Acute Lipopolysaccharide-Mediated Injury in Neonatal White Matter Glia: Role of TNF- , IL-1 , and Calcium

Department of Cell Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Leicester, Leicester, United Kingdom.
The Journal of Immunology (Impact Factor: 4.92). 08/2005; 175(1):155-61. DOI: 10.4049/jimmunol.175.1.155
Source: PubMed


Bacterial infection is implicated in the selective CNS white matter injury associated with cerebral palsy, a common birth disorder. Exposure to the bacterial endotoxin LPS produced death of white matter glial cells in isolated neonatal rat optic nerve (RON) (a model white matter tract), over a 180-min time course. A delayed intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) rise preceded cell death and both events were prevented by removing extracellular Ca(2+). The cytokines TNF-alpha or IL-1beta, but not IL-6, mimicked the cytotoxic effect of LPS, whereas blocking either TNF-alpha with a neutralizing Ab or IL-1 with recombinant antagonist prevented LPS cytotoxicity. Ultrastructural examination showed wide-scale oligodendroglial cell death in LPS-treated rat optic nerves, with preservation of astrocytes and axons. Fluorescently conjugated LPS revealed LPS binding on microglia and astrocytes in neonatal white and gray matter. Astrocyte binding predominated, and was particularly intense around blood vessels. LPS can therefore bind directly to developing white matter astrocytes and microglia to evoke rapid cell death in neighboring oligodendroglia via a calcium- and cytokine-mediated pathway. In addition to direct toxicity, LPS increased the degree of acute cell death evoked by ischemia in a calcium-dependent manner.

Download full-text


Available from: Robert Fern, Jun 09, 2014
  • Source
    • "Next we scored the effect of TFM-C on LPS-induced oxidative stress, demyelination and axonal damage in the organotypic model [30-33] using immunofluorescence, immunoblot and QPCR. The analyzed markers included iNOS for oxidative stress, CNPase for demyelination, SMI32 for axonal damage, and HERP for ER stress. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Celecoxib is a selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) inhibitor. We have previously shown that celecoxib inhibits experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in COX-2-deficient mice, suggestive for a mode of action involving COX2-independent pathways. In the present study, we tested the effect of a trifluoromethyl analogue of celecoxib (TFM-C) with 205-fold lower COX-2 inhibitory activity in two models of neuroinflammation, i.e. cerebellar organotypic cultures challenged with LPS and the EAE mouse model for multiple sclerosis. TFM-C inhibited secretion of IL-1β, IL-12 and IL-17, enhanced that of TNF-α and RANTES, reduced neuronal axonal damage and protected from oxidative stress in the organotypic model. TFM-C blocked TNF-α release in microglial cells through a process involving intracellular retention, but induced TNF-α secretion in primary astrocyte cultures. Finally, we demonstrate that TFM-C and celecoxib ameliorated EAE with equal potency. This coincided with reduced secretion of IL-17 and IFN-γ by MOG-reactive T-cells and of IL-23 and inflammatory cytokines by bone marrow-derived dendritic cells. Our study reveals that non-coxib analogues of celecoxib may have translational value in the treatment of neuro-inflammatory conditions.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2013 · PLoS ONE
  • Source
    • "IL-1í µí»½ also promotes oligodendrocyte death through glutamate excitotoxicity [19]. IL-1í µí»½ and TNF can cause death of oligodendrocytes in a calcium dependent manner [20]. Deletion of the TNF gene ameliorates neurodegeneration in Sandhoff disease (SD), a lysosomal storage disorder [21]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cytokines and chemokines are proteins that coordinate the immune response throughout the body. The dysregulation of cytokines and chemokines is a central feature in the development of neuroinflammation, neurodegeneration, and demyelination both in the central and peripheral nervous systems and in conditions of neuropathic pain. Pathological states within the nervous system can lead to activation of microglia. The latter may mediate neuronal and glial cell injury and death through production of proinflammatory factors such as cytokines and chemokines. These then help to mobilize the adaptive immune response. Although inflammation may induce beneficial effects such as pathogen clearance and phagocytosis of apoptotic cells, uncontrolled inflammation can result in detrimental outcomes via the production of neurotoxic factors that exacerbate neurodegenerative pathology. In states of prolonged inflammation, continual activation and recruitment of effector cells can establish a feedback loop that perpetuates inflammation and ultimately results in neuronal injury. A critical balance between repair and proinflammatory factors determines the outcome of a neurodegenerative process. This review will focus on how cytokines and chemokines affect neuroinflammation and disease pathogenesis in bacterial meningitis and brain abscesses, Lyme neuroborreliosis, human immunodeficiency virus encephalitis, and neuropathic pain.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2013 · Mediators of Inflammation
  • Source
    • "Fig. S3A and B). These findings indicate that exposure to LPS induced significant cell death in the white matter, and is consistent with oligodendrocyte cell death seen in the LPS model of optic nerve injury [15]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Demyelination and axonal damage are critical processes in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). Oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory cytokines elicited by inflammation mediates tissue damage. To monitor the demyelination and axonal injury associated with microglia activation we employed a model using cerebellar organotypic cultures stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Microglia activated by LPS released pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6 and TNFα), and increased the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This activation was associated with demyelination and axonal damage in cerebellar cultures. Axonal damage, as revealed by the presence of non-phosphorylated neurofilaments, mitochondrial accumulation in axonal spheroids, and axonal transection, was associated with stronger iNOS expression and concomitant increases in ROS. Moreover, we analyzed the contribution of pro-inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress in demyelination and axonal degeneration using the iNOS inhibitor ethyl pyruvate, a free-scavenger and xanthine oxidase inhibitor allopurinol, as well as via blockage of pro-inflammatory cytokines using a Fc-TNFR1 construct. We found that blocking microglia activation with ethyl pyruvate or allopurinol significantly decreased axonal damage, and to a lesser extent, demyelination. Blocking TNFα significantly decreased demyelination but did not prevented axonal damage. Moreover, the most common therapy for MS, interferon-beta, was used as an example of an immunomodulator compound that can be tested in this model. In vitro, interferon-beta treatment decreased oxidative stress (iNOS and ROS levels) and the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines after LPS stimulation, reducing axonal damage. The model of neuroinflammation using cerebellar culture stimulated with endotoxin mimicked myelin and axonal damage mediated by the combination of oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory cytokines. This model may both facilitate understanding of the events involved in neuroinflammation and aid in the development of neuroprotective therapies for the treatment of MS and other neurodegenerative diseases.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2013 · PLoS ONE
Show more