The Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke Study: Objectives and Design
Department of Epidemiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, USA.Neuroepidemiology (Impact Factor: 2.56). 09/2005; 25(3):135-43. DOI: 10.1159/000086678
The REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study is a national, population-based, longitudinal study of 30,000 African-American and white adults aged > or =45 years. The objective is to determine the causes for the excess stroke mortality in the Southeastern US and among African-Americans. Participants are randomly sampled with recruitment by mail then telephone, where data on stroke risk factors, sociodemographic, lifestyle, and psychosocial characteristics are collected. Written informed consent, physical and physiological measures, and fasting samples are collected during a subsequent in-home visit. Participants are followed via telephone at 6-month intervals for identification of stroke events. The novel aspects of the REGARDS study allow for the creation of a national cohort to address geographic and ethnic differences in stroke.
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- "Exclusion criteria included selfreported race not Caucasian or African American, self-reported medical conditions (such as cancer) that would prevent long-term participation, residing in or being on a waiting list for nursing home, or inability to participate in interviews (based on the judgment of the interviewer). Further details about REGARDS study design are provided elsewhere (Howard et al., 2005). "
ABSTRACT: In 2006, the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke-Canadian Stroke Network (NINDS-CSN) Vascular Cognitive Impairment Harmonization Standards recommended a 5-Minute Protocol as a brief screening instrument for vascular cognitive impairment (VCI). We report demographically adjusted norms for the 5-Minute Protocol and its relation to other measures of cognitive function and cerebrovascular risk factors. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 7199 stroke-free adults in the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study on the NINDS-CSN 5-Minute Protocol score. Total scores on the 5-Minute Protocol were inversely correlated with age and positively correlated with years of education, and performance on the Six-Item Screener, Word List Learning, and Animal Fluency (all p-values <.001). Higher cerebrovascular risk on the Framingham Stroke Risk Profile (FSRP) was associated with lower total 5-Minute Protocol scores (p <.001). The 5-Minute Protocol also differentiated between participants with and without confirmed stroke and with and without stroke symptom histories (p <.001). The NINDS-CSN 5-Minute Protocol is a brief, easily administered screening measure that is sensitive to cerebrovascular risk and offers a valid method of screening for cognitive impairment in populations at risk for VCI. (JINS, 2014, 20, 1-12).
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- "Baseline systolic and diastolic blood pressure was measured twice in the left arm with a standard aneroid sphygmomanometer after participants were seated in a chair for three minutes with both feet on the floor. The two blood pressure measurements were averaged . Baseline serum albuminuria (g/dL) was considered as a continuous variable. "
ABSTRACT: Background Socioeconomic status (SES) is independently associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression; however, its association with other CKD outcomes is unclear. In particular, the potential differential effect of SES on mortality among blacks and whites is understudied in CKD. We aimed to examine survival among individuals with prevalent CKD by income and race in the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study. Methods We examined 2,761 participants with prevalent CKD stage 3 or 4 between 2003 and 2007 in the REGARDS cohort. Participants were followed through March 2013. Mortality from any cause was assessed by income and race (black or white). Low income was defined as an annual household income < $20,000, and was compared to higher incomes (≥$20,000). Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for age, gender, education, insurance, CKD stage, comorbidity and county-level poverty were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results A total of 750 deaths (27.5%) occurred during the follow-up period. Average follow-up time was 6.6 years among those alive and 3.7 years among those who died. Low income participants had an elevated adjusted hazard of mortality (HR = 1.58, 95% CI 1.24-2.00) compared to higher income participants. Low income was associated with all-cause mortality regardless of race (HR 1.53; 95% CI 1.18-1.99 among blacks and HR 1.38; 95% CI 1.10-1.74 among whites), with no significant statistical interaction between household income and race (p-value = 0.634). However, black participants had a higher adjusted hazard of mortality (HR = 1.30, 95% CI 1.02-1.65) compared to whites, which was independent of income. Conclusion Income was associated with increased mortality for both blacks and whites with CKD. Blacks with CKD had higher mortality than whites even after adjusting for important socio-demographic and clinical factors.
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- "REGARDS is a longitudinal study of United States (US) participants aged 45 years and older . The REGARDS study was designed to investigate reasons underlying the higher rate of stroke mortality among blacks, compared with non-Hispanic whites, and among residents in the Southeastern United States, compared with other US regions. "
ABSTRACT: Background Previous research has suggested that vitamin D and sunlight are related to cardiovascular outcomes, but associations between sunlight and risk factors have not been investigated. We examined whether increased sunlight exposure was related to improved cardiovascular risk factor status. Methods Residential histories merged with satellite, ground monitor, and model reanalysis data were used to determine previous-year sunlight radiation exposure for 17,773 black and white participants aged 45+ from the US. Exploratory and confirmatory analyses were performed by randomly dividing the sample into halves. Logistic regression models were used to examine relationships with cardiovascular risk factors. Results The lowest, compared to the highest quartile of insolation exposure was associated with lower high-density lipoprotein levels in adjusted exploratory (−2.7 mg/dL [95% confidence interval: −4.2, −1.2]) and confirmatory (−1.5 mg/dL [95% confidence interval: −3.0, −0.1]) models. The lowest, compared to the highest quartile of insolation exposure was associated with higher systolic blood pressure levels in unadjusted exploratory and confirmatory, as well as the adjusted exploratory model (2.3 mmHg [95% confidence interval: 0.8, 3.8]), but not the adjusted confirmatory model (1.6 mg/dL [95% confidence interval: −0.5, 3.7]). Conclusions The results of this study suggest that lower long-term sunlight exposure has an association with lower high-density lipoprotein levels. However, all associations were weak, thus it is not known if insolation may affect cardiovascular outcomes through these risk factors.
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