low psychological wellbeing make negative evaluations of their lives more frequently [14]. ...
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Objective This study was conducted to examine the relationship between fear of COVID-19, psychological well-being, and satisfaction with life in nursing students. Methods A descriptive and cross-sectional design was used in this study. The study was carried out at a university Faculty of Health Sciences Department of Nursing between May 17 and June 25, 2021. The JASP 0.14.1. Software was used for statistical analysis. Kruskal-Wallis test was used for the comparison of three or more groups, Mann-Whitney U test was used for the comparisons of two groups, and Bonferroni-corrected Mann-Whitney U test was used for post hoc analysis. To determine the risk factors for "The Fear of COVID-19 Scale," linear regression analysis with backward stepwise modeling was used. Results The mean score of the students was 18.48±6.87 from the Fear of COVID-19 Scale, 38.42±12.60 from the Psychological Well-Being Scale, and 13.12±4.97 from the Satisfaction with Life Scale. According to the results of the regression model established, independent variables explained 12.5% of the dependent variables, but the regression model established was found to be statistically significant. A one-unit increase in the satisfaction with life scale increased the fear of COVID-19 scale score by 0.224 units, and this increase was found statistically significant (p = 0.030) as a result of linear regression analysis used with backward stepwise modeling. Conclusion In conclusion, it was found that the students’ fear of COVID-19 was below the medium level, their psychological well-being was above the medium level, and that their life satisfaction was below the medium level.
... Veterans who develop a depressive disorder following bTBI are known to have more functional impairments, leading to a complicated recovery as compared to those with TBI histories and no reports of psychiatric disorders (Hesdorffer et al., 2009). Further, Veterans with depressive disorders are reported to develop social anxiety, the fear of interacting or doing things with or in front of other people (Kashdan et al., 2006). This lack of sociability can lead to avoidance behavior, where individuals avoid or act in a way that prevents being humiliated or rejected. ...
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Long-term neuropsychiatric impairments have become a growing concern following blast-related traumatic brain injury (bTBI) in active military personnel and Veterans. Neuropsychiatric impairments such as anxiety and depression are common comorbidities that Veterans report months, even years following injury. To understand these chronic behavioral outcomes following blast injury, there is a need to study the link between anxiety, depression, and neuropathology. The hippocampus and motor cortex (MC) have been regions of interest when studying cognitive deficits following blast exposure, but clinical studies of mood disorders such as major depressive disorder (MDD) report that these two regions also play a role in the manifestation of anxiety and depression. With anxiety and depression being common long-term outcomes following bTBI, it is imperative to study how chronic pathological changes within the hippocampus and/or MC due to blast contribute to the development of these psychiatric impairments. In this study, we exposed male rats to a repeated blast overpressure (~17 psi) and evaluated the chronic behavioral and pathological effects on the hippocampus and MC. Results demonstrated that the repeated blast exposure led to depression-like behaviors 36 weeks following injury, and anxiety-like behaviors 2-, and 52-weeks following injury. These behaviors were also correlated with astrocyte pathology (glial-fibrillary acid protein, GFAP) and dendritic alterations (Microtubule-Associated Proteins, MAP2) within the hippocampus and MC regions at 52 weeks. Overall, these findings support the premise that chronic glial pathological changes within the brain contribute to neuropsychiatric impairments following blast exposure.
... Second, spotting others' strengths has been shown to encourage people to ask others for help (see Skeffington et al., 2016), which may build help-seeking capacities in patients during COVID-19 and beyond. Third, knowing and using one's strengths can increase social competence and has been shown to improve quality of social relationships, enhance feelings of competence, and increase altruistic behavior (Frueh et al., 2001;Kashdan et al., 2006) -all of which may lead people to be more proactive and creative in finding ways to stay connected during COVID-19. Given the swath of research showing that social connection and support is a protective factor for wellbeing and a factor that promotes posttraumatic growth (Scrignaro et al., 2011), one can see how the adoption of PPT by therapists during this crisis is beneficial. ...
Article
Positive psychology approaches have been shown to play a vital role in protecting mental health in times of challenge and are, therefore, important to include when studying the psychological outcomes of COVID-19. While existing research has focused on individual psychological health, this paper focuses on collective wellbeing and collective posttraumatic growth, with the aim of more clearly identifying the positive experiences and potential for positive growth for key institutions in our society during the pandemic. A range of positive psychology interventions for families, schools, workplaces, and clinical psychology are presented. The paper then considers how three broad-reaching phenomena existing in our wider society (i.e., arts and culture, eco-connection, and wellbeing literacy) can be used to boost collective wellbeing. A positive systems approach to understand civilian responses to the pandemic together with an examination of the role that positive psychology can play in supporting marginalized groups are also discussed.
... Potential measurement issues One advantage of incorporating SDT principles into a conceptual framework of adventure (Figure 1), is the ability to accurately measure (a) need-supportive motivational climates; (b) psychological need satisfaction; and (c) SWB. Psychometrically valid and reliable measures of psychological need satisfaction exist for diverse life domains, such as (i) health (Williams, Cox, Kouides, & Deci, 1999), (ii) sport (Ng, Lonsdale, & Hodge, 2011), and (iii) life in general (Kashdan, Julian, Merritt, & Uswatte, 2006). Martela and Ryan (2016) recently developed a four-item measure of beneficence satisfaction that could be used to measure the satisfaction of this need. ...
Article
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Despite the documented positive outcomes of adventure experiences, subjective well-being (SWB) frameworks have been largely absent from discourse and analyses in adventure studies. This conceptual paper proposes a framework for understanding how adventure recreation experiences promote eudaimonic SWB. In our framework we propose that adventure recreation fosters eudaimonic aspects of SWB by supporting satisfaction of basic psychological needs for autonomy, competence, relatedness and beneficence. The framework also integrates contact with nature as an important mechanism through which adventure recreation fosters eudaimonic SWB. Analysis of research and practice across diverse aspects of adventure recreation (leisure, tourism, and education contexts) is used to support the proposed framework and to critically evaluate how psychological models, such as SDT and SWB, can advance theory and practice in adventure recreation. We conclude by offering a number of suggestions for future research directions and practical implications.
... Frueh et al. (2001) find that veterans who experienced the traumas of war had significantly less altruism than a normative comparison group. Moreover, Kashdan et al. (2006) find that veterans who have experienced significant hardship demonstrate a lower level of gratitude. Further, many studies have shown that hardship experiences have negative effects on social relationships (Cook et al., 2004;Jordan et al., 1992;Riggs et al., 1998). ...
Article
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This thesis is composed of three projects investigating interactive economic behaviors. Chapter 2 investigates the link between urbanization and interpersonal trust by conducting a field trust game under a natural experiment context. I find that urbanization does not significantly decrease the trust towards co-villagers, meaning the in-group trust did not change statistically significantly. However, the trust towards outsiders does increase as a result of state-led urbanization. I also run a regression on the trust exhibited towards participants in the experiment and found the partial effect of whether they are co-villagers or outsiders weakens as a result of the urbanization, and therefore conclude urbanization decreases out-group discrimination in trust. The second project examines the gender effects on entrepreneurs’ competitiveness and innovative behaviors via a lab-experimental approach. This project finds (i) female participants are less inclined to choose a scheme with an uncertain payoff in an individual-oriented task-solving game whereas (ii) they are as willing as males to choose the scheme in a cooperative-oriented task-solving game. The last project looks into the impacts of humans’ early experiences on ethical behaviors. We found that (i) firms with CEOs who experienced the Great Chinese Famine score lesser in CSR ratings than the comparison group; (ii) this negative relation is more pronounced in firms with CEOs who were younger when they encountered the Great Chinese Famine.
... Potential measurement options. A range of psychometrically valid measures of basic psychological need satisfaction have been validated across diverse life domains, such as (i) health (Williams et al., 1999), (ii) sport (Ng et al., 2011), and (iii) life in general (Kashdan et al., 2006). For example, Rocchi et al.'s (2017) Interpersonal Behaviours Questionnaire (IBQ) can be used to assess need-support and need-thwarting relative to autonomy, competence, and relatedness. ...
Article
Sport tourism literature has paid limited attention to the psychological well-being benefits derived from participating in this form of tourism. This is especially the case for adventure sport tourism, which is characterised by travel to a destination to participate in an adventure sport event, such as competitive surfing or mountain biking. Through an analysis of the contemporary literature regarding adventure sport, tourism, and psychological well-being, we propose a conceptual model of the psychological processes underlying well-being outcomes for adventure sport tourists. The conceptual model explains how adventure sport tourism participation affects hedonic and eudaimonic psychological well-being via the satisfaction of basic psychological needs (autonomy, competence, relatedness) and nature connectedness. We argue that this conceptual model has the potential to advance knowledge in relation to the theory, practice, and design of adventure sport tourism. We outline research propositions emanating from the conceptual model and directions for future research on adventure sport tourism and psychological well-being.
... Dispositional gratitude is defined as the tendency to be aware of situations in which one is the benefactor of a positive outcome or good deed by someone else, and experience state gratitude in response to such situations (McCullough et al., 2002). A grateful disposition is widely recognized as a protective factor with a wide range of psychosocial benefits (e.g., Wood et al., 2010), including reported negative associations between gratitude and mental health symptoms such as depressive symptoms (Krause, 2009;Petrocchi and Couyoumdjian, 2016), anxiety (Kashdan et al., 2006;Petrocchi and Couyoumdjian, 2016), suicidality (Kleiman et al., 2013), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms (Richardson and Gallagher, 2020), and alcohol (Leppma et al., 2018), and substance use (Leung and Tong, 2017). Accordingly, gratitude could be important to consider for those at greater risk of psychological distress, such as military veterans, for whom there is interest in identifying and treating psychiatric illness. ...
Article
Dispositional gratitude may be linked to positive mental health outcomes, yet population-based data on this association are lacking. Military veterans are an ideal population in which to examine this question given high rates of psychiatric morbidities and efforts to promote psychological resilience in this population. Data were analyzed from a nationally representative sample of 3,151 U.S. veterans. Veterans were separated into three groups based on an assessment of level of dispositional gratitude: high gratitude (weighted 79.8%), moderate gratitude (9.6%), and low gratitude (10.5%). Multivariable analyses examined the associations between level of dispositional gratitude, and measures of mental health and psychosocial variables. A “dose-response” association was observed between levels of dispositional gratitude and odds of psychiatric morbidities. Higher dispositional gratitude was associated with decreased risk for lifetime history of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depressive disorder (MDD), social phobia, nicotine dependence, and suicide attempts, and decreased risk for current PTSD, MDD, generalized anxiety disorder, and suicidal ideation (odds ratio range = 0.16-0.65). Higher dispositional gratitude was additionally associated with resilience-promoting characteristics such as optimism, curiosity, purpose in life, perceived social support, and religiosity/spirituality (Cohen’s d range = 0.11-0.73). Dispositional gratitude is prevalent in U.S. veterans, is negatively associated with psychiatric morbidities, and may help promote psychosocial factors linked to resilience in this population. Stratification of veterans with low, moderate, and high dispositional gratitude may help identify those who are at increased risk for psychiatric illness and in need of additional support.
... Therefore, it is perhaps not surprising that researchers have investigated the relationship between character strengths and resilience. Although it is clear from the literature that there are relationships among resilience and character strengths, the nature of these relationships is not consistent across studies [13,14,15,16]. This is likely a reflection of differences in how resilience has been assessed (recovery from psychological and physical illness, self-report scales, and presence of psychological disorders), and how character strengths were analyzed (independently, and grouped by factor analysis). ...
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Introduction: The importance of both character and resilience for critical occupations (military, emergency medicine, first responders, and correctional officers) has been emphasized at the highest levels of military leadership. No studies to date have examined the relationship between character strengths and resilience within military populations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the perceived importance of character strengths for Canadian military cadet success, the top strengths endorsed by cadets, and, in a subset of cadets, the relationships among core strengths and resilience. In line with previous research on character strengths in military populations, we predicted that bravery, honesty, perseverance, and teamwork might be included in the five most frequent signature strengths. Methods: A total of 360 Naval/Officer Cadets from a Canadian Military College were invited to participate in a study during two training sessions. Participants (n = 153) first completed a survey comprised of a resilience measure and demographic items. Then, one month later, students (n=134) were asked to complete a Values in Action (VIA) character strengths profile, and a survey with questions related to character strengths (their personal top-five character strengths, and strengths they believed were important for military-related stressors and leadership, academic success, resilience, and completion of military challenge). We were only able to match responses for a subset of participants, allowing a final sample of 94 participants. Results: Findings indicated that military cadets consider perseverance, judgment, teamwork, perspective, and self-reg- ulation to be most critical for bouncing back from stressors. However, in line with our predictions, the most frequently endorsed strengths that characterized cadets were bravery, honesty, and perseverance. Finally, perseverance (p = .029), bravery (p = .01), and humor = .01) were positively correlated with cadet resilience, while endorsement of love was neg- atively correlated with resilience (p = .002). Conclusion: Focus on character strengths in military cadets can enhance academic and physical performance. Resilience assessment could be important for the purposes of military selection, performance, and well-being. Our findings indicate perseverance, bravery, and humor in particular might be relevant indicators of cadet resilience.
... Potential measurement issues One advantage of incorporating SDT principles into a conceptual framework of adventure (Figure 1), is the ability to accurately measure (a) need-supportive motivational climates; (b) psychological need satisfaction; and (c) SWB. Psychometrically valid and reliable measures of psychological need satisfaction exist for diverse life domains, such as (i) health (Williams, Cox, Kouides, & Deci, 1999), (ii) sport (Ng, Lonsdale, & Hodge, 2011), and (iii) life in general (Kashdan, Julian, Merritt, & Uswatte, 2006). Martela and Ryan (2016) recently developed a four-item measure of beneficence satisfaction that could be used to measure the satisfaction of this need. ...
Article
Full-text available
Despite the documented positive outcomes of adventure experiences, subjective well-being (SWB) frameworks have been largely absent from discourse and analyses in adventure studies. This conceptual paper proposes a framework for understanding how adventure recreation experiences promote eudaemonic SWB. In our framework, we propose that adventure recreation fosters eudaemonic aspects of SWB by supporting the satisfaction of basic psychological needs for autonomy, competence, relatedness and beneficence. The framework also integrates ‘contact with nature’ as an important mechanism through which adventure recreation fosters eudaemonic SWB. Analysis of research and practice across diverse aspects of adventure recreation (leisure, tourism, and education contexts) is used to support the proposed framework and to critically evaluate how psychological models, such as self-determination theory (SDT) and SWB, can advance theory and practice in adventure recreation. We conclude by offering a number of suggestions for future research directions and practical implications.
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This study examines the effect of short-term adventure-based outdoor programs (AOP) on reducing college students’ stress levels. The effects of sex and different outdoor adventure activities in stress reduction are also evaluated. Thirty-three college students participated in selected short-term backpacking, canoeing, and kayaking programs. Student's salivary samples were collected to evaluate physiological stress response (as measured by levels of cortisol) and their psychological stress levels were collected through a modified 12-item questionnaire. Stress responses were measured at three different time points, including the second weekly meeting in the classroom, before the field trip, and at the conclusion of the field trip. Findings suggest that short-term AOP affords opportunities for college students to be away from daily challenges, and in turn reduce college students’ psychological stress levels and provide a temporary relief of physiological stress levels. No significant differences in college students’ stress levels were found between sex and different outdoor adventure activities.
Chapter
Arbeitsmotivation ist entscheidend für den Erfolg von Individuen, Teams und Organisationen. Entsprechend groß ist das Interesse von Wissenschaftlern und Praktikern an dieser Schlüsselvariable, die Leistung, Commitment und Arbeitszufriedenheit zu erklären vermag. Das vorliegende Kapitel gibt eine Einführung in die klassischen Theorien der Mitarbeitermotivation und in die gegenwärtige anwendungsbezogene Forschung zum Thema. Den Abschluss bildet das 3 K-Modell der Motivation, ein Rahmenmodell, das eine umfassende Systematik der Bestimmungsgrößen der Mitarbeitermotivation liefert.
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This research has been carried out to study the role of emotional and civic strengths in predicting task and contextual performance in workers. Within this scope, 157 employees were randomly selected from the Nurses in public hospitals of Isfahan as the research sample. The instruments used in this study were the Values in Action-Inventory of Strengths (VIA-IS, Peterson & Seligman 2003), Task Performance Checklist (Byrne et al. 2005) and Contextual Performance Checklist (Conway, 1999).The analysis of r-Pearson's correlation revealed positive relationship between the emotional and civic strengths with task and contextual performance (p<0/001). Stepwise regression results were indicated that persistence and honesty predicted task and honesty and leadership predicted contextual performance. These findings could be used in organizations to increase task and contextual performance.
Chapter
Work motivation is an important determinant of the success of individuals, teams, and organizations. Researchers and professionals are therefore interested in motivation as a key variable that can explain performance, commitment, and work satisfaction. This chapter provides an introduction to classic theories of employee motivation and current applied research. Finally, the chapter will introduce the 3C-model of motivation as a framework for the comprehensive classification of the determinants of employee motivation.
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This research carried out to study the role of religious strengths in predicting task and contextual performance in employees. 160 employees were randomly selected from the personnel of an electricity power plant in Isfahan as the research sample. The instruments used in this study were the Values in Action. Inventory of Strengths (VIA-IS, Peterson & Seligman 2003),the Task Performance Checklist (Byrne et al, 2005) and the Contextual Performance Checklist (Conway, 1999). The analysis of r-Pearson's correlation revealed positive relationships between the religious strengths with task and contextual performance (p<0/001).Step wise regression results were indicated that the spirituality and hope strengths predicted task performance, and gratitude and hope predicted contextual performance. These results suggest religious strengths of people are involved in their job performance. These findings could be used in organizations to increase task and contextual performance. ٌ‫
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Psikolojik iyi oluş düzeyi genel olarak bireyin yaşamında karşılaştığı varoluşsal mücadelelerini yönetmesi olarak tanımlanmaktadır. Psikolojik iyi oluşun kendini-kabul, diğerleri ile olumlu ilişkiler, özerklik, çevresel kontrol, yaşam amacı ve kişisel gelişim olmak üzere altı boyutu bulunmaktadır. Bu araştırmanın amacı üniversite öğrencilerinin öz-yeterlik ve etkileşim kaygısı düzeylerinin psikolojik iyi oluşlarını yordama gücünü ortaya koymaktır. Araştırmaya 2015-2016 Eğitim-Öğretim yılında Mehmet Akif Ersoy Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesinin farklı bölümlerine devam eden 127 (%59) kadın, 88 (%41) erkek olmak üzere toplam 215 öğrenci katılmıştır. Araştırmanın verileri Psikolojik İyi oluş Ölçeği, Öz-Yeterlik Ölçeği ve Etkileşim Kaygısı Ölçeği ile elde edilmiştir. Araştırmada, üniversite öğrencilerinin öz-yeterlik ve etkileşim kaygısı düzeylerinin psikolojik iyi oluşlarını yordama gücünü ortaya koymak için standart çoklu regresyon analizi kullanılmıştır. Elde edilen bulgulara göre öz-yeterlik ve etkileşim kaygısı psikolojik iyi oluşun %15’ini açıklamaktadır. Regresyon katsayılarının anlamlılığına ilişkin t testi sonuçları incelendiğinde öz-yeterliğin psikolojik iyi oluşu pozitif yönde anlamlı şekilde yordadığı ve etkileşim kaygısının ise psikolojik iyi oluşu negatif yönde anlamlı düzeyde yordadığı bulunmuştur.
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This study examines additive, curvilinear, and interactive relations of anxiety and depression with several subjective indicators of intrapersonal (i.e., hope, self-compassion, shame) and interpersonal (i.e., social connectedness, quality of social relationships) functioning in a sample of adults (N = 547, Mage = 43.37 ± 12.02, female = 56.88%) seeking treatment for psychological difficulties. Results of complementary analyses were largely consistent with the hypothesis that increasing levels of anxiety and depression would correspond with worse psychosocial functioning, although non-linear relations indicated that the effect of depression progressively attenuated at higher levels of symptom severity. Whereas the findings generally supported additive effects of anxiety and depression, the hypothesis that there would be synergistic effects of anxiety and depression was not supported. Supplementary group comparisons revealed that the functional implications of subsyndromal combinations of anxiety and depression may be comparable to those associated with symptoms that meet more traditional standards (i.e., syndromal or dimensional definitions) of comorbid anxiety-depression. The findings offer further insight into the complex relations of anxiety and depression with psychosocial functioning and emphasize the importance of detecting and offering appropriate treatments for anxiety and depression symptoms that co-exist at subsyndromal levels.
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This chapter offers a review of what is called positive psychotherapy (PPT) and the existing positive psychology clinical interventions (PPIs) currently being used in the field. We examine their efficacy and use within clinical and non-clinical populations. We further review the 24 character strengths, also used in PPT, as an adjunct to therapy and their corresponding over- and underuse. The chapter is further supplemented by the work of a Jordanian positive psychologist currently using PPIs and the principles of positive community development in different refugee hosting areas in Jordan. The lessons provided will be of value to clinicians in the region and elsewhere.
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Conventional wisdom in the field of management emphasizes the reduction of stress in the workplace. Although the authors of this chapter recognize the demonstrated destructive nature of negative stress, they argue that the introduction of positive stress has the potential to improve the health and wellbeing for organizations and workers. Five positive pathways through which stress can contribute to building a healthy workplace are explored: strength of character, self‐awareness, power sharing, requisite self‐reliance, and a supportive organizational culture. Following a summary and integration of these five positive pathways, the authors offer essential practical suggestions related to stress interventions which promote healthy organizations and people. Finally, the chapter presents some promising findings from a review of the stress intervention literature.
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Objective: The present meta-analysis consolidated research examining how positive expectancies (e.g., hope, self-efficacy, and optimism) may protect against the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Method: Articles were identified by searching PILOTS, PsycINFO, PubMed, and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses databases. Results: Aggregated results from 154 studies indicated that positive expectancies were associated with lower levels of PTSD symptoms. This relationship was stronger for coping-specific self-efficacy (k = 38, r = -.49; -.54 to -.43) and hope (k = 20, r = -.34; -.39 to -.28) compared with general self-efficacy (k = 45, r = -.25; -.30 to -.20) and optimism (k = 59, r = -.29; -.33 to -.25) when examining cross-sectional studies, and results were consistent in prospective studies. Age and gender did not moderate the cross-sectional relationships. Conclusions: These findings indicate that positive expectancies predict post-trauma resilience. Future research should identify moderators and examine positive expectancies as mechanisms of change in therapy.
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Social avoidance in the concept of “avoidance of corrective emotional experience” is regarded as one of the pathogenetic factors that aff ect the course and development of mental disorders and increase distress. We conducted a review of studies that studied the role of social avoidance in social anxiety disorder among individuals with or without post-traumatic experience. Inclusion criteria were: 1) subjects were diagnosed with social anxiety disorder; 2) social anxiety disorder and/or post-traumatic stress was a focus of the study; 3) some assessment or review impact of social avoidance was made; 4) subjects were adolescents or adults. The study of the role of avoiding social events as a traumatic trigger and related socially signifi cant factors (stigma, discrimination, living at constant risk, etc.) indicates a correlation between the pathogenesis of social phobia and comorbid symptoms of post-traumatic distress. Managing social avoidance strategies and accepting the conscious experience of social interaction presupposes a person’s readiness to react fl exibly, stay in contact with their emotions and thoughts, and not spend internal resources to get rid of the inner concerns. In our opinion, this will help reduce the perception of social events as a traumatic (retraumatic) factor, reduce clinically signifi cant manifestations of social anxiety and prevent the development of post-traumatic distress. Limitations and implications of these fi ndings for the psychological support and modifying psychotherapeutic interventions of social anxiety disorder are discussed.
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This study examined shyness as a potential mediator in the relationship between academic satisfaction and flourishing among Turkish music teacher education students. Using a questionnaire-based survey design, data were collected from 162 (100 female and 62 male) pre-service music teachers. The Shyness Scale, the Academic Life Satisfaction Scale and the Flourishing Scale were used for data collection. The bootstrap re-sampling method was employed using Hayes’s SPSS PROCESS macro. Results of bivariate correlations showed that, higher academic satisfaction was associated with increased flourishing as expected, whereas higher shyness was associated with decreased flourishing. The mediation model was significant for the contribution of shyness. These findings offer useful implications for the instructors of pre-service music teachers and counseling professionals in higher education.
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This PRISMA scoping review explores existing research conducted with United States military samples utilizing ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to evaluate mental health outcomes. EMA facilitates understanding of temporal changes of dynamic variables subject to change difficult to capture in standard laboratory assessment. It also elucidates understanding of complex etiology of mental illness in military and veteran samples and treatment approaches. Thirty-two articles published between 1995 and 2019 met inclusion criteria. Most (68.7%) included studies examined mental health symptoms and their temporal relationship to other outcomes among servicemembers and/or veterans, particularly posttraumatic stress disorder and substance use disorders. EMA was frequently employed to better understand underlying mechanisms of mental illness, predict symptom changes, assess feasibility among special populations, and assess treatment outcomes. Considerable variability existed in assessment period duration, number of daily assessments, and EMA modalities utilized. Several research gaps were identified, including underutilization of EMA to study suicide risk in veterans/servicemembers. EMA has great potential for increasing understanding of an array of complex mental health problems; however, this highly promising approach has been largely underutilized to study mental health issues among veteran and military populations to date, perhaps due institutional delays in its adoption secondary to privacy/data security concerns.
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Ergenlik dönemi insan yaşantısındaki önemli dönemlerden biridir. Bu dönemde bireyde oluşmaya başlayan hızlı ve çok boyutlu değişim ve gelişimler beraberinde birçok risk faktörünü getirmektedir. Özellikle bu dönemde ergenin duygusal gelişiminden kaynaklanan duygu inişçıkışları ve patlamaları oldukça sık gözlenmektedir. Hem duygusal problemler –içselleştirme (internalizing) hem de davranışsal problemler-dışsallaştırma (externalizing) ergenlik döneminde çocukluğa göre artış gösteren durumlar olarak belirtilmekte ve ergen için olumsuz deneyimlere neden olmaktadır. Pozitif psikoloji son dönemde en fazla dikkat çeken yaklaşımlardandır. Bu yaklaşım önceki hastalık ve hastalığın sebepleri temelli yaklaşımlara alternatif olarak geliştirilmiştir. Olumsuz tanıların yerine alternatif olumlu tanılar ve tanımlamalarla ortaya çıkar. Yeterlilik temellidir. Bireyin yeterliliklerini temel alarak ilerlemeyi kabul eder. Karakter güçleri ve erdemli oluş değerler sınıflaması pozitif psikoloji temelli bir sistemdir. Karakter güçleri ve erdemli oluş kavramı altı ana erdem boyutu altında yirmi dört karakter gücünü kapsayan bir değerler sınıflamasıdır. Yapılan araştırmalarda değerlere sahip olmanın yaşam doyumuyla doğrudan bağlantılı olduğu saptanmıştır. Bu araştırmanın amacı, ergenlik döneminde ortaya çıkan içselleştirme ve dışsallaştırma belirtilerine ilişkin karakter güçlerinin koruyucu etkisi olup olmadığının incelenmesidir. Araştırma kapsamında içselleştirme ve dışsallaştırma problemlerinin sosyo-demografik değişkenlere göre farklılaşıp farklılaşmadığı da incelenmiştir. Bu araştırmada dışsallaştırma problemleri Jessor ve Jessor (1977) Problem Davranış Kuramı’ na göre ele alınmıştır. Burada belirtilenler sigara kullanımı, alkol ve madde kullanımı, intihar eğilimi, anti-sosyal davranışlar, erken yaşta güvensiz cinsel ilişki ve yeme sorunlarıdır. İçselleştirme problemleri olarak depresyon, anksiyete, fobiler, obsesif kompusif bozukluk ele alınmıştır. Araştırmaya Van il merkezinden 1138 ergen katılmıştır. Araştırmada veri aracı olarak katılımcıların demografik özeliklerini belirlemek amacıyla; Demografik Bilgi Formu kullanılmıştır. Duygusal ve davranışsal problemleri belirlemek amacıyla 11-18 Yaş Grubu Gençler İçin Kendini Değerlendirme Ölçeği ( Youth Self Report –YSR-11/18 ) ve Kısa Belirti Tarama Listesi-53 (SCL-53) uygulanmıştır. Son olarak karakter güçlerini belirlemek için ülkemizde ilk defa VIA Gençlik Taraması (VIA Youth Survey-96) kullanılmıştır. Araştırma sonucunda elde edilen bulgular değerlendirildiğinde sosyo-demografik özellikler içerisinde anne eğitim düzeyi önemli bir değişken olarak saptanmıştır. Anne eğitim düzeyi arttıkça ergende dikkat problemleri ve kural dışı davranışlar görülmektedir. Ayrıca anne eğitim düzeyi yüksek ergenler Bilgelik ve Ölçülülük erdem boyutlarında daha düşük özellikler göstermiştir. Kızlarda daha çok içselleştirme erkeklerde ise dışsallaştırma problemleri görülmüştür. Erkeklerin kızlara göre değerleri daha düşüktür. Araştırma yapılan sınıflarda sınıf düzeyi yükseldikçe değerlerin oranlarında düşme meydana gelmiştir. Karakter güçlerine ilişkin bulgularda ise karakter güçlerinin içselleştirme problemlerine ilişkin çok yüksek oranda koruyucu olduğu saptanmıştır. İçselleştirme problemlerinin temelinde dışsallaştırma problemleri yer almaktadır. Doğrudan etkisine bakıldığında karakter güçleri dışsallaştırma problemlerine ilişkin daha zayıf bir oranda koruyucudur. Ancak karakter güçlerinin içselleştirme problemleri üzerinden dışsallaştırma problemlerine dolaylı etkisi göz önünde bulundurulduğunda oldukça yüksek bir koruyuculuğa sahip olduğu saptanmıştır. Sonuç olarak karakter güçlerinin ergenlikte geliştirilmesi ve pekiştirilmesiyle ortaya çıkacak içselleştirme ve dışsallaştırma problemleri azaltılacak ve ergenlerin yaşadığı riskler büyük oranda azaltılmış olacaktır.
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Background : Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a chronic and disabling psychiatric disorder associated with low levels of help-seeking. To date, however, scarce research has examined the epidemiology of SAD in veterans. This study examined the prevalence, comorbidities and incremental burden of SAD in relation to suicidality and functioning in a representative sample of U.S. military veterans. Methods : A nationally representative sample of 3,157 U.S. veterans completed a web survey containing measures of SAD symptoms, trauma history, psychiatric history and functioning. Multivariable analyses were conducted to examine associations between SAD and psychiatric comorbidities, suicidality and functioning. Results : A total 9.5% (n=272) of the sample screened positive for lifetime SAD. Veterans with SAD were more likely than those without SAD to be younger, female, single, racial/ethnic minorities and to have experienced childhood abuse. They also had substantially elevated rates of comorbid psychiatric disorders, particularly lifetime major depression (odds ratio [OR]=5.8) and posttraumatic stress disorder (OR=3.1), as well as current suicidal ideation (OR=3.3). Veterans with SAD scored lower on measures of functioning, particularly social, emotional and mental health functioning (d’s=0.21-0.34). Limitations : Data were collected cross-sectionally using self-report. Conclusions : SAD is prevalent and associated with psychiatric comorbidities, functional impairment and a more than 3-fold greater risk for suicidal ideation in U.S. veterans. Given that SAD is associated with low treatment seeking and engagement, it may be undetected and undertreated relative to other psychiatric morbidities. These results underscore the importance of screening, monitoring and treating SAD in this population along with other prevalent mental disorders.
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Background: The current study aimed to examine the effects of combat exposure and killing on mental and subjective physical health later in life among Korean Vietnam War veterans.Methods: The data were collected from 342 male veterans with a mean age of 72 years (SD=2.57). Veterans were divided based on their histories into three groups: no experience (Group 1), combat exposure only (Group 2), and both killing and combat exposure (Group 3). Analyses of variance (ANOVAs) examined group differences in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, anxiety symptoms, hostility, and perceived physical health.Results: The ANOVAs showed that PTSD, anxiety symptoms and hostility were most prevalent among the veterans in Group 3 (both killing and combat exposure). No significant differences were found between Groups 1 and 2. Perceived physical health was highest among the veterans in Group 1 (no experience). There were no differences between Groups 2 and 3. Even after controlling for the impacts of optimism and social support after homecoming, these results were similar.Conclusions: The findings indicate that killing experience and combat exposure should be considered in designing interventions for veterans deployed into active combat zones.
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Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common reaction to traumatic events. Many people recover in the ensuing months, but in a significant subgroup the symptoms persist, often for years. A cognitive model of persistence of PTSD is proposed. It is suggested that PTSD becomes persistent when individuals process the trauma in a way that leads to a sense of serious, current threat. The sense of threat arises as a consequence of: (1) excessively negative appraisals of the trauma and/or ist sequelae and (2) a disturbance of autobiographical memory characterised by poor elaboration and contextualisation, strong associative memory and strong perceptual priming. Change in the negative appraisals and the trauma memory are prevented by a series of problematic behavioural and cognitive strategies. The model is consistent with the main clinical features of PTSD, helps explain several apparently puzzling phenomena and provides a framework for treatment by identifying three key targets for change. Recent studies provided preliminary support for several aspects of the model.
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The primary objectives of this article are (a) to put forth an explicit operational formulation of positive human health that goes beyond prevailing "absence of illness" criteria; (b) to clarify that positive human health does not derive from extant medical considerations, which are not about wellness, but necessarily require a base in philosophical accounts of the "goods" in life; (c) to provoke a change of emphasis from strong tendencies to construe human health as exclusively about the mind or the body toward an integrated and positive spiral of mind-body influences; (d) to delineate possible physiological substrates of human flourishing and offer future directions for understanding the biology of positive health; and (e) to discuss implications of positive health for diverse scientific agendas (e.g., stress, class and health, work and family life) and for practice in health fields (e.g., training, health examinations, psychotherapy, and wellness intervention programs).
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We examined hope as a potential resiliency factor for the daily strains of raising children with disruptive behavior disorders. In light of the motivational component of hope theory, initiating and sustaining effort toward goals (i.e., agency), we were interested in hope's relation to constructs addressing self-esteem, familial functioning, and stress. Two hundred, fifty-two parents of children with externalizing disorders completed self-report questionnaires. Significant associations were foundamong hope and parental and familial functioning indices (e.g., warm and nurturing parenting styles, cohesive and active family environment, adaptive coping strategies). Considering their conceptual overlap, we tested the unique predictive power of hope and optimistic attributions on indices of psychological functioning. Separate regressions indicated that hope significantly predicted psychological functioning beyond what was accounted for by social desirability, the severity of child symptoms, and optimistic attributions. Hope agency compared to hope pathways (i.e., perceived ability to generate strategies to obtain goals) accounted for the vast amount of variance in regression models. In contrast, optimistic attributions failed to predict any of the variables of interest. Treatment and prevention strategies are suggested with an integrated focus on both the disruptive behaviors of children and parental character traits.
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W. Wilson's (1967) review of the area of subjective well-being (SWB) advanced several conclusions regarding those who report high levels of "happiness." A number of his conclusions have been overturned: youth and modest aspirations no longer are seen as prerequisites of SWB. E. Diener's (1984) review placed greater emphasis on theories that stressed psychological factors. In the current article, the authors review current evidence for Wilson's conclusions and discuss modern theories of SWB that stress dispositional influences, adaptation, goals, and coping strategies. The next steps in the evolution of the field are to comprehend the interaction of psychological factors with life circumstances in producing SWB, to understand the causal pathways leading to happiness, understand the processes underlying adaptation to events, and develop theories that explain why certain variables differentially influence the different components of SWB (life satisfaction, pleasant affect, and unpleasant affect). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The psychometric adequacy of the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS; R. P. Mattick & J. C. Clark, 1989), a measure of social interaction anxiety, and the Social Phobia Scale (SPS; R. P. Mattick & J. C. Clark, 1989), a measure of anxiety while being observed by others, was evaluated in anxious patients and normal controls. Social phobia patients scored higher on both scales and were more likely to be identified as having social phobia than other anxious patients (except for agoraphobic patients on the SPS) or controls. Clinician-rated severity of social phobia was moderately related to SIAS and SPS scores. Additional diagnoses of mood or panic disorder did not affect SIAS or SPS scores among social phobia patients, but an additional diagnosis of generalized anxiety disorder was associated with SIAS scores. Number of reported feared social interaction situations was more highly correlated with scores on the SIAS, whereas number of reported feared performance situations was more highly correlated with scores on the SPS. These scales appear to be useful in screening, designing individualized treatments, and evaluating the outcomes of treatments for social phobia. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The independence of positive and negative affect has been heralded as a major and counterintuitive finding in the psychology of mood and emotion. Still, other findings support the older view that positive and negative fall at opposite ends of a single bipolar continuum. Independence versus bipolarity can be reconciled by considering (a) the activation dimension of affect, (b) random and systematic measurement error, and (c) how items are selected to achieve an appropriate test of bipolarity. In 3 studies of self-reported current affect, random and systematic error were controlled through multiformat measurement and confirmatory factor analysis. Valence was found to be independent of activation, positive affect the bipolar opposite of negative affect, and deactivation the bipolar opposite of activation. The dimensions underlying D. Watson, L. A. Clark, and A. Tellegen's (1988) Positive and Negative Affect schedule were accounted for by the valence and activation dimensions.
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Twice a week for up to 10 weeks, 103 participants provided measures of their daily self-concept clarity (SCC), mood (negative affect [NA] and positive affect [PA]), and self-esteem (SE), and they described the events that occurred each day. Multilevel random coefficient modeling analyses found that daily SCC covaried with daily positive and negative events, with daily NA, and with daily SE. None of these relationships was moderated by trait levels of SE, SCC, PA, NA, or measures of depressogenic self-concept, anxiety, or depressive symptoms. Analyses that simultaneously included SE, mood, and events suggested that relationships between daily SCC and daily events were mediated by daily NA and daily SE. Such mediation suggests that daily events lead to changes in mood and SE, which in turn lead to changes in SCC. Additional analyses found that temporal variability of SE, PA, NA, and SCC was negatively correlated with trait SCC.
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Increasingly, social and personality psychologists are conducting studies in which data are collected simultaneously at multiple levels, with hypotheses concerning effects that involve multiple levels of analysis. In studies of naturally occurring social interaction, data describing people and their social interactions are collected simultaneously. This article discuses how to analyze such data using random coefficient modeling. Analyzing data describing day-to-day social interaction is used to illustrate the analysis of event-contingent data (when specific events trigger or organize data collection), and analyzing data describing reactions to daily events is used to illustrate the analysis of interval-contingent data (when data are collected at intervals). Different analytic strategies are presented, the shortcomings of ordinary least squares analyses are described, and the use of multilevel random coefficient modeling is discussed in detail. Different modeling techniques, the specifics of formulating and testing hypotheses, and the differences between fixed and random effects are also considered.
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Two studies examined individual and environmental forces that affect engagement in prosocial behavior. Self-determination theory was used to derive a model in which autonomy orientation and autonomy support predicted satisfaction of three core psychological needs, which in turn led to engagement in prosocial activities. In Study 1, college students reported their engagement in various prosocial activities, and completed measures of autonomy orientation, parental autonomy support, and general need satisfaction. In Study 2, volunteer workers completed measures of autonomy orientation, work autonomy support and need satisfaction at work. The number of volunteered hours indicated the amount of prosocial engagement. Results across the studies showed that autonomy orientation was strongly related to engagement in prosocial behavior, while autonomy support was modestly related. Need satisfaction partially mediated the effect of autonomy orientation, and fully mediated the effect of autonomy support. Interestingly, autonomy support predicted lower volunteer turnover. Implications for how prosocial behavior can be motivated are discussed.
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In this article we propose mechanisms that govern the processing of emotional information, particularly those involved in fear reduction. Emotions are viewed as represented by information structures in memory, and anxiety is thought to occur when an information structure that serves as program to escape or avoid danger is activated. Emotional processing is defined as the modification of memory structures that underlie emotions. It is argued that some form of exposure to feared situations is common to many psychotherapies for anxiety, and that confrontation with feared objects or situations is an effective treatment. Physiological activation and habituation within and across exposure sessions are cited as indicators of emotional processing, and variables that influence activation and habituation of fear responses are examined. These variables and the indicators are analyzed to yield an account of what information must be integrated for emotional processing of a fear structure. The elements of such a structure are viewed as cognitive representations of the stimulus characteristic of the fear situation, the individual's responses in it, and aspects of its meaning for the individual. Treatment failures are interpreted with respect to the interference of cognitive defenses, autonomic arousal, mood state, and erroneous ideation with reformation of targeted fear structures. Applications of the concepts advanced here to therapeutic practice and to the broader study of psychopathology are discussed.
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Despite broad agreement that understanding a personality construct requires integrating trait and state levels of analysis, few studies have explicitly attempted such an integration. The present study did this by examining the relationships between trait and state measures of empathy. State measures were taken daily, with a focus on the day level (within-person) covariation between empathy and daily mood and events. Twice a week for up to 10 weeks, 103 participants provided measures of their daily empathy and mood (NA and PA) and described the events that occurred each day. Multilevel random coefficient modeling analyses found that daily empathy covaried positively with the impact of daily positive and negative social events and with daily positive and negative affect. Empathy did not covary with achievement-related events. Analyses that simultaneously included empathy, mood, and events suggested that daily NA mediated relationships between daily empathy and daily negative social events. Although mean daily empathy was positively related to trait empathy, trait empathy did not moderate relationships between daily empathy and events nor between daily empathy and mood. Moreover, daily empathy did not covary with daily depressogenic thinking, need for cognition, nor self-esteem, suggesting that empathy is distinct from these constructs. Possible mechanisms linking social events and empathy, such as emotional contagion, are discussed.
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In four studies, the authors examined the correlates of the disposition toward gratitude. Study 1 revealed that self-ratings and observer ratings of the grateful disposition are associated with positive affect and well-being prosocial behaviors and traits, and religiousness/spirituality. Study 2 replicated these findings in a large nonstudent sample. Study 3 yielded similar results to Studies 1 and 2 and provided evidence that gratitude is negatively associated with envy and materialistic attitudes. Study 4 yielded evidence that these associations persist after controlling for Extraversion/positive affectivity, Neuroticism/negative affectivity, and Agreeableness. The development of the Gratitude Questionnaire, a unidimensional measure with good psychometric properties, is also described.
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The relations of dispositional hope to various self-reported cancer-related coping activities were examined in 115 college women. Dispositionally high- as compared to low-hope women were more knowledgeable about cancer, and this relationship remained when the shared variances due to previous academic achievement, experience with cancer among family or friends, and positive and negative affectivity were removed. Additionally, high- as compared to low-hope women reported more hope-related coping responses in four separate imagined phases of cancer (prevention/risk, detection, temporal course, and impact), and these relationships remained when shared variances related to previous academic achievement, knowledge about cancer, experience with cancer, and negative affectivity were removed. Hope is discussed as means of maintaining a “fighting spirit” for coping with cancer.
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The relationship between social and community ties and mortality was assessed using the 1965 Human Population Laboratory survey of a random sample of 6928 adults in Alameda County, California and a subsequent nine-year mortaNty follow-up. The findings show that people who lacked social and community ties were more likely to die in the follow-up period than those with more extensive contacts. The age-Adjusted relative risks for those most isoiated when compared to those with the most social contacts were 2.3 for men and 2.8 for women. The association between social ties and mortality was found to be independent of self-reported physical health status at the time of the 1965 survey, year of death, socioeconomic status, and health practices such as smoking, alcoholic beverage consumption, obesity, physical actIvity, and utilization of preventive health services as well as a cumulative Index of health practices.
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The relationship between social and community ties and mortality was assessed using the 1965 Human Population Laboratory survey of a random sample of 6928 adults in Alameda County, California and a subsequent nine-year mortality follow-up. The findings show that people who lacked social and community ties were more likely to die in the follow-up period than those with more extensive contacts. The age-adjusted relative risks for those most Isolated when compared to those with the most social contacts were 2.3 for men and 2.8 for women. The association between social ties and mortality was found to be independent of self-reported physical health status at the time of the 1965 survey, year of death, socioeconomic status, and health practices such as smoking, alcoholic beverage consumption, obesity, physical activity, and utilization of preventive health services as well as a cumulative index of health practices.
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The comorbidity of current and lifetime DSM-IV anxiety and mood disorders was examined in 1,127 outpatients who were assessed with the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for DSM-IV :Lifetime version (ADIS-IV-L). The current and lifetime prevalence of additional Axis I disorders in principal anxiety and mood disorders was found to be 57% and 81%, respectively. The principal diagnostic categories associated with the highest comorbidity rates were mood disorders, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). A high rate of lifetime comorbidity was found between the anxiety and mood disorders; the lifetime association with mood disorders was particularly strong for PTSD, GAD, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and social phobia. The findings are discussed in regard to their implications for the classification of emotional disorders.
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Defining hope as a cognitive set that is composed of a reciprocally derived sense of successful (1) agency (goal-directed determination) and (2) pathways (planning of ways to meet goals), an individual-differences measure is developed. Studies with college students and patients demonstrate acceptable internal consistency and test–retest reliability, and the factor structure identifies the agency and pathways components of the Hope Scale. Convergent and discriminant validity are documented, along with evidence suggesting that Hope Scale scores augmented the prediction of goal-related activities and coping strategies beyond other self-report measures. Construct validational support is provided in regard to predicted goal-setting behaviors; moreover, the hypothesized goal appraisal processes that accompany the various levels of hope are corroborated.
Chapter
Social anxiety is a universal phenomenon. When the level of anxiety, avoidance, and impairment in functioning reaches clinical proportions, a diagnosis of social anxiety disorder (SAD) (also known as SP)-and possibly APD-is made. The assessment methods described in this chapter can be used for assessing subdiagnostic social anxiety as well as SAD per se. Assessment measures for social anxiety have typically been divided into two broad groups: behavioral assessment methods, which include role-playing procedures and self-monitoring, and cognitive assessment procedures, including thought-listing and information-processing paradigms. Primary among these is the fact that whether any given measure is considered a behavioral or a cognitive assessment procedure is more a function of one's theoretical perspective than of the measure itself. The chapter elects various assessment procedures to organize according to the methodology of the procedure. Many of the tools described can be used for different purposes depending on one's goals (e.g., treatment planning in a clinical context, psychopathology research) and one's theoretical orientation (e.g., behaviorist, mediational, cognitivist). The chapter begins by describing a clinical interview, with particular attention to structured clinical interviews. This is followed by a review of the most commonly used self-report questionnaires for social anxiety. Role-playing procedures are then described, followed in turn by self-monitoring and thought-listing techniques. Finally, psychophysiological assessment is discussed briefly.
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Using outpatients with anxiety and mood disorders (N = 350), the authors tested several models of the structural relationships of dimensions of key features of selected emotional disorders and dimensions of the tripartite model of anxiety and depression. Results supported the discriminant validity of the 5 symptom domains examined (mood disorders; generalized anxiety disorder, GAD; panic disorder; obsessive-compulsive disorder; social phobia). Of various structural models evaluated, the best fitting involved a structure consistent with the tripartite model (e.g., the higher order factors, negative affect and positive affect, influenced emotional disorder factors in the expected manner). The latent factor, GAD, influenced the latent factor, autonomic arousal, in a direction consistent with recent laboratory findings (autonomic suppression); Findings are discussed in the context of the growing literature on higher order trait dimensions (e.g., negative affect) that may be of considerable importance to the understanding of the pathogenesis, course, and co-occurrence of emotional disorders.
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The role of genetic and environmental factors in the expression of religious interests, attitudes, and values was examined using data from adult twins reared apart and adult twins reared together. The Religious Values scale of the Allport-Vernon-Lindzey Study of Values, a Religious Interest scale from the Strong Campbell Interest Inventory, the Wiggins Religious Fundamentalism scale from the MMPI, a Leisure Time Religious Interest scale, and a second measure of Occupational Religious Interest were administered to 53 identical and 31 fraternal twin pairs who had been reared apart. The Leisure Time Religious Interest Scale and the second measure of Occupational Religious Interest were also administered to 458 identical and 363 fraternal twin pairs who had been reared together. Biometric model fitting indicated that approximately 50% of the observed variance of all five measures is genetically influenced.
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ABSTRACTvar REST_ID=21;This special issue of the Journal of Personality is devoted to personality and daily experience. Through historical analysis of the daily event literature, empirical inquiry, and methodological and statistical commentary, the contributors to this issue convey both the possibilities and the problems of studying everyday life. These articles demonstrate how people's dispositions, goals, and commitments can influence daily emotional well‐being and health, their inner experience, their reactions to events, and perhaps even which events they encounter. The introduction of personality to the study of daily experience holds the promise of enriching our studies of both.
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In this theoretical paper, it is argued that social anxiety arises from the activation of an evolved mechanism for dealing with intra-species (conspecific) threat, a mechanism which has played a vital role in the evolution of social groups. A model is developed showing how this “agonic” mode of defense, working through the psychological systems of appraisal and coping, leads the socially anxious to perceive others as hostile dominants, to fear negative evaluation from them and to respond, at one level of the disorder, by appeasement and submissive behavior, and at a more severe level of the disorder, by more primitive actions such as escape or avoidance. A further theme put forward is that the socially anxious person appears unable to recruit another evolved mechanism for social relating called the “hedonic” mode, in which social groups are structured in terms of cooperation, equality, and mutual support. Some therapeutic implications of these concepts are explored.
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A flood of new studies explores people's subjective well-being (SWB) Frequent positive affect, infrequent negative affect, and a global sense of satisfaction with life define high SWB These studies reveal that happiness and life satisfaction are similarly available to the young and the old, women and men, blacks and whites, the rich and the working-class Better clues to well-being come from knowing about a person's traits, close relationships, work experiences, culture, and religiosity We present the elements of an appraisal-based theory of happiness that recognizes the importance of adaptation, cultural world-view, and personal goals
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Research has yielded conflicting views of the adaptiveness of optimistic beliefs in confronting negative events and information. To test whether optimism functions like denial, the authors examined the prospective relation of optimistic beliefs to attention to threatening health information presented by computer in a college student sample (N= 57). Optimistic beliefs about one's health predicted greater attention to risk information than to neutral or benefit information and greater levels of recall overall, especially when the information was self-relevant. Results concerning attention to risk information were similar, but weaker, for dispositional optimism. Implications for theoretical treatments of optimistic beliefs are discussed.
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Individual differences in emotional reactivity or affective style can be decomposed into more elementary constituents. Several separable of affective style are identified such as the threshold for reactivity, peak amplitude of response, the rise time to peak and the recovery time. latter two characteristics constitute components of affective chronometry The circuitry that underlies two fundamental forms of motivation and and withdrawal-related processes-is described. Data on differences in functional activity in certain components of these are next reviewed, with an emphasis on the nomological network of surrounding individual differences in asymmetric prefrontal The relevance of such differences for understanding the nature affective dysfunction in affective disorders is then considered. The ends by considering what the prefrontal cortex “does” in certain of affective style and highlights some of the important questions for future research.
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This article outlines some basic ideas of an evolutionary approach to psychopathology. It focuses on human competition to be seen as attractive in order to elicit the investment of resources from others (e.g., approval, support, and care). It is argued that social anxiety may be a form of competitive anxiety, triggered in contexts where individuals see themselves as relatively low in the status hierarchy of desirable attributes and/or at risk of losing status (and control over social resources such as approval, help, and support) by being seen as having undesirable attributes. To improve (or defend) their position and garner the investments of others (e.g., win approval, support, friendships or status, or defend their status) requires a competitive venture; however, in attempting to compete, social phobics automatically recruit various evolved modules and mentalities for behaving in competitive arenas when one is low in the hierarchy (e.g., social comparison, placating dominant others and various submissive defenses such as concealment, high self-monitoring, and eye-gaze avoidance). These previously adaptive subordinate defenses interfere with status acquisition based on demonstrating attractive attributes to others.
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Past studies in U.S. work organizations have supported a model derived from self-determination theory in which autonomy-supportive work climates predict satisfaction of the intrinsic needs for competence, autonomy, and relatedness, which in turn predict task motivation and psychological adjustment on the job. To test this model cross-culturally, the authors studied employees of state-owned companies in Bulgaria, a country that has traditionally had a central-planning economy, a totalitarian political system, and collectivist values. A sample from a privately owned American corporation was used for comparison purposes. Results using structural equation modeling suggested that the model fit the data from each country, that the constructs were equivalent across countries, and that some paths of the structural model fit equivalently for the two countries but that county moderated the other paths.
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In recent studies of the structure of affect, positive and negative affect have consistently emerged as two dominant and relatively independent dimensions. A number of mood scales have been created to measure these factors; however, many existing measures are inadequate, showing low reliability or poor convergent or discriminant validity. To fill the need for reliable and valid Positive Affect and Negative Affect scales that are also brief and easy to administer, we developed two 10-item mood scales that comprise the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). The scales are shown to be highly internally consistent, largely uncorrelated, and stable at appropriate levels over a 2-month time period. Normative data and factorial and external evidence of convergent and discriminant validity for the scales are also presented. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)
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Describes the clinical presentation of social phobia, discusses theoretical perspectives on etiology, and surveys empirically supported treatments used to treat the disorder. Although social phobia occurs in children and adults, its manifestation and treatment differ in various age groups. The authors describe the similarities and differences in the syndrome across all ages. Drawing from the clinical, social, and developmental literatures, as well as from their own extensive clinical experience, the authors illustrate the impact of developmental stage on phenomenology, diagnoses, and assessment and treatment of social phobia. Within the different age groups, issues of etiology, prevalence, and clinical management are presented. The volume includes many case illustrations and practical information. This book will be useful for practitioners, researchers, and students. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Research and theory on employee job satisfaction and well-being has increasingly concentrated on both intrinsic and extrinsic motivational factors. According to self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985). autonomy, relatedness, and competence are three intrinsic psychological needs that, if fulfilled in the workplace, will lead to greater satisfaction, performance, and general well-being. This study examines employee and supervisor perceptions of the employee's autonomy, competence, and relatedness in the workplace, as well as the degree and direction of discrepancies between employee and supervisor reports. Both employee and supervisor ratings of intrinsic motivational factors were significantly related to work satisfaction, psychological health, and self-esteem, after controlling for the extrinsic factors of pay and job status. Results of discrepancy analyses were somewhat supportive of overrating being associated with greater well-being and job satisfaction. Discussion of the results ties this study to relevant research from a self-determination perspective and to the growing literature on discrepancies and self-perception.
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This study compares the efficacy of two time-limited group psychotherapies for depression and functional disability in late life. Goal-focused group psychotherapy (GFGP) utilized focused psychoeducation and skills training to assist each patient in the achievement of individualized goals. Reminiscence therapy (RT) emphasized individual life review to facilitate discussion. Subjects (N=13), ages 55 and above, with major depression were randomly assigned to one of the two groups. Most were receiving antidepressant treatment. All had failed to achieve full remission. Whereas both treatment groups improved in depressed mood and disability, GFGP subjects had a far greater change in depressive symptomatology and also improved in the areas of hope, hopelessness, anxiety and social functioning.Copyright © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Upon being exposed to a high self-focus, potentially socially threatening situation, excessively socially anxious (SA) individuals were posited to experience amplified negative emotional states, as well as diminished positive emotional, cognitive, and intimacy-related outcomes. Ninety-one college students engaged in a reciprocal self-disclosure task with a trained confederate. Participants and confederates took turns answering (while a camera was directed at them) and asking questions that gradually increased in personal content. The results indicated that high SA individuals experienced more intense negative affect, less intense positive affect, and poorer social self-efficacy compared to low SA individuals in both conditions. However, differences between high and low SA individuals were larger in the social threat/self-focus condition, and self-focused attention partially accounted for these effects. In terms of specificity, nearly all findings remained after statistically controlling for depressive symptoms. In contrast, social anxiety effects were generally absent on measures of observed behavior and intimacy outcomes. These findings implicate the role of social threat and self-focused attention in contributing to affective and cognitive disturbances among SA individuals.
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Although decades of research have examined relationships between social anxiety and negative outcomes, this study examined relations with indices of positive psychological functioning. In college students (n = 204), a factor analysis on self-report measures of positive psychological functioning derived 3 conceptually meaningful broad domains: Positive Subjective Experiences, Curiosity, and Appetitive Motivations. Analyses were conducted to test whether social interaction anxiety demonstrated unique relationships with positive psychological domains after controlling for shared variance with social observation anxiety (e.g., eating in public, public speaking) and neuroticism. Social interaction anxiety explained unique variance in all 3 domains after separately controlling for social observation anxiety and neuroticism. In contrast, social observation anxiety demonstrated near-zero relationships with all 3 domains, and neuroticism predicted Positive Subjective Experiences, and to a lesser degree, Curiosity. These data provide evidence for the unique association between social interaction anxiety and positive psychological functioning, with implications for future basic and applied research.