Article

Evidence Based Physical Activity for School-age Youth

Department of Pediatrics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, Georgia, USA.
Journal of Pediatrics (Impact Factor: 3.79). 07/2005; 146(6):732-7. DOI: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2005.01.055
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

To review the effects of physical activity on health and behavior outcomes and develop evidence-based recommendations for physical activity in youth.
A systematic literature review identified 850 articles; additional papers were identified by the expert panelists. Articles in the identified outcome areas were reviewed, evaluated and summarized by an expert panelist. The strength of the evidence, conclusions, key issues, and gaps in the evidence were abstracted in a standardized format and presented and discussed by panelists and organizational representatives.
Most intervention studies used supervised programs of moderate to vigorous physical activity of 30 to 45 minutes duration 3 to 5 days per week. The panel believed that a greater amount of physical activity would be necessary to achieve similar beneficial effects on health and behavioral outcomes in ordinary daily circumstances (typically intermittent and unsupervised activity).
School-age youth should participate daily in 60 minutes or more of moderate to vigorous physical activity that is developmentally appropriate, enjoyable, and involves a variety of activities.

  • Source
    • "Parallel to this, Armstrong and McManus[2]found that managers of physical education departments considered that health-related fitness "was the second most important objective of physical education" with happiness of students rated as their prime objective. Martens[48]has strongly emphasised that practitioners' major aim should be to "turn young people on to physical activity for a lifetime" Alexandrov's[6]findings, meanwhile, confirmed the statistically significant positive effects physical education has on blood cholesterol, thereby, reducing blood pressure and heart diseases, while Strong et al.[58]argue that as school becomes increasingly the centre for promoting physical activities, physical education has an important role in improving psychological health and mood, and in reducing blood pressure and thereby preventing or reducing various diseases. On the other hand, a study conducted in Kuwait City by Al-Amari and Zilab[9]assessed the perceptions of school students regarding their knowledge about physical education and the role of health education. "

    Preview · Article · Dec 2015
    • "The health benefits of physical activity in children and adolescents are well documented. Physical activity improves bone mineral density, aerobic fitness, muscular strength and endurance, and mental health, and it decreases cardiovascular risk factors (Janssen and Leblanc, 2010; Strong et al., 2005). Although health consequences of sedentary behavior among youth are less clear (Ekelund et al., 2012), there is evidence of harmful health effects on adults, such as the early onset of cardiovascular disease, excess weight, and obesity (Hassapidou et al., 2013; Heinonen et al., 2013; Sugiyama et al., 2008). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between girls' sexual maturation (age of menarche) and physical activity and sedentary behaviors. Methods: Data were collected from a national representative sample of girls in 2010 (pre-menarcheal girls n = 583, post-menarcheal girls n = 741). Physical activity (times/week and hours/week) and screen-based sedentary time (minutes/day) including television/video/DVD watching, playing videogames, and computer use were self-reported. Results: Pre-menarcheal girls engaged significantly more times in physical activity in the last 7 days than post-menarcheal girls (3.5 ± 1.9 times/week vs. 3.0 ± 1.7 times/week, P < 0.001). There was no significant difference between pre-menarcheal and post-menarcheal girls in time (hours/week) spent in physical activity. Post-menarcheal girls spent significantly more minutes per day than pre-menarcheal girls watching TV, playing videogames, and using computers on weekdays (TV: 165.2 ± 105.8 vs. 136.0 ± 106.3, P < 0.001; videogames 72.0 ± 84.8 vs. 60.3 ± 78.9, P = 0.015; computer: 123.3 ± 103.9 vs. 82.8 ± 95.8, P < 0.001) and on weekends (TV: 249.0 ± 116.2 vs. 209.3 ± 124.8, P < 0.001; videogames: 123.0 ± 114.0 vs. 104.7 ± 103.5, P = 0.020; computer: 177.0 ± 122.2 vs. 119.7 ± 112.7, P < 0.001). After adjusting analyses for age, BMI, and socioeconomic status, differences were still significant for physical activity and for computer use. Conclusion: Specific interventions should be designed for girls to increase their physical activity participation and decrease time spent on the computer, for post-menarcheal girls in particular. Am. J. Hum. Biol., 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · American Journal of Human Biology
  • Source
    • "and a desire to learn and be part of the school (Ahn & Fedewa, 2011; Strong et al., 2005; Trudeau & Shephard, 2010). Other studies have identified that no decrease in academic performance has been observed despite a curtailing of time spent teaching academic subjects in favour of more time participating in PE (Ahamed et al., 2007; Trudeau & Shephard, 2010). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Recent research has confirmed a positive relationship between levels of physical activity and academic achievement. Some of these studies have been informed by neurological models of Executive Functioning (EF). There is a general consensus within the literature that the three core EF skills are; working memory, inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility. The development of these core EF skills has been linked with learning and academic achievement and is an essential component in the delivery of PE using a new and innovative approach called ‘Better Movers and Thinkers (BMT).’ A mixed methods design was used to investigate the effectiveness and feasibility of a 16-week intervention programme using BMT where 46 children were tested on two separate occasions for coordination and balance control, academic skills, working memory and non-verbal reasoning skills. One school acted as the control condition (21 students, aged 9 – 10 years) and another school acted as the intervention condition (25 students, aged 9 – 10 years). Quantitative data revealed an effect between pre and post-test conditions in the areas of phonological skills (p = .042), segmentation skills (p = .014) and working memory (p = .040) in favour of the intervention condition. Further analysis identified a gender-interaction with male students in the intervention condition making significant gains in phonological skills (p = .005) segmentation skills (p = .014) and spelling (p = .007) compared to boys in the control condition. Analysis of qualitative data from a sample of students from the intervention condition and their class teacher indicated good acceptability of BMT as an alternative approach to PE.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Europe's Journal of Psychology
Show more