Bidirectional Glenn Shunt Surgery Using Lepirudin Anticoagulation in an Infant with Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia with Thrombosis

Department of Anesthesiology, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, NY, USA.
Anesthesia & Analgesia (Impact Factor: 3.47). 08/2005; 101(1):74-6, table of contents. DOI: 10.1213/01.ANE.0000153019.15297.0B
Source: PubMed


There are few reports of the management of pediatric patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) requiring cardiac surgery using currently available anticoagulants. We report a case of an infant with HIT requiring a bidirectional Glenn shunt who was successfully managed using lepirudin (r-hirudin, Refludan; Aventis, Bridgewater, NJ). Dosing and monitoring of anticoagulation were difficult, and we suggest caution in the use of lepirudin for cardiac surgery unless reliable monitoring of the degree of anticoagulation becomes available.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: There are many limitations with respect to anticoagulants currently used in standard paediatric practice for prophylaxis and treatment of thrombosis: heparin, low molecular-weight heparin, and warfarin. Factors such as pharmacokinetic and dosing variability are further exacerbated by properties of the immature haemostatic system of children. These shortcomings necessitate exploring alternative anticoagulants in the paediatric population. In this review, we discuss several promising direct thrombin inhibitors and factor Xa inhibitors, and synthesize relevant drug information and clinical experience from the limited available case reports, case series, and nonrandomized dose-finding trials published to date.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2010 · Blood coagulation & fibrinolysis: an international journal in haemostasis and thrombosis
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia is a rare and serious reaction to unfractionated heparin and low-molecular-weight heparins in children. Quick recognition, discontinuation of heparin, and subsequent treatment with an alternative anticoagulant are essential steps to prevent serious complications such as thrombus and limb amputation. The purpose of this review is to describe the clinical features of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia in children and to summarize the data available for its management. This paper summarizes data and relates the use of direct thrombin inhibitors with clinical outcomes. A literature search was conducted with Ovid, using the key terms argatroban, bivalirudin, hirulog, danaparoid, lepirudin, direct thrombin inhibitor, heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, thrombosis, warfarin, and fondaparinux. Articles were excluded if they were classified as editorials, review articles, or conference abstracts or if they involved patients 18 years of age or older or described disease states not related to thrombosis. Nineteen articles containing 33 case reports were identified and evaluated for this review. Of the 33 cases, 14, 10, 4, and 2 cases described the use of lepirudin, danaparoid, argatroban, and bivalirudin, respectively. Two cases did not report the type of anticoagulant used, and 1 case used aspirin. The most commonly reported complication was bleeding.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2012
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Neonates and children differ from adults in physiology, pharmacologic responses to drugs, epidemiology, and long-term consequences of thrombosis. This guideline addresses optimal strategies for the management of thrombosis in neonates and children. The methods of this guideline follow those described in the Methodology for the Development of Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis Guidelines: Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines. We suggest that where possible, pediatric hematologists with experience in thromboembolism manage pediatric patients with thromboembolism (Grade 2C). When this is not possible, we suggest a combination of a neonatologist/pediatrician and adult hematologist supported by consultation with an experienced pediatric hematologist (Grade 2C). We suggest that therapeutic unfractionated heparin in children is titrated to achieve a target anti-Xa range of 0.35 to 0.7 units/mL or an activated partial thromboplastin time range that correlates to this anti-Xa range or to a protamine titration range of 0.2 to 0.4 units/mL (Grade 2C). For neonates and children receiving either daily or bid therapeutic low-molecular-weight heparin, we suggest that the drug be monitored to a target range of 0.5 to 1.0 units/mL in a sample taken 4 to 6 h after subcutaneous injection or, alternatively, 0.5 to 0.8 units/mL in a sample taken 2 to 6 h after subcutaneous injection (Grade 2C). The evidence supporting most recommendations for antithrombotic therapy in neonates and children remains weak. Studies addressing appropriate drug target ranges and monitoring requirements are urgently required in addition to site- and clinical situation-specific thrombosis management strategies.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2012 · Chest