Increased temporal lobe gyrification in preterm children
Stanford Psychiatry Neuroimaging Laboratory, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305-5719, USA.Neuropsychologia (Impact Factor: 3.3). 02/2006; 44(3):445-53. DOI: 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2005.05.015
Preterm birth often results in significant learning disability, and previous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of preterm children have demonstrated reduction in overall cortical tissue with particular vulnerability in the temporal lobe. We measured cortical gyrification in 73 preterm and 33 term control children at 8 years of age and correlated these findings with tests of language ability to determine the associations among preterm birth, neurodevelopment and functional outcome. Preterm children demonstrated significantly increased bilateral temporal lobe gyrification index compared to term controls. Left temporal gyrification index was significantly negatively correlated with left temporal lobe gray matter volume as well as reading recognition scores in the preterm group. Cortical development in the temporal lobe appears to be differentially vulnerable to preterm birth.
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- "In older children, MRI studies (Caldu et al., 2006; Kesler et al., 2006; Lancefield et al., 2006; Nosarti et al., 2004), have found no association of handedness with fronto-occipital asymmetry (Lancefield et al., 2006), temporal gyral width (Kesler et al., 2006), or corpus callosum size (Nosarti et al., 2004) in VPT cohorts. Given the possible association between neurological abnormality and NRH, usage of diffusion weighted imaging of implicated motor tracts, such as the corpus callosum (CC) and corticospinal tract (CST), may help clarify the relationship between handedness and cerebral morphology. "
ABSTRACT: Non-right handedness (NRH) is reportedly more common in very preterm (VPT; <32 weeks’ gestation) children compared with term-born peers, but it is unclear whether neonatal brain injury or altered brain morphology and microstructure underpins NRH in this population. Given that NRH has been inconsistently reported to be associated with cognitive and motor difficulties, this study aimed to examine associations between handedness and neurodevelopmental outcomes in VPT 7-year-olds. Furthermore, the relationship between neonatal brain injury and integrity of motor tracts (corpus callosum and corticospinal tract) with handedness at age 7 years in VPT children was explored. One hundred seventy-five VPT and 69 term-born children completed neuropsychological and motor assessments and a measure of handedness at 7 years’ corrected age. At term-equivalent age, brain injury on MRI was assessed and diffusion tensor measures were obtained for the corpus callosum and posterior limb of the internal capsule. There was little evidence of stronger NRH in the VPT group compared with term controls ( regression coefficient [b] −1.95, 95% confidence interval [−5.67, 1.77]). Poorer academic and working memory outcomes were associated with stronger NRH in the VPT group. While there was little evidence that neonatal unilateral brain injury was associated with stronger NRH, increased area and fractional anisotropy of the corpus callosum splenium were predictive of stronger NRH in the VPT group. VPT birth may alter the relationship between handedness and academic outcomes, and neonatal corpus callosum integrity predicts hand preference in VPT children at school age. ( JINS , 2015, 21 , 1–12)
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- "e l s e v i e r . c o m / l o c a t e / y n i c l the temporal cortex (Kesler et al., 2006). Together these findings suggest widespread disruption to prototypic patterns of cerebral development . "
ABSTRACT: Advances in neonatal medicine have resulted in a larger proportion of preterm-born individuals reaching adulthood. Their increased liability to psychiatric illness and impairments of cognition and behaviour intimate lasting cerebral consequences; however, the central physiological disturbances remain unclear. Of fundamental importance to efficient brain function is the coordination and contextually-relevant recruitment of neural networks. Large-scale distributed networks emerge perinatally and increase in hierarchical complexity through development. Preterm-born individuals exhibit systematic reductions in correlation strength within these networks during infancy. Here, we investigate resting-state functional connectivity in functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 29 very-preterm (VPT)-born adults and 23 term-born controls. Neurocognitive networks were identified with spatial independent component analysis conducted using the Infomax algorithm and employing Icasso procedures to enhance component robustness. Network spatial focus and spectral power were not generally significantly affected by preterm birth. By contrast, Granger-causality analysis of the time courses of network activity revealed widespread reductions in between-network connectivity in the preterm group, particularly along paths including salience-network features. The potential clinical relevance of these Granger-causal measurements was suggested by linear discriminant analysis of topological representations of connection strength, which classified individuals by group with a maximal accuracy of 86%. Functional connections from the striatal salience network to the posterior default mode network informed this classification most powerfully. In the VPT-born group it was additionally found that perinatal factors significantly moderated the relationship between executive function (which was reduced in the VPT-born as compared with the term-born group) and generalised partial directed coherence. Together these findings show that resting-state functional connectivity of preterm-born individuals remains compromised in adulthood; and present consistent evidence that the striatal salience network is preferentially affected. Therapeutic practices directed at strengthening within-network cohesion and fine-tuning between-network inter-relations may have the potential to mitigate the cognitive, behavioural and psychiatric repercussions of preterm birth.
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- "reported in children born preterm (Kesler et al. 2006). Higher gyrification in the temporal lobes, relative to full-term comparison individuals, was negatively correlated with reading abilities in these regions. "
ABSTRACT: The cortex in spina bifida myelomeningocele (SBM) is atypically organized, but it is not known how specific features of atypical cortical organization promote or disrupt cognitive and motor function. Relations of deviant cortical thickness and gyrification with IQ and fine motor dexterity were investigated in 64 individuals with SBM and 26 typically developing (TD) individuals, aged 8–28 years. Cortical thickness and 3D local gyrification index (LGI) were quantified from 33 cortical regions per hemisphere using FreeSurfer. Results replicated previous findings, showing regions of higher and lower cortical thickness and LGI in SBM relative to the TD comparison individuals. Cortical thickness and LGI were negatively associated in most cortical regions, though less consistently in the TD group. Whereas cortical thickness and LGI tended to be negatively associated with IQ and fine motor outcomes in regions that were thicker or more gyrified in SBM, associations tended to be positive in regions that were thinner or less gyrified in SBM. The more deviant the levels of cortical thickness and LGI—whether higher or lower relative to the TD group—the more impaired the IQ and fine motor outcomes, suggesting that these cortical atypicalities in SBM are functionally maladaptive, rather than adaptive.