Utility of Childhood BMI in the Prediction of Adulthood Disease: Comparison of National and International References

School of Physical and Health Education, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada K7L 3N6.
Obesity research (Impact Factor: 4.95). 07/2005; 13(6):1106-15. DOI: 10.1038/oby.2005.129
Source: PubMed


To determine whether the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC; CDC Reference) or International Obesity Task Force (IOTF; IOTF Reference) BMI cut-off points for classifying adiposity status in children are more effective at predicting future health risk.
The sample (N=1709) included 4- to 15-year-old (at baseline) boys and girls from the Bogalusa Heart Study. Overweight and obesity status were determined using both the CDC Reference and IOTF Reference BMI cut-off points at baseline. The ability of childhood overweight and obesity, determined from the two BMI classification systems, to predict obesity and metabolic disorders in young adulthood (after a 13- to 24-year follow-up) was then compared.
Independently of the classification system employed to determine adiposity based on childhood BMI, the odds of being obese and having all of the metabolic disorders in young adulthood were significantly (p<0.05) higher in the overweight and obese groups by comparison with the nonoverweight groups. Childhood overweight and obesity, determined by both the CDC Reference and IOTF Reference, had a low sensitivity and a high specificity for predicting obesity and metabolic disorders in young adulthood. Overweight and obesity as determined by the CDC Reference were slightly more sensitive and slightly less specific than the corresponding values based on the IOTF Reference.
Overweight and obesity during childhood, as determined by both the CDC and IOTF BMI cut-off points, are strong predictors of obesity and coronary heart disease risk factors in young adulthood. The differences in the predictive capacity of the CDC Reference and IOTF Reference are, however, minimal.

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Available from: Ian Janssen, Sep 29, 2014
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    • "Childhood overweight and obesity is increasing worldwide [1] [2], and children who are overweight or obese face increased health risks such as hyperlipidemia, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, and type 2 diabetes [3] [4] [5]. Obesity has a longterm impact on health and research has shown that children who are overweight or obese are more likely to be obese as adults [6] [7] [8]. Therefore, childhood obesity is an important health problem that demands attention. "
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    ABSTRACT: This study explored developmental trajectory patterns of BMI and associated factors. Participants included 1,609 students who were followed from age 7 to 12 years. Data collection involved annual self-administered questionnaires and records of height and weight. An ecological model was used to identify the factors associated with BMI trajectories. Group-based trajectory models and multinomial logit models were used in the statistical analysis. There were gender differences in BMI trajectories. Among boys, four BMI trajectories were normal or slightly underweight, persistently normal weight, overweight becoming obese, and persistently obese. Among girls, four BMI trajectories were persistently slightly underweight, persistently normal weight, persistently overweight, and persistently obese. The mean BMI in each trajectory group demonstrated an upward trend over time. In boys, BMI trajectories were significantly associated with after-school exercise, academic performance, family interactions, overweight parents, and father's education level. In girls, BMI trajectories were significantly associated with television viewing or computer use, family interactions, peer interactions, and overweight parents. Children under age 7 years who are already overweight or obese are an important target for interventions. The different factors associated with BMI trajectories can be used for targeting high risk groups.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · Journal of obesity
    • "The same applies to healthcare workers (Isma et al., 2012; Turner et al., 2009). This is serious, as obesity tracking throughout childhood represents a consistent predictor of adult metabolic risk (Janssen et al., 2005). We wonder whether differences in anthropometric measurements related to weight could contribute to this discrepancy between parental perception and weight status, observed particularly in young children. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives To answer the questions: how does body mass index (BMI) correlate to five overweight related anthropometric variables during different ages in childhood, and which anthropometric variables contribute most to variation in BMI during childhood?Methods Data on BMI, height (H), sitting height (SH), waist circumference (WC), waist to height ratio (WHtR), waist to sitting height ratio (WSHtR), subscapular skinfold (SSF), and triceps skinfold (TSF), from 4,576 Norwegian children 4.00–15.99 years of age, were transformed to standard deviation scores (SDS) and studied using correlation and multiple regression analyses.ResultsThe correlations between BMI SDS and the standardized anthropometric variables were in general strong and positive. For all variables, the correlations were weakest in the youngest age group and highest between 7 and 12 years. WC SDS and WHtR SDS were most strongly correlated with BMI SDS through all ages and in both sexes. A model with seven anthropometric variables adjusted for age and sex explained 81.4% of the variation in BMI SDS. When adjusted for all other variables, WC SDS contributed most to the variation in BMI SDS (b = 0.467, CI [0.372, 0.562]). Age group, but not sex, contributed significantly to variation in BMI SDS.Conclusion The interrelationships between BMI SDS and five standardized overweight related anthropometric variables were dependent on age, being weakest in the youngest age group. Independent of sex and age, WC SDS was in this study superior to other anthropometric variables in contributing to variation in BMI SDS during childhood. Am. J. Hum. Biol., 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2014 · American Journal of Human Biology
    • "In modern society chronic diseases represent the most substantial problem in the health system (Cecchini et al., 2010). Systematic reviews show that regular physical activity (PA) is associated with positive health effects in children and adolescents (Biddle, Gorely, & Stensel, 2004; Janssen et al., 2005). In order to achieve these benefits, a minimum amount of regular PA of at least 60 minutes per day is required (WHO, 2010). "
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract The aim of the study was to assess the effects of a school-based health-promotion programme in physical education (PE) on sixth grade German students' motor performance, BMI and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). In a quasi-experimental design, 516 students (54.7% girls) were assigned to either the intervention group (IG) that received eight 90-minute health-promoting PE lessons or the control group (CG), which continued regular PE. Outcome variables were assessed at baseline, immediately after, and three months after the intervention in order to explore significant short- and middle-term intervention effects, respectively. The intervention programme had gender specific effects in motor performance with girls reaching higher levels. Positive short-term intervention effects were found in girls' sideways jumps (η (2)=0.17) and negative effects were measured in the 20-meter sprints (η (2)=0.05) and the standing long jump (η (2)=0.04). Positive middle-term effects were measured on the motor performance score (η (2)=0.05), sideways jumps (η (2)=0.08) and stand-and-reach flexibility (η (2)=0.04). In boys, short-term positive intervention effects were found in 20-meter sprints (η (2)=0.04). In the middle-term, differences in favour of the CG were found in press-ups (η (2)=0.03) and sideways jumps (η (2)=0.06). Concerning BMI the IG had significantly lower levels compared to the CG in the short-term (η (2)=0.04) and in the middle-term (η (2)=0.03), respectively. There were no significant differences between the groups in HRQOL. In conclusion, the results demonstrate the feasibility of promoting health related parameters in PE, but also raise the question whether gender-specific tailored interventions would result in higher intervention effects concerning motor performance especially in boys.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2014 · European Journal of Sport Science
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