Contamination of Retail Foods, Particularly Turkey, from Community Markets (Minnesota, 1999–2000) with Antimicrobial-Resistant and Extraintestinal Pathogenic Escherichia coli

Mucosal and Vaccine Research Center, Minneapolis VA Medical Center, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55417, USA.
Foodborne Pathogens and Disease (Impact Factor: 1.91). 02/2005; 2(1):38-49. DOI: 10.1089/fpd.2005.2.38
Source: PubMed


To assess the food supply as a possible vehicle for antimicrobial-resistant and extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC), we defined the prevalence, density, clonal diversity, virulence characteristics, and antimicrobial resistance profiles of E. coli among diverse retail food items. A microbiological survey was undertaken of 346 food items (vegetables, produce, beef, pork, chicken, and turkey) purchased as a convenience sample from 16 retail markets within the Minneapolis-St. Paul area in 1999-2000, with selective cultures for E. coli and extensive molecular and phenotypic characterization of E. coli isolates. Meats, particularly turkey products, were often extensively contaminated with antimicrobial-resistant E. coli and ExPEC, to a much greater extent than were produce items, even those from farmer's markets. Moreover, meat-source E. coli differed substantially from produce-source E. coli with respect to phylogenetic background (more commonly from virulence-associated phylogenetic groups B2 or D), virulence genotype (more extensive), and antimicrobial resistance profile (more extensive). Molecular typing methods matched four turkey-source isolates to selected human clinical and fecal isolates representing the O7:K1:H-, O83:K1, and O73/O77:K52:H18 ("clonal group A") clonal groups of ExPEC. Meats purchased in grocery stores, particularly turkey products, are frequently contaminated with antimicrobial-resistant E. coli and ExPEC. Further study is needed regarding the origins and health consequences of these foodborne organisms, both to clarify the need for and to guide the possible development of appropriate regulatory and monitoring systems and preventive interventions.

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    • "Data from our study showed a lower prevalence of ExPEC isolates in poultry meats than those reported by Johnson et al. (2003) who reported that about 21% of poultry samples were positive for ExPEC. Another study from the same research group reported an even higher proportion (46%) of retail poultry samples carrying ExPEC isolates (Johnson et al., 2005a). This difference in ExPEC prevalence in poultry meat may be attributed to several factors including initial colonization status of broilers before processing and the degree of fecal contamination of carcasses during the slaughter operation at the processing facility. "
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    ABSTRACT: Extraintestinal Pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) have the potential to spread through fecal waste resulting in the contamination of both farm workers and retail poultry meat in the processing plants or environment. The objective of this study was to characterize ExPEC from retail poultry meats purchased from Alberta, Canada and to compare them with 12 human ExPEC representatives from major ExPEC lineages. Fifty-four virulence genes were screened by a set of multiplex PCRs in 700 E. coli from retail poultry meat samples. ExPEC was defined as the detection of at least two of the following virulence genes: papA/papC, sfa, kpsMT II and iutA. Genetic relationships between isolates were determined using pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Fifty-nine (8.4%) of the 700 poultry meat isolates were identified as ExPEC and were equally distributed among the phylogenetic groups A, B1, B2 and D. Isolates of phylogenetic group A possessed up to 12 virulence genes compared to 24 and 18 genes in phylogenetic groups B2 and D, respectively. E. coli identified as ExPEC and recovered from poultry harbored as many virulence genes as those of human isolates. In addition to the iutA gene, siderophore-related iroN and fyuA were detected in combination with other virulence genes including those genes encoding for adhesion, protectin and toxin while the fimH, ompT, traT, uidA and vat were commonly detected in poultry ExPEC. The hemF, iss and cvaC genes were found in 40% of poultry ExPEC. All human ExPEC isolates harbored concnf (cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1 altering cytoskeleton and causing necrosis) and hlyD (hemolysin transport) genes which were not found in poultry ExPEC. PFGE analysis showed that a few poultry ExPEC isolates clustered with human ExPEC isolates at 55–70% similarity level. Comparing ExPEC isolated from retail poultry meats provides insight into their virulence potential and suggests that poultry associated ExPEC may be important for retail meat safety. Investigations into the ability of our poultry ExPEC to cause human infections are warranted.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014
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    • "The source of the strains responsible for these outbreaks has been linked to contaminated meat and other foods suggesting that the use of antimicrobials in food animal production may select for antibiotic-resistant strains of ExPEC. Moreover, a high prevalence of contamination by antimicrobial-resistant and ExPEC in retail foods has been reported, especially in turkey products purchased in grocery stores in retail markets from the United States (Johnson et al., 2005a). There are other examples of foods as reservoirs for AR bacteria that could be transmitted to humans via the food chain. "
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    ABSTRACT: The increase and spread of antibiotic resistance (AR) over the past decade in human pathogens has become a worldwide health concern. Recent genomic and metagenomic studies in humans, animals, in food and in the environment have led to the discovery of a huge reservoir of AR genes called the resistome that could be mobilized and transferred from these sources to human pathogens. AR is a natural phenomenon developed by bacteria to protect antibiotic-producing bacteria from their own products and also to increase their survival in highly competitive microbial environments. Although antibiotics are used extensively in humans and animals, there is also considerable usage of antibiotics in agriculture, especially in animal feeds and aquaculture. The aim of this review is to give an overview of the sources of AR and the use of antibiotics in these reservoirs as selectors for emergence of AR bacteria in humans via the food chain.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2013 · Frontiers in Microbiology
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    • "The transfer of ExPEC from poultry to humans and the role of poultry meat as a source of ExPEC human disease have been discussed previously. Studies by Johnson et al. [2,5-7] and Manges et al. [3] indicated that retail meat products are frequently contaminated with E. coli, and that poultry and pork meat may be a potential source of ExPEC strains. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli bacteria (ExPEC) exist as commensals in the human intestines and can infect extraintestinal sites and cause septicemia. The transfer of ExPEC from poultry to humans and the role of poultry meat as a source of ExPEC in human disease have been discussed previously. The aim of the present study was to provide insight into the properties of ExPEC in poultry meat products on the Finnish retail market with special attention to their prevalence, virulence and phylogenetic profiles. Furthermore, the isolates were screened for possible ESBL producers and their resistance to nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin was tested. Methods The presence of ExPEC in 219 marinated and non-marinated raw poultry meat products from retail shops has been analyzed. One E. coli strain per product was analyzed further for phylogenetic groups and possession of ten virulence genes associated with ExPEC bacteria (kpsMT K1, ibeA, astA, iss, irp2, papC, iucD, tsh, vat and cva/cv) using PCR methods. The E. coli strains were also screened phenotypically for the production of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) and the susceptibility of 48 potential ExPEC isolates for nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin was tested. Results E. coli was isolated from 207 (94.5%) of 219 poultry meat products. The most common phylogenetic groups were D (50.7%), A (37.7%), and B2 (7.7%). Based on virulence factor gene PCR, 23.2% of the strains were classified as ExPEC. Two ExPEC strains (1%) belonged to [O1] B2 svg+ (specific for virulent subgroup) group, which has been implicated in multiple forms of ExPEC disease. None of the ExPEC strains was resistant to ciprofloxacin or cephalosporins. One isolate (2.1%) showed resistance to nalidixic acid. Conclusions Potential ExPEC bacteria were found in 22% of marinated and non-marinated poultry meat products on the Finnish retail market and 0.9% were contaminated with E. coli [O1] B2 svg+ group. Marinades did not have an effect on the survival of ExPEC as strains from marinated and non-marinated meat products were equally often classified as ExPEC. Poultry meat products on the Finnish retail market may have zoonotic potential.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2012 · Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
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